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Publication
Journal: Hepatology
April/3/2021
Abstract
Background and aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by insulin resistance and dysregulated lipid and glucose metabolism. Saroglitazar, a novel dual peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α/γ agonist, improves insulin sensitivity, and lipid and glycemic parameters. Saroglitazar improved nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) histology in animal studies. In this randomized controlled clinical trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of saroglitazar in patients with NAFLD/NASH.
Approach & results: A total of 106 patients with NAFLD/NASH with ALT ≥50 U/L at baseline and body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 were randomized in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive placebo or saroglitazar 1 mg, 2 mg, or 4 mg for 16 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was percentage change from baseline in ALT levels at Week 16. Liver fat content (LFC) was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction. The least squares (LS) mean (SE) percent change from baseline in ALT at Week 16 was -25.5% (5.8), -27.7% (5.9) and -45.8% (5.7) with saroglitazar 1 mg, 2 mg, and 4 mg, respectively versus 3.4% (5.6) in placebo (p<0.001 for all). Compared to placebo, saroglitazar 4 mg improved LFC [4.1%, (5.9) versus -19.7% (5.6)], adiponectin [-0.3 ug/mL (0.3) versus 1.3 ug/mL (0.3)], homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance [-1.3 (1.8) versus -6.3 (1.7)], and triglycerides [-5.3 mg/dL (10.7) versus -68.7 mg/dL (10.3)] (p<0.05 for all). Saroglitazar 4 mg also improved lipoprotein particle composition and size and reduced lipotoxic lipid species. Saroglitazar was well-tolerated. A mean weight gain of 1.5kg was observed with saroglitazar 4 mg versus 0.3 kg with placebo (p>0.05).
Conclusions: Saroglitazar 4 mg significantly improved ALT, LFC, insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia in participants with NAFLD/NASH.
Keywords: ALT; ELF; K18; NAFLD; NASH; PDFF.
Publication
Journal: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
April/3/2021
Abstract
The ectoparasite, Pthirus pubis (PtP), (crab or pubic louse) has plagued primates from pre-historic apes to Homo sapiens. We combed the literature from antiquity to present day using Medline and EMBASE, reviewing the pubic louse's origins, its evolution with mankind, presentation and management. Medline and EMBASE provided the greatest yield of literature compared to other databases. PtP incidence estimates range from 0.3-4.6% and prevalence around 2% in adults. War, disasters and overcrowding support lice transmission, but modern pubic hair grooming has reduced PtP in recent years. PtP, is usually found on pubic hair, but may infest scalp, eyebrows, eyelashes and body hair. Reports suggest the possibility of PtP as a vector for Bartonella spp. and Acinetobacter spp., requiring further studies. Transmission is via close contact, so sexual abuse and concomitant STIs should be considered. Symptoms and signs include: pruritus, red papules and rust/brown deposits from feeding or faecal matter. Visualisation of live lice confirms diagnosis. Long-standing treatments include hand-picking and combing, but in modern times pediculicidal products may generate faster resolution. Permethrin or pyrethrins are first-line recommendations. Resistance to pediculicides is common with head lice and is presumed likely in PtP although data are lacking. Pseudo-resistance occurs due to poor compliance, incorrect or ineffective dosing and reinfestation. In true resistance, a different pediculicide class should be used e.g., second-line agents: phenothrin, malathion or ivermectin. Lice have existed long before humans and given their adaptability, despite habitat challenges from fashion trends in body hair-removal, are likely to continue to survive.
