Date
All
Search in:AllTitleAbstractAuthor name
Publications
(32M+)
Patents
(1M+)
Grants
(2M+)
Pathways
(531)
Clinical trials
(347K+)
Publication
Journal: Brain Imaging and Behavior
July/31/2021
Abstract
Several neuroimaging studies have investigated localized aberrations in brain structure, function or connectivity in late-life depression, but the ensuing results are equivocal and often conflicting. Here, we provide a quantitative consolidation of neuroimaging in late-life depression using coordinate-based meta-analysis by searching multiple databases up to March 2020. Our search revealed 3252 unique records, among which we identified 32 eligible whole-brain neuroimaging publications comparing 674 patients with 568 controls. The peak coordinates of group comparisons between the patients and the controls were extracted and then analyzed using activation likelihood estimation method. Our sufficiently powered analysis on all the experiments, and more homogenous subsections of the data (patients > controls, controls > patients, and functional imaging experiments) revealed no significant convergent regional abnormality in late-life depression. This inconsistency might be due to clinical and biological heterogeneity of LLD, as well as experimental (e.g., choice of tasks, image modalities) and analytic flexibility (e.g., preprocessing and analytic parameters), and distributed patterns of neural abnormalities. Our findings highlight the importance of clinical/biological heterogeneity of late-life depression, in addition to the need for more reproducible research by using pre-registered and standardized protocols on more homogenous populations to identify potential consistent brain abnormalities in late-life depression.
Keywords: Activation likelihood estimation; Functional magnetic resonance imaging; Late-life depression; Positron emission tomography; Voxel-based morphometry.
Publication
Journal: Cell and Tissue Banking
July/31/2021
Abstract
Processed and radiation sterilized allograft tissues that can be banked for use on demand are a precious therapeutic resource for the repair or reconstruction of damaged or injured tissues. Skin dressings or skin substitutes like allograft skin, amniotic membrane and bioengineered skin can be used for the treatment of thermal burns and radiation induced skin injuries. Bone grafts can be employed for repairing fracture defects, filling in destroyed regions of bone, and treatment of spinal and joint injuries. A nuclear scenario would result in a large number of casualties due to the heat, blast and radiation effects of the weapon. Perspective of radiation sterilized biological tissues provided by the tissue banks for management of casualties in a nuclear disaster scenario is presented.
Keywords: Allograft tissues; Bone allografts; Skin dressings; Tissue banking.
Publication
Journal: Quality of Life Research
July/31/2021
Abstract
Purpose: This study examined health-related quality of life (HRQL) in children across different physical illnesses; estimated parent-child agreement on HRQL reports; compared HRQL between children with and without physical-mental multimorbidity; and tested if multimorbidity was associated with HRQL.
Methods: Children aged 6-16 years (mean = 11.1; n = 198) with one physical illness and their parents were recruited from a pediatric hospital. Physical illnesses were classified according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)-10, mental illnesses were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents, and HRQL was measured using the KIDSCREEN-27. Children who screened positive for ≥ 1 mental illness were classified as having physical-mental multimorbidity. χ2/t tests compared sample characteristics of children with vs. without multimorbidity; Kruskal-Wallis tests compared KIDSCREEN-27 scores across ICD-10 categories; interclass correlation coefficients estimated parent-child agreement; and multiple regression examined effects of the number of mental illnesses on HRQL.
Results: HRQL was similar across ICD-10 categories. Parent-child agreement was fair to good for all HRQL domains, regardless of multimorbidity status. Parent-reported HRQL was significantly lower for children with multimorbidity compared to norms across all domains, whereas child-reported HRQL was significantly lower for physical well-being, psychological well-being, and school environment. Number of mental illnesses was negatively associated with psychological well-being and school environment in a dose-response manner.
Conclusion: Children with physical-mental multimorbidity are vulnerable to experiencing lower HRQL, particularly for psychological well-being and school environment. Longitudinal studies documenting trajectories of HRQL and school-based interventions that target these domains of HRQL for children with multimorbidity are warranted.
Keywords: Agreement; Children; Mental illness; Multimorbidity; Physical illness; Well-being.
Related with
Publication
Journal: Sports Medicine - Open
July/31/2021
Abstract
Background: The relationship between Olympic career sport injury and the long-term musculoskeletal health of the elite athlete remains unclear. This study describes the lifetime prevalence of medical attention injuries that occurred during training and/or competition as part of the athlete's Olympic career, reasons for retirement from Olympic sport, and the point prevalence of pain and osteoarthritis (OA) among retired Great Britain's (GB) Olympians.
Methods: This cross-sectional study involved distributing a questionnaire to retired GB Olympians who had competed at 36 Olympic Games between Berlin 1936 and Sochi 2014. The questionnaire captured Olympic career injury history (lasting ≥ 1 month), sport exposure, musculoskeletal pain (last 4 weeks), physician-diagnosed OA, and joint replacement. Injury prevalence was calculated for sports with a minimal of 15 respondents. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were estimated in logistic regression for pain, OA, and joint replacement. Models were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and career duration.
Results: Six hundred fifty (57.8% male; 42.2% female) retired athletes representing 40 sports (29 summer; 11 winter), aged 60.5 years (range 23-97), completed the questionnaire. Overall, 721 injuries (368 athletes) were self-reported equating to a lifetime Olympic career injury prevalence of 56.6%. Injury prevalence was highest in field athletics (81.0%), gymnastics (75.0%), and track athletics (67.7%). Injuries most frequently occurred at the knee (19.0%), lower back (15.4%), and shoulder (11.5%). Of those injured, 19.5% retired from sport due to injury. Pain was most prevalent at the lumbar spine (32.8%), knee (25.3%), and hip (22.5%), and OA at the knee (13.4%), hip (10.4%), and lumbar spine (4.6%). Injury was associated with pain at the hip (aOR 4.88; 95% CI, 1.87-12.72, p = 0.001), knee (aOR 2.35; 95% CI, 1.45-3.81, p = 0.001), and lumbar spine (aOR 2.53; 95% CI, 1.63-3.92, p < 0.001); OA at the hip (aOR 5.97; 95% CI, 1.59-22.47, p = 0.008) and knee (aOR 3.91; 95% CI, 2.21-6.94, p < 0.001); and joint replacement at the hip (aOR 8.71; 95% CI, 2.13-35.63, p = 0.003) and knee (aOR 5.29; 95% CI, 2.39-11.74, p < 0.001).
Conclusion: The lifetime prevalence of Olympic career injury was 56.6%, with those injured more likely to self-report current pain and/or OA at the hip, knee, and lumbar spine and joint replacement at the hip and knee.
Keywords: Injury; Olympians; Osteoarthritis; Pain; Prevalence.
Publication
Journal: Chromosome Research
July/31/2021
Abstract
The interest in Robertsonian fusion chromosomes (Rb fusions), sometimes referred to as Robertsonian translocations, derives from their impact on mammalian karyotype evolution, as well from their influence on fertility and disease. The formation of a Rb chromosome necessitates the occurrence of double strand breaks in the pericentromeric regions of two chromosomes in the satellite DNA (satDNA) sequences. Here, we report on the fine-scale molecular analysis of the centromeric satDNA families in the Rb(1;29) translocation of domestic cattle and six antelope species of the subfamily Bovinae. We do so from two perspectives: its occurrence as a chromosomal abnormality in cattle and, secondly, as a fixed evolutionarily rearrangement in spiral-horned antelope (Tragelaphini). By analysing the reorganization of satDNAs in the centromeric regions of translocated chromosomes, we show that Rb fusions are multistep, complex rearrangements which entail the precise elimination and reorganization of specific (peri)centromeric satDNA sequences. Importantly, these structural changes do not influence the centromeric activity of the satellite DNAs that provide segregation stability to the translocated chromosome. Our results suggest a common mechanism for Rb fusions in these bovids and, more widely, for mammals in general.