Publication
Journal: Plant Biology
April/3/2021
Abstract
14-3-3 proteins bind to and modulate the activity of phosphorylated proteins that regulate a variety of metabolic processes in plants. Over the past decade, interest in the plant 14-3-3 field has increased dramatically, mainly due to the vast number of mechanisms by which 14-3-3 proteins regulate metabolism. As this field develops, it is essential to understand the role of these proteins in metabolic and stress responses. This review summarizes the current knowledge about 14-3-3 proteins in plants, including their molecular structure and function, regulatory mechanism, and roles in carbon and nitrogen metabolism and stress responses. We begin with a molecular structural analysis of 14-3-3 proteins, which describes the basic principles of 14-3-3 function, and then discuss the regulatory mechanisms and roles in carbon and nitrogen metabolism of 14-3-3 proteins. We conclude with a summary of the 14-3-3 response to biotic stress and abiotic stress.
Keywords: 14-3-3; function; metabolism; regulatory mechanism; stress responses.
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Publication
Journal: Abdominal Radiology
April/3/2021
Abstract
Cancer patients need multimodal therapies to treat their disease increasingly. In particular, drug treatment, as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or various associations between them are commonly used to increase efficacy. However, the use of drugs predisposes a percentage of patients to develop toxicity in multiple organs and systems. Principle chemotherapy drugs mechanism of action is cell replication inhibition, rapidly proliferating cells especially. Immunotherapy is another tumor therapy strategy based on antitumor immunity activation trough agents as CTLA4 inhibitors (ipilimumab) or PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as nivolumab. If, on the one hand, all these agents inhibit tumor growth, on the other, they can cause various degrees toxicity in several organs, due to their specific mechanism of action. Particularly interesting are bowel toxicity, which can be clinically heterogeneous (pain, nausea, diarrhea, enterocolitis, pneumocolitis), up to severe consequences, such as ischemia, a rare occurrence. However, this event can occur both in vessels that supply intestine and in submucosa microvessels. We report drug-related intestinal vascular damage main characteristics, showing the radiological aspect of these alterations. Interpretation of imaging in oncologic patients has become progressively more complicated in the context of "target therapy" and thanks to the increasing number and types of therapies provided. Radiologists should know this variety of antiangiogenic treatments and immunotherapy regimens first because they can determine atypical features of tumor response and then also because of their eventual bowel toxicity.
Keywords: Adverse drug reactions; Bowel toxicity; Chemotherapy; Computed tomography.
Publication
Journal: Acta Diabetologica
April/3/2021
Abstract
The pathophysiology of takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is elusive. Heightened adrenergic surge via the sympathetic nervous system (mainly by norepinephrine secretion) and/or elevated blood-borne catecholamines (mainly epinephrine, secreted by the adrenals) probably mediate TTS. Patients with TTS have a low prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), and it has been postulated that DM, via its associated neuropathy, prevents the emergence of TTS. Insulin, in animal experiments, has been shown to greatly attenuate the effects of NE on the cardiomyocytes; also, insulin in a limited clinical experience, has been found to improve heart function in patients with neurogenic stress-cardiomyopathy and TTS. Accordingly, it is postulated that high levels of insulin encountered in patients with type 2 DM are at the roots of the protective effect of DM for the emergence of TTS. Thus, a role of insulin in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of TTS appears to be plausible, and needs exploration.
Keywords: Animal models of takotsubo syndrome; Insulin; Insulin and left ventricular contractility; Insulin and norepinephrine; Insulin and takotsubo syndrome; Takotsubo syndrome.
Publication
Journal: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology
April/3/2021
Abstract
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine if delay (before or after 4 months) in repairing a symptomatic traumatic rotator cuff tear affected clinical outcome, re-rupture rates and use of interpositional dermal grafts.
Methods: This was a case matched (age + tear size) series of patients who underwent an early (≤ 4 months) or delayed (> 4 months) rotator cuff repair following a traumatic tear. If a direct repair could not be achieved a dermal interposition graft was used. Outcomes were collected at a median time of 30 months post-operatively using the Oxford, Constant and EQ5D scores.