Keywords: (peri)centromeric regions; Robertsonian translocations; chromosome stability; satellite DNA reorganization; two-step mechanism.
Publication
Journal: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing
July/31/2021
Abstract
In vitro cell culture model systems often employ monocultures, despite the fact that cells generally exist in a diverse, heterogeneous microenvironment in vivo. In response, heterogeneous cultures are increasingly being used to study how cell phenotypes interact. However, the ability to accurately identify and characterize distinct phenotypic subpopulations within heterogeneous systems remains a major challenge. Here, we present the use of a computational, image analysis-based approach-comprising automated contour-based cell tracking for feature identification, principal component analysis for feature reduction, and partitioning around medoids for subpopulation characterization-to non-destructively and non-invasively identify functionally distinct cell phenotypic subpopulations from live-cell microscopy image data. Using a heterogeneous model system of endothelial and smooth muscle cells, we demonstrate that this approach can be applied to both mono and co-culture nuclear morphometric and motility data to discern cell phenotypic subpopulations. Morphometric clustering identified minimal difference in mono- versus co-culture, while motility clustering revealed that a portion of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells adopt increased motility rates in co-culture that are not observed in monoculture. We anticipate that this approach using non-destructive and non-invasive imaging can be applied broadly to heterogeneous cell culture model systems to advance understanding of how heterogeneity alters cell phenotype. This work presents a computational, image-analysis-based approach-comprising automated contour-based cell tracking for feature identification, principle component analysis for feature reduction, and partitioning around medoids for subpopulation characterization-to non-destructively and non-invasively identify functionally distinct cell phenotypic subpopulations from live-cell microscopy image data.
Keywords: Cell morphology; Cell motility; Cell tracking; Clustering; Phenotype.
Publication
Journal: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
July/31/2021
Abstract
We consider a one-dimensional morphoelastic model describing post-burn scar contraction. Contraction can lead to a limited range of motion (contracture). Reported prevalence of burn scar contractures are 58.6% at 3-6 weeks and 20.9% at 12 months post-reconstructive surgery after burns. This model describes the displacement of the dermal layer of the skin and the development of the effective Eulerian strain in the tissue. Besides these components, the model also contains components that play a major role in the skin repair after trauma. These components are signaling molecules, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, and collagen. We perform a sensitivity analysis for many parameters of the model and use the results for a feasibility study. In this study, we test whether the model is suitable for predicting the extent of contraction in different age groups. To this end, we conduct an extensive literature review to find parameter values. From the sensitivity analysis, we conclude that the most sensitive parameters are the equilibrium collagen concentration in the dermal layer, the apoptosis rate of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, and the secretion rate of signaling molecules. Further, although we can use the model to simulate significant distinct contraction densities in different age groups, our results differ from what is seen in the clinic. This particularly concerns children and elderly patients. In children we see more intense contractures if the burn injury occurs near a joint, because the growth induces extra forces on the tissue. Elderly patients seem to suffer less from contractures, possibly because of excess skin.
Keywords: Burns; Feasibility; Morphoelasticity; Moving-grid finite-element; Sensitivity; Wound contraction.
Publication
Journal: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
July/31/2021
Abstract
Located in the southwest of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Tibet is characterized by high cold, high radiation, and large differences in temperature between day and night. Tibetan residential buildings are famous for adapting to the harsh ecological environment and maintaining durability. Based on the residential buildings in Tibet, this paper extracts the technical process and color decoration culture in the construction process in order to adapt to the harsh natural environment. This paper first analyzed the four ecological construction modes of Tibetan residential buildings, analyzed the interior layout characteristics and cultural customs connotation, and introduced the architectural decoration characteristics and decorative color painting. The results show that the ramming type of adobe mainly includes the selection of building foundation, wall laying, floor and roof construction and so on, and its insulation effect is better. The rubble masonry type mainly adopts irregular gneiss, supplemented by clay, which has strong compressive capacity. Logs dry type using log masonry, heat preservation. and shock resistance is better. Concrete-infilled wall frame is composed of horizontal and vertical load-bearing system, which has stronger seismic performance. Tibetan residential buildings generally have two or three floors. The first floor is the enclosure and sundry room, the second floor is the rest place, and the third floor is the Sutra hall and sun terrace. The overall outdoor color of Kangba Tibetan buildings is mainly red and black, while the indoor color is mainly blue and red, with wood carvings and furniture. The layout of Tibetan villages can be divided into centripetal layout and scattered layout. Tibetan residential buildings provide a new sustainable development direction for the current global urbanization process at the expense of the ecological environment. It can alleviate the crisis of global resource shortage, climate warming, and biodiversity degradation.
Keywords: Architectural space layout; Color and decoration; Construction methods and materials; Ecological adaptability; Tibetan residential buildings.
Related with
Publication
Journal: International Ophthalmology
July/31/2021
Abstract
Purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of alopecia areata (AA) on the ocular surface and conjunctival cytology.
Methods: A total of 48 subjects were included in the present study. Twenty-three subjects were assigned to group 1 as the patient group, and 25 healthy individuals were included in group 2 as the control group. The ocular surface examination was performed, and the right eyes of all participants were included in the analysis. Both groups underwent the following tests for evaluation of ocular surface: tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer I test, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), and conjunctival impression cytology (CIC). Results obtained from the tests were then analyzed and compared between the groups.
Results: The mean TBUT value was significantly lower in Group 1 compared to Group 2 (4.96 ± 3.4 vs 10.52 ± 4.8 s) (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between Group 1 and Group 2 in terms of the mean Schirmer I test score (p = 0.129). The mean OSDI score was higher in Group 1 compared to Group 2 (15.48 ± 10.4 vs 9.61 ± 13.4), but the difference between both groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.1). The mean CIC score was statistically significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (1.65 ± 0.7 vs 0.52 ± 0.5) (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that AA was correlated with significant disturbances in conjunctival cytology and the tear function.
Keywords: Alopecia areata; Conjunctival impression cytology; Dry eye; OSDI; Schirmer I test; Tear break-up time.
Related with
Publication
Journal: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
July/31/2021
Abstract
The essence of carbon trading is to optimize the allocation of factor resources by using price leverage. However, the effect of the carbon trading market might be seriously affected by carbon trading price distortion (CTPD), which means the deviation of the actual trading price from the carbon marginal abatement cost (MAC). This paper proposes a novel analytical framework to evaluate the impacts of CTPD and explore corresponding correction strategies. Specifically, the impacts of CTPD are analyzed theoretically, and then CTPD in China's carbon trading pilot markets during 2013-2017 is evaluated by the Stochastic Frontier Analysis. Last, the panel data vector autoregression model and panel data vector error correction model are used to explore correction strategies. Our analysis reveals several interesting insights. First, our results show that CTPD negatively impacts the economic benefits, environmental benefits, and policy acceptance of the carbon trading market. Second, China's carbon trading market suffers from not only CTPD but also persistent negative price distortions in energy, labor, and capital factors, although CTPD is the most serious issue. Third, the energy price and macroeconomic environment have positive impacts on the carbon trading price. Last, a greater of any factor price distortion would lead to an increase in the carbon MAC. Based on these results, several correction strategies are recommended.
Keywords: Carbon marginal abatement cost; Carbon trading price; Carbon trading price distortion; Stochastic Frontier Analysis.