Results: Twenty patients underwent rotator cuff repair within 4 months (1-4) of injury. Twenty age and cuff tear size-matched patients were identified who had undergone a delayed repair (4.1-24 months) after injury. We found no significant difference (p > 0.05) in patient reported outcomes scores between the early and delayed repair. [Oxford scores; Early 43(13-48), Delayed 45 (31-48); Constant scores; Early 73 (21-94), Delayed 73.5 (44-87); EQ5D; Early 0.75 (0.25-1), Delayed 0.77 (0.4-1)]. Time to full recovery was significantly longer (14 vs 33.8 months) for the delayed repair group (P > 0.05). When cuff tears were subdivided into < 3 cm tears or ≥ 3 cm tears, no significant difference outcome scores were founds. However, use of dermal interposition graft was 44% in delayed group for tears ≥ 3 cm. No grafts were used in early repair group. There was one symptomatic re-tear in our series which was in the early repair group.
Conclusion: When compared to the delayed repair group, patients that underwent early repair of traumatic rotator cuff tears had shorter time of recovery, and less need for allograft augmentation for tears 3 cm or greater. However, at mid-term follow-up, this study found no difference in patient reported outcomes following early versus delayed repair of traumatic rotator cuff tears.
Level of evidence: 3.
Keywords: Delayed repair; Early repair; Graft jacket; Rotator cuff repair; Shoulder outcomes; Traumatic rotator cuff tear.
Publication
Journal: Rheumatology
April/3/2021
Abstract
This systematic review compares treatment options for patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and evaluates the test accuracy of studies used in diagnosing and monitoring GCA. These studies were used to inform evidence-based recommendations for the American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/Vasculitis Foundation (VF) vasculitis management guidelines. A systematic review and search of articles in English in Ovid Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library was conducted. Articles were screened for suitability, and studies presenting the highest level of evidence were given preference. Three hundred ninety-nine full-text articles addressing GCA questions were reviewed to inform 27 Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome questions. No benefit was found with intravenous glucocorticoids (GCs) compared with high-dose oral GCs in patients with cranial ischemic symptoms (27.4% vs 12.3%; odds ratio [OR] 2.39 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-7.62], [very low certainty of evidence]). Weekly tocilizumab with a 26-week GC taper was superior to a 52-week GC taper in patients achieving remission (risk ratio 4.00 [95% CI 1.97-8.12], [low certainty of evidence]). Non-GC immunosuppressive therapies with GCs compared with GCs alone showed no statistically significant in relapse at 1 year (OR 0.87 [95% CI 0.73-1.04], [moderate certainty of evidence]) or serious adverse events (OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.54-1.20]; [moderate certainty of evidence]). Temporal artery biopsy has a sensitivity of 61% (95% CI 38%-79%) and a specificity of 98% (95% CI 95%-99%) in patients with a clinical diagnosis of suspected GCA. This comprehensive systematic review synthesizes and evaluates the benefits and harms of different treatment options and the accuracy of commonly used tests for the diagnosis and monitoring of GCA.