Publication
Journal: Journal of medical ultrasonics (2001)
July/31/2021
Abstract
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is used to evaluate the narrowing of the main pancreatic duct in autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and biliary stricture in IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC). Intraductal ultrasonography enables detailed visualization of the thickening of the bile duct wall in IgG4-SC. Pancreatic cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, and primary sclerosing cholangitis are important mimicking conditions of AIP and IgG4-SC. Diffuse or segmental stricture without marked upstream dilatation is a typical pancreatographic finding in AIP. By contrast, a single, short stricture with marked upstream dilatation is a typical finding in pancreatic cancer. The cholangiogram of IgG4-SC is classified into four types based on biliary stricture location, and this cholangiogram classification is useful for the differential diagnosis of IgG4-SC. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography can be used to distinguish between IgG4-SC and primary sclerosing cholangitis. A segmental/long and intrapancreatic stricture is a characteristic finding of IgG4-SC, whereas band-like strictures, a beaded or pruned-tree appearance, and diverticulum-like outpouching are characteristic of primary sclerosing cholangitis. The characteristic intraductal ultrasonographic findings of circular-symmetrical wall thickening, smooth outer and inner margins, and homogeneous internal echo at the biliary stricture site are useful for diagnosis of IgG4-SC. Thickening of the bile duct wall at non-stricture sites is also a typical intraductal ultrasonographic finding of IgG4-SC and can be used for differential diagnosis from cholangiocarcinoma. Transpapillary bile duct and duodenal papilla biopsy during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography are also useful in the diagnosis of IgG4-SC.
Keywords: Autoimmune pancreatitis; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; IgG4-related disease; IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis; Intraductal ultrasonography.
Publication
Journal: Cell Biology and Toxicology
July/31/2021
Abstract
Epidemiological evidence has shown that fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-triggered inflammatory cascades are pivotal causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the specific molecular mechanism involved in PM2.5-induced COPD has not been clarified. Herein, we found that PM2.5 significantly downregulated miR-149-5p and activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways and generated the inflammatory response in COPD mice and in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. We determined that increased expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced by PM2.5 was associated with decreased expression of miR-149-5p. The loss- and gain-of-function approach further confirmed that miR-149-5p could inhibit PM2.5-induced cell inflammation in BEAS-2B cells. The double luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-149-5p directly targeted TGF-beta-activated kinase 1 binding protein 2 (TAB2), which regulates the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. We showed that miR-149-5p mediated the inflammatory response by targeting the 3'-UTR sequence of TAB2 and that it subsequently weakened the TAB2 promotor effect via the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways in BEAS-2B cells exposed to PM2.5. Thus, miR-149-5p may be a key factor in PM2.5-induced COPD. This study improves our understanding of the molecular mechanism of COPD.
Keywords: COPD; Inflammatory response; PM2.5; TAB2; miR-149-5p.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
July/31/2021
Abstract
Participation in extracurricular activities and community involvement during secondary school is important for the healthy social, emotional, mental, and physical development of adolescents, especially those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study utilized three waves of data (2016, 2017, and 2018) from the National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) to examine disparities in extracurricular participation among 12- to 17-year old adolescents with ASD. Across the three waves, data demonstrate clear sociodemographic disparities among adolescents with ASD. These disparities were more evident in adolescents with caregivers that had less education and lower household income, as well as males. These disparities suggest a continued need for targeted interventions to promote engagement among adolescents with ASD to narrow this social disparity gap.
Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder; Community involvement; Extracurricular participation; National Survey of Children’s Health; Sociodemographic disparities.
Publication
Journal: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
July/31/2021
Abstract
In the past 10 years, the treatment and restoration of soil and water bodies contaminated by mercury and other heavy metals have received unprecedented attention and support from China's environmental protection authorities. The search for low-cost and high-efficiency adsorbents has become one of the research hotspots in this field. In this paper, a simple and environment-friendly method was used to graft 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane on the surface of palygorskite. The synthesized mercaptofunctionalized palygorskite (M-PAL) was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, BET and SEM-EDS, respectively, and its adsorption conditions, adsorption models and thermodynamic parameters for Hg2+ were systematically investigated. The experimental results indicated that the saturated adsorption capacity of Hg2+ on the M-PAL could reach 203.4 mg·g-1, within 120 min at pH 4 and 298 K. By analyzing the experimental data of adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics, it was found that the adsorption process of Hg2+ conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, which belonged to chemical adsorption of the rate-controlled step; the Langmuir model better described the adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters obtained (ΔH=29.95 kJ·mol-1, ΔS=103.09 J·mol-1·K-1 and ΔG<0) show that the whole process is a spontaneous endothermic process. When the concentration of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, NO3-, H2C2O4 and C6H8O7 was 200 times that of Hg2+, although these organic acids had a slightly greater effect on the adsorption of Hg2+ on mercaptofunctionalized palygorskite than inorganic ions, the adsorption capacity remained above 185 mg·g-1. The adsorption products could be still stable in simulated acid rain with pH 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and oxalic acid solution with concentration of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mmol·L-1, and the desorption rates were about 3%. Through XPS analysis, the specific coordination of Hg2+ with the S atom on the surface of M-PAL was confirmed.
Keywords: Adsorption; Hg; Mercaptofunctionalization; Palygorskite; Surface grafting.
Publication
Journal: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
July/31/2021
Abstract
The vision of every country or sub-regions is to achieve sustainable economic growth. The inability of individual countries to have a sole sustainable initiative has resulted in the establishment of economic cooperation such as the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), which renders interaction among 138 relevant countries to increase economic development. This study delves into the determinants of economic growth along the BRI economic corridors, taking into consideration regional classification of the relevant countries. The analytical procedure applied indicated the presence of heterogeneity in the slope coefficient and cross-sectional dependencies across the various panels. Applying the Westerlund bootstrap co-integration test, it was deducted that the employed variables have a long-run equilibrium association. The results from the pooled mean group (PMG) revealed that the contribution weight (order of importance) of the explanatory variables to economic growth varies across the regional panel clusters. Finally, the causality results unveil that a bidirectional causation affiliation exists between energy consumption and economic growth in all panels except Southeast and South Asia which experience one-way directional effects from energy usage to economic growth. Trade and economic growth unveiled a bidirectional causal affiliation in all panel groups with exception of the Middle East and North Africa, where a one-way directional affiliation from trade to economic growth was felt. These results obtained indicate that energy consumption, urbanization, trade, and CO2 emissions are determinants of economic growth along the BRI route. Based on the outcome, the suggested policy implications include the following: (a) The government across each region could incorporate tax and other incentives to encourage entrepreneurs and citizens to produce equipment that reduces carbon intensity and is ecologically friendly. (b) The necessity for a paradigm shift away from fossil fuels and towards renewable energy sources should be advocated among the countries involved.
Keywords: BRI economies; Economic growth; Energy consumption; PMG estimation; Trade.
Related with
Publication
Journal: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
July/31/2021
Abstract
In Jeju Island, multiple land-based aquafarms were fully operational along most coastal region. However, the effect of effluent on distribution and behaviours of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the coastal water are still unknown. To decipher characteristics of organic pollution, we compared physicochemical parameters with spectral optical properties near the coastal aquafarms in Jeju Island. Absorption spectra were measured to calculate the absorption coefficient, spectral slope coefficient, and specific UV absorbance. Fluorescent DOM was analysed using fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) were measured using high-temperature catalytic oxidation. The DOC concentration near the discharge outlet was twice higher than that in natural groundwater, and the TDN concentration exponentially increased close to the outlet. These distribution patterns indicate that aquafarms are a significant source of DOM. Herein, principal component analysis was applied to categorise the DOM origins. There were two distinct groups, namely, aquaculture activity for TDN with humic-like and high molecular weights DOM (PC1: 48.1%) and natural biological activity in the coastal water for DOC enrichment and protein-like DOM (PC2: 18.8%). We conclude that the aquafarms significantly discharge organic nitrogen pollutants and provoke in situ production of organic carbon. Furthermore, these findings indicate the potential of optical techniques for the efficient monitoring of anthropogenic organic pollutants from aquafarms worldwide.
Keywords: Anthropogenic organic pollution; Aquaculture; Chromophoric dissolved organic matter; Dissolved organic matter; Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy; PARAFAC.