Publication
Journal: American Journal of Hematology
April/3/2021
Abstract
Central nervous system (CNS) relapse affects 5% of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients and portends a poor prognosis. Prophylactic intravenous high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) is frequently employed to reduce this risk, but there is limited evidence supporting this practice. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study to determine the CNS relapse risk with HD-MTX in DLBCL patients aged 18-70 years treated in Alberta, Canada between 2012-2019. Provincial guidelines recommended HD-MTX for patients at high-risk of CNS relapse based upon CNS-IPI score, double-hit lymphoma, or testicular involvement. Among 906 patients with median follow-up 35.3 months (range 0.29-105.7), CNS relapse occurred in 1.9% with CNS-IPI 0-1, 4.9% with CNS-IPI 2-3, and 12.2% with CNS-IPI 4-6 (p<0.0001). HD-MTX was administered to 115/326 (35.3%) high-risk patients, of whom 96 (83.5%) had CNS-IPI score 4-6, 45 (39.1%) had double-hit lymphoma, and 4 (3.5%) had testicular lymphoma. The median number of HD-MTX doses was 2 (range 1-3). CNS relapse risk was similar with versus without HD-MTX (11.2% vs. 12.2%, p=0.82) and comparable to previous reports of high-risk patients who did not receive CNS prophylaxis (10-12%). In multivariate and propensity score analyses, HD-MTX demonstrated no association with CNS relapse, progression-free survival, or overall survival. This study did not demonstrate a benefit of prophylactic HD-MTX in this high-risk patient population. Further study is required to determine the optimal strategy to prevent CNS relapse in DLBCL. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Publication
Journal: Small
April/3/2021
Abstract
Optical microsphere resonators working in the near- and mid-infrared regions are highly required for a variety of applications, such as optical sensors, filters, modulators, and microlasers. Here, a simple and low-cost approach is reported for batch fabrication of high-quality chalcogenide glass (ChG) microsphere resonators by melting high-purity ChG powders in an oil environment. Q factors as high as 1.2 × 106 (7.4 × 105 ) are observed in As2 S3 (As2 Se3 ) microspheres (≈30 µm in diameter) around 1550-nm wavelength. Smaller microspheres with sizes around 10 µm also show excellent resonant responses (Q ≈ 2.5 × 105 ). Based on the mode splitting of an azimuthal mode in a microsphere resonator, eccentricities as low as ≈0.13% (≈0.17%) for As2 S3 (As2 Se3 ) microspheres are measured. Moreover, by coupling ChG microspheres with a biconical As2 S3 fiber taper, Q factors of ≈1.7 × 104 (≈1.6 × 104 ) are obtained in As2 S3 (As2 Se3 ) microspheres in the mid-infrared region (around 4.5 µm). The high-quality ChG microspheres demonstrated here are highly attractive for near- and mid-infrared optics, including optical sensing, optical nonlinearity, cavity quantum electrodynamics, microlasers, nanofocusing, and microscopic imaging.
Keywords: chalcogenide glasses; low eccentricity; microspheres; mid-infrared; whispering gallery modes.
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Publication
Journal: Laryngoscope
April/3/2021
Abstract
Objectives: To investigate neuroanatomic volume differences in tinnitus and hearing loss.
Study design: Cross-sectional.
Methods: Sixteen regions of interest (ROIs) in adults (43 male, 29 female) were examined using 3Tesla structural magnetic resonance imaging in four cohorts: 1) tinnitus with moderate hearing loss (N = 31), 2) moderate hearing loss only (N = 15), 3) tinnitus with normal hearing (N = 17), and 4) normal hearing only (N = 13). ROI volumes were corrected for brain size, age, and sex variations. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and post hoc Tukey's test were used to isolate the effects of tinnitus and hearing loss on volume differences. Effect sizes were calculated as the fraction of total variance (η2 ) in ANCOVA models and percent of mean volume difference relative to mean total volume.
Results: The four cohort ANCOVA revealed tinnitus and hearing loss cohorts to have increased volume in the corona radiata (η2 = 0.192; P = .0018) and decreased volume in the nucleus accumbens (η2 = 0.252; P < .0001), caudate nucleus (η2 = 0.188; P = .002), and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (η2 = 0.250; P = .0001). Tinnitus with normal hearing showed decreased volume in the nucleus accumbens (22.0%; P = .001) and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (18.1%; P = .002), and hearing loss only showed increased volume in the corona radiata (10.7%; P = .01) and decreased volume in the nucleus accumbens (22.1%; P = .001), caudate nucleus (16.1%; P = .004), and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (18.3%; P = .003).
Conclusion: Tinnitus and hearing loss have overlapping effects on neurovolumetric alterations, especially impacting the nucleus accumbens and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Neurovolumetric studies on tinnitus or hearing loss can be more complete by accounting for those two clinical dimensions separately and jointly.
Level of evidence: 3 Laryngoscope, 2021.
Keywords: Caudate nucleus; corona radiata; inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus; neurovolumetric; nucleus accumbens; tinnitus.
Publication
Journal: Abdominal Radiology
April/3/2021
Abstract
Renal fusion anomalies are common congenital anomalies of the urogenital tract and have their genesis in the early embryonic period. They are classified into partial fusion anomalies (e.g., crossed fused ectopia, and horseshoe kidney) and complete fusion anomalies (e.g., fused pelvic kidney). Horseshoe kidney is the most common renal fusion anomaly and is characterized by the presence of two distinct functioning kidneys on either side of the vertebral column, with fusion occurring at the inferior poles in majority of the cases. Crossed fused ectopia is characterized by the presence of an ectopic kidney that crosses the midline and fuses with the orthotopic contralateral kidney, whereas fused pelvic (pancake) kidney is a complete fusion anomaly characterized by extensive medial fusion of both kidneys in the pelvis. Fusion anomalies are often associated with abnormalities of renal rotation, migration, and vascular supply, which predispose the kidneys to a number of complications and create difficulty during retroperitoneal surgeries and interventions. They are also associated with other congenital abnormalities of the urogenital tract, gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system, and skeletal system. Hence, a thorough understanding of the etiopathogenesis and radiological features of fusion anomalies is important for directing patient management. This review summarizes the embryological basis, clinical presentation and imaging approach to renal fusion anomalies, followed by detailed anatomical and radiological description of the morphological types, and the complications associated with these anomalies.
Keywords: Crossed fused ectopia; Fused kidney; Horseshoe kidney; Pelvic cake kidney.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
April/3/2021
Abstract
Aquaporins (AQP) are a class of water channel membrane proteins that are widely expressed in the gut. The biological functions of aquaporins, which regulate the absorption and secretion of water molecules and small solutes, maintain the stable state of the intestine, regulate cell proliferation and migration, participate in the process of intestinal inflammation, and mediate tumorigenesis, demonstrate the physiological significance of these channels in intestinal health. The pathology of many intestinal diseases is associated with changes in the location and expression of aquaporins, such as intestinal infection, which can change the expression and distribution of AQPs in intestinal tissues/cells by affecting cytokines and chemokines. This can lead to various intestinal diseases such as diarrhoea, which also suggests the importance of aquaporins in the prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases. This review summarizes the relationship between aquaporins and intestinal physiology and diseases and focuses on drugs (such as plant extracts) or diets that can regulate intestinal health by regulating aquaporins. It provides a basis for establishing aquaporins as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for intestinal health.
Keywords: aquaporins; diets; drugs; intestinal diseases; intestinal health; plant extracts.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
April/3/2021
Abstract
Liver diseases are associated with the leaky gut via the gut-liver-axis. Previous studies have paid much attention to the effect of gut barrier damage. Notably, clinical observations and basic research reveal that the gut barrier damage seldom leads to liver injury independently, but aggravates pre-existing liver diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and drug-induced liver injury. These evidences suggest that there is a hepatic barrier in the gut-liver-axis, protecting the liver against gut-derived pathogenic factors. However, it has never been investigated which type of liver cell plays the role of hepatic barrier. Under physiological conditions, liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) can take up and eliminate virus, bacteriophage, microbial products and metabolic wastes. LSEC also keeps the homeostasis of liver immune environment via tolerance-inducing and anti-inflammatory functions. In contrast, under pathological conditions, the clearance function of LSEC is impaired, and LSEC turns into a pro-inflammatory pattern. Given its anatomical position and physiological functions, LSEC is proposed as the hepatic barrier in the gut-liver-axis. In this review, we aim to further understand the role of LSEC as the hepatic barrier. Future studies are warranted to seek effective treatments to improve LSEC health, which appears to be a promising approach to prevent gut-derived liver injury.
Keywords: gut barrier; gut-liver-axis; hepatic barrier; liver injury; liver sinusoidal endothelial cell.