Related with
Publication
Journal: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
July/31/2021
Abstract
Air pollution and its negative effects on health of people have been a global concern. Many studies had found a strong association between air pollutants and risk of death, but few had focused on the effects of six pollutants and rural areas. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of six air pollutants (CO, NO2, O3, PM2.5, PM10, and SO2) on non-accidental and respiratory deaths in rural areas of Anhui Province by adjusting for confounding factors, and to further clarify which populations were susceptible to death associated with air pollution. In the first phase of the analysis, the generalized additive models were combined with the distributed lag non-linear models to evaluate the individual effects of air pollution on death in each area. In the second stage, random-effects models were used to aggregate the associations between air pollutants and mortality risk in nine areas. Overall, six pollutants had the strongest effects on the risk of death on the lag 07 days. The associations between PM2.5 and NO2 and daily non-accidental deaths were strongest, with maximum RR (lag 07): 1.63 (1.37-1.88) and 1.67 (1.37-1.96). The maximum pooled effects of association between six air pollutants and RD were PM2.5, with RR (lag 07): 1.89 (1.45-2.34). PM2.5 and PM10 had significant differences between the elderly and the non-elderly with respectively, RRR: 1.22 (1.04-1.41) and 1.26 (1.11-1.42). In general, we found that six air pollutants were the important risk factors for deaths (deaths from respiratory disease and non-accidental) in rural areas of Anhui Province. PM10 and PM2.5 had a considerable impact on the elderly.
Keywords: Air pollution; Cause-specific mortality; Non-accidental death; Random-effect model; Rural areas; Time-series analysis.
Related with
Publication
Journal: Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science
July/31/2021
Abstract
From 2015 to 2016, an epidemic of births of children with Congenital Zika Virus Syndrome emerged in Brazil, and the state of Bahia concentrated the highest incidence of cases. The official health guidelines recommended that the affected children and their families should be supported by interdisciplinary teams of early intervention. This paper aims to deepen the comprehension of regulation and affective-semiotic mediation processes involved in the early intervention with children with Congenital Zika Virus Syndrome and their families. It focus on the experiences of a professional interviewed in a public health service in Salvador, Bahia - Brazil, through narrative analysis and the theoretical-methodological foundations of Cultural Psychology of the Semiotic Dynamics. These approaches allowed the understanding of the processes of construction of meanings, symbolic action and affective-semiotic regulation. The care of Congenital Zika Virus Syndrome children by professionals relates to disquieting experiences, inter subjectivity, meaning construction, affections and symbolic actions. These dynamic processes allowed the professional to better adapt to regulation and affective-semiotic mediation, as well as her own performance in face of children and their families. This analysis emphasizes the reflections of health care practices and their repercussions in the quality of the assistance.
Keywords: Affective-semiotic regulation; Congenital Zika Virus Syndrome; Developmental psychology; Early intervention; Health professionals.
Publication
Journal: Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science
July/31/2021
Abstract
The present study aims at giving a graphical representation of the movements of motives of consciousness in Leontyev's Activity Theory. In addition, related works concerning "vertical" and "horizontal" in the area of cultural historical activity theory are presented along with demonstrating Leontyev's conceptual distinctions, in a multimodal way, including pastoral psychology and technology. Finally, the last part suggests answers to Vygotsky's and Leontyev's fundamental questions.
Keywords: Activity Theory; Artificial Intelligence (AI); Consciousness; Inner speech; Motives; Pastoral psychology; Personality; Technology.