Publication
Journal: Advanced Materials
April/3/2021
Abstract
Plasmonic core-shell nanostructures have attracted considerable attention in the scientific community recently due to their highly tunable optical properties. Plasmon-enhanced spectroscopies are one of the main applications of plasmonic nanomaterials. When excited by an incident laser of suitable wavelength, strong and highly localized electromagnetic (EM) fields are generated around plasmonic nanomaterials, which can significantly boost excitation and/or radiation processes that amplify Raman, fluorescence, or nonlinear signals and improve spectroscopic sensitivity. Herein, recent developments in plasmon-enhanced spectroscopies utilizing core-shell nanostructures are reviewed, including shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS), plasmon-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy, and plasmon-enhanced nonlinear spectroscopy.
Keywords: core-shell nanostructures; fluorescence; nonlinear spectroscopy; plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy; shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.
Publication
Journal: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology
April/3/2021
Abstract
Bronchiectasis is characterized by the destruction of bronchial wall and persistent irreversible bronchiectasis due to respiratory infection and bronchial obstruction. Reversible bronchiectasis is rarely reported in adults. The study aims to evaluate dynamic changes in chest computer tomography (CT) findings and relevant factors affecting improvement or reversal of bronchiectasis. A total of 239 patients with bronchiectasis admitted to our hospital from January 2009 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. 23 patients (group A) with bronchiectasis reversion or improvement confirmed by chest CT were matched with patients in group B according to gender and age (difference < 5 years). 23 patients (group B) with bronchiectasis progression or no obvious improvement confirmed by chest CT were selected from the remaining patients. The clinical features and imaging findings of the two groups were compared. The duration of disease in group A was less than that in group B, and the stable period was longer (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in other clinical features between the two groups. In contrast to the traditional concept of "Bronchiectasis", our results suggested that some adult bronchiectasis can be improved and completely radiologically reversed.
Keywords: Bronchial dilatation; Bronchiectasis; Computer tomography; Reversible bronchiectasis.
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Journal: Cancer Science
April/3/2021
Publication
Journal: Macromolecular Bioscience
April/3/2021
Abstract
How to precisely detect and effectively cure cancer which is defined as precise nanomedicine has drawn great attention worldwide. Polymeric nanoreactors which can in situ catalyze inert species into activated ones, can greatly increase imaging quality and enhance therapeutic effects along with decreased background interference and reduced serious side effects. After a brief introduction, the design and preparation of polymeric nanoreactors are discussed from the following aspects, that is, solvent-switch, pH-tuning, film rehydration, hard template, electrostatic interaction, and polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). Subsequently, the biomedical applications of these nanoreactors in the fields of cancer imaging, cancer therapy, and cancer theranostics are highlighted. The last but not least, conclusions and future perspectives about polymeric nanoreactors are given. It is believed that polymeric nanoreactors can bring a great opportunity for future fabrication and clinical translation of precise nanomedicine.
Keywords: cancer precise nanomedicine; enzymatic reaction; polymeric nanoreactor.
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Publication
Journal: Microsurgery
April/3/2021
Abstract
Purpose: Adults with traumatic digital amputation (TDA) of the hand may be managed with replantation or revision amputation. To date, there is no systematic review evaluating patient reported outcomes (PROs) comparing replantation versus revision amputation.
Methods: Three databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed) were systematically searched in duplicate from inception until June 13, 2019 using Covidence software. Studies comparing replantation versus revision amputation outcomes were considered for inclusion. Methodological quality was assessed using Methodologic Index for Nonrandomized Studies (MINORS) criteria. Data were pooled in a random-effects meta-analysis model using Revman software. Certainty of evidence was evaluated using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE).
Results: Of 4350 studies identified, 12 retrospective cohort studies met inclusion criteria and compared TDA outcomes for replantation (n = 717; 82.9% male; mean age 40.3) versus revision amputation (n = 1046; 79.8% male; mean age 41.7). The overall replantation survival rate was 85.3%. The average MINORS score was 57% (13.75/24). Replantation of the thumb had a superior Michigan Hand Questionnaire (MHQ) score (+11.88, 95% CI [7.78-15.99], I2 = 21%) compared with revision amputation. Replantation of single non-thumb digits had a superior MHQ score (+5.31, 95% CI [3.10-7.51], I2 = 67%) and Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score (-5.16, 95% CI [-8.27 to -2.06], I2 = 0%) compared with revision amputation. Most patients in the meta-analysis were from Asian populations (87.9%).
Conclusion: There is low-quality evidence that thumb replantation achieves superior PROs compared with revision amputation, which may be clinically important. Replantation of single non-thumb digits also yielded superior PROs, which is likely not clinically important and based on very low-quality evidence. Future studies with populations outside Asia are required to determine if PROs vary based on cultural differences toward digital amputation.
Publication
Journal: Plant Biotechnology Journal
April/3/2021
Abstract
The cytokinins, which are N6 -substituted adenine derivatives, control key aspects of crop productivity. Cytokinin levels are controlled via biosynthesis by isopentenyl transferase (IPT), destruction by cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX), and inactivation via glucosylation by cytokinin glucosyl transferases (CGTs). While both yield components and tolerance to drought and related abiotic stressors have been positively addressed via manipulation of IPT and/or CKX expression, much less attention has been paid to the CGTs. As naming of the CGTs has been unclear, we suggest COGT, CNGT, CONGT and CNOGT to describe the O-, N- and dual function CGTs. As specific CGT mutants of both rice and arabidopsis showed impacts on yield components, we interrogated the wheat genome database, IWGSC RefSeq v1.0 & v2.0, to investigate wheat CGTs. Besides providing unambiguous names for the 53 wheat CGTs, we show their expression patterns in 70 developmental tissues and their response characteristics to various stress conditions by reviewing more than 1000 RNA-seq datasets. These revealed various patterns of responses and showed expression generally being more limited in reproductive tissues than in vegetative tissues. Multiple cis-regulatory elements are present in the 3 kb upstream of the start codons of the 53 CGTs. Elements associated with abscisic acid, light, and methyl jasmonate are particularly over-represented, indicative of the responsiveness of CGTs to the environment. These datasets indicate that CGTs have potential value for wheat improvement, and that these could be targeted in TILLING or gene editing wheat breeding programmes.
Keywords: cis-regulatory elements; cytokinin; cytokinin N-glucoside; cytokinin O-glucoside; cytokinin glucosyl transferase; glucosyl transferase; wheat; zeatin glucoside.
Publication
Journal: Small
April/3/2021
Abstract
Microplastic and nanoplastic contamination is widespread and affects aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Photosynthetic organisms are present in both media, they are primary producers, sink for CO2 , and they represent a major point of entry in the food chain. Here, the current knowledge on the fate and impacts of microplastics and nanoplastics in interaction with these organisms is reviewed. As a general trend, plastic characteristics (smaller size and positive charge) play a crucial role in their toxicity toward photosynthetic organisms. Plastic leachates (containing additives) also represent a major source of toxicity, and some harmful compounds such as phthalate esters are shown to accumulate in plants and generate a risk for the consumers. Adsorption of plastic particles is evidenced for each type of photosynthetic organism, and uptake and translocation in terrestrial plants is evidenced for nanoplastics, leading to concerns for trophic chain contamination. The available techniques for the detection of microplastics and nanoplastics and their secondary products in biological samples and media are also listed. Finally, the current gaps of knowledge, specific challenges, and future research directions are also discussed.
Keywords: macrophyte; phytoplankton; plant; plastic.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics
April/3/2021
Abstract
Background: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the biggest maternal mortality burden, but the region lacks accurate data.
Objective: We reviewed methods historically used to measure maternal mortality in SSA to inform future study methods.
Search strategy: We searched databases: PubMed, Medline, WorldCat and CINHAL, using keywords "maternal mortality", "pregnancy-related death", "reproductive age mortality", "ratio", "rate" and "risk", using Boolean operators "OR" and "AND" to combine the search terms.
Selection criteria: We searched for empirical and analytical studies that: 1) measured maternal mortality levels, 2) in SSA, 3) reporting original results, 4) de-duplicating the studies. We included studies published in English since 1980.
Data collection and analysis: We screened the studies using titles and abstracts, reading full articles of selected studies. We analysed the estimates and strengths, and limitations of the methods.
Main results: We identified 96 studies that used nine methods: demographic surveillance (n=4), health record reviews (n=18), confidential enquiries and maternal death surveillance and response (n=7), prospective cohort (n=9), reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS) (n=6), sisterhood method (n=35), mixed methods (n=4), and mathematical modelling (n=13).
Conclusion: Sisterhood method studies and RAMOS studies that combined institutional records and community data produced MMRs more comparable with WHO estimates.
Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa; maternal death; maternal mortality; maternal mortality measurement; pregnancy-related deaths; systematic literature review.
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Journal: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
April/3/2021
Abstract
One hundred and twenty samples of breast milk were collected from five northern governorates and districts in Jordan in 2019 and 2020 to monitor results for organochlorine pesticides as organic contaminants. The results showed that 36 samples (30%) of total 120 analyzed samples were contaminated as follows: 16 samples (13.3%) were contaminated with dieldrin, 4 samples (3.3%) with p,p'-DDE, 4 samples (3.3%) with p,p'-DDD, 8 samples (6.7%) with p,p'-DDT and 4 samples (3.3%) with o,p'-DDE. Comparing results of the current study with those of 2015 study, no residues for the HCHs in 2019/2020 study have been detected, an increase in the DDTs occurred and an increase in the cyclodiens in the 2019/2020 compared to the 2015 study.
Keywords: Breast milk; Cyclodiens; DDTs; HCHs; Jordan; Pesticides residues.
Publication
Journal: FEBS Journal
April/3/2021
Abstract
Directed cell migration is essential for cells to efficiently migrate in physiological and pathological processes. While migrating in their native environment, cells interact with multiple types of cues, such as mechanical and chemical signals. While the role of chemical guidance via chemotaxis has been studied in the past, the understanding of mechanical guidance of cell migration via durotaxis remained unclear until very recently. Nonetheless, durotaxis has become a topic of intensive research and several advances have been made in the study of mechanically guided cell migration across multiple fields. Thus, in this article we provide a state-of-the-art about durotaxis by discussing in silico, in vitro and in vivo data. We also present insights on the general mechanisms by which cells sense, transduce and respond to environmental mechanics, to then contextualize these mechanisms in the process of durotaxis and explain how cells bias their migration in anisotropic substrates. Furthermore, we discuss what is known about durotaxis in vivo and we comment on how haptotaxis could arise from integrating durotaxis and chemotaxis in native environments.
Keywords: biomechanics; chemotaxis; directed cell migration; durotaxis; haptotaxis; mechanosensing; mechanotransduction.
Publication
Journal: FEBS Journal
April/3/2021
Abstract
During development, resident stem cell populations contribute to the growth and maturation of tissue and organs. In skeletal muscle, muscle stem cells, or satellite cells, are responsible for the maturation of postnatal myofibers. However, the role satellite cells play in later stages of postnatal growth, and thus, when they enter a mature quiescent state is controversial. Here we discuss the current literature regarding the role satellite cells play in all stages of postnatal growth, from birth to puberty onset to young adulthood. We additionally highlight the implications of satellite cell loss or dysfunction during developmental stages, both in the context of experimental paradigms and disease settings.
Keywords: aging; cancer; development; pediatric; regeneration; satellite cells; skeletal muscle.
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