Related with
Publication
Journal: Drug Metabolism and Disposition
July/31/2021
Abstract
There is a lack of translational preclinical models that can predict hepatic handling of drugs. In this study we aimed to evaluate the applicability of normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) of porcine livers as a novel ex vivo model to predict hepatic clearance, biliary excretion and plasma exposure of drugs. For this evaluation we dosed atorvastatin, pitavastatin and rosuvastatin as model drugs to porcine livers and studied the effect of common drug-drug interactions (DDI) on these processes. After 120 min of perfusion, 0.104 mg atorvastatin (n=3), 0.140 mg pitavastatin (n=5) or 1.4 mg rosuvastatin (n=4) was administered to the portal vein, 120 min later followed by a second bolus of the statin co-administrated with OATP perpetrator drug rifampicin (67.7 mg). Following the first dose, all statins were rapidly cleared from the circulation (hepatic extraction ratio > 0.7) and excreted into the bile. Presence of human specific atorvastatin metabolites confirmed the metabolic capacity of porcine livers. The predicted biliary clearance of rosuvastatin was found to be closer to the observed biliary clearance. A rank-order of the DDI between the various systems upon co-administration with rifampicin could be observed: atorvastatin (AUC Ratio 7.2)> rosuvastatin (AUC Ratio 3.1)> pitavastatin (AUC Ratio 2.6) which is in good agreement with the clinical DDI data. The results from this study demonstrated the applicability of using NMP of porcine livers as a novel preclinical model to study OATP-mediated DDI and its effect on hepatic clearance, biliary excretion and plasma profile of drugs. Significance Statement In this study we evaluated the use of normothermic machine perfusion(NMP) of porcine livers as a novel preclinical model to study hepatic clearance, biliary excretion, plasma (metabolite) profile of statins and OATP-mediated DDI. Results showed that NMP of porcine livers is a reliable model to study OATP-mediated DDI. Overall, the rank order of DDI severity indicated in our experiments is in good agreement with clinical data, indicating the potential importance of this new ex vivo model in early drug discovery.
Keywords: Organic anion uptake / efflux (OATs, OATPs); biliary excretion; drug-drug interactions; isolated perfused liver.
Publication
Journal: Drug Metabolism and Disposition
July/31/2021
Abstract
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring, non-psycho-toxic phytocannabinoid that has gained increasing attention as a popular consumer product and for its use in FDA-approved Epidiolex® (CBD oral solution) for the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. CBD was previously reported to be metabolized primarily by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 and CYP3A4, with minor contributions from UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. 7-Hydroxy-CBD (7-OH-CBD) is the primary active metabolite with equipotent activity compared to CBD. Given the polymorphic nature of CYP2C19, we hypothesized that variable CYP2C19 expression may lead to interindividual differences in CBD metabolism to 7-OH-CBD. The objectives of this study were to further characterize the roles of CYP enzymes in CBD metabolism, specifically to the active metabolite 7-OH-CBD, and to investigate the impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism on CBD metabolism in genotyped human liver microsomes. The results from reaction phenotyping experiments with recombinant CYP enzymes and CYP-selective chemical inhibitors indicated that both CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 are capable of CBD metabolism to 7-OH-CBD. CYP3A played a major role in CBD metabolic clearance via oxidation at sites other than the 7-position. In genotyped human liver microsomes, 7-OH-CBD formation was positively correlated with CYP2C19 activity but was not associated with CYP2C19 genotype. In a subset of single-donor human liver microsomes with moderate to low CYP2C19 activity, CYP2C9 inhibition significantly reduced 7-OH-CBD formation, suggesting that CYP2C9 may play a greater role in CBD 7-hydroxylation than previously thought. Collectively, these data indicate that both CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 are important contributors in CBD metabolism to the active metabolite 7-OH-CBD. Significance Statement This study demonstrates that both CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 are involved in CBD metabolism to the active metabolite 7-OH-CBD, and CYP3A4 is a major contributor to CBD metabolism through pathways other than 7-hydroxylation. 7-OH-CBD formation was associated with human liver microsomal CYP2C19 activity, but not CYP2C19 genotype, and CYP2C9 was found to contribute significantly to 7-OH-CBD generation. These findings have implications for patients taking CBD, who may be at risk for clinically important CYP-mediated drug interactions.
Keywords: Cannabinoid; Cytochrome P450 (CYP).
Publication
Journal: Science advances
July/31/2021
Abstract
Sunlight-associated melanomas carry a unique C-to-T mutation signature. UVB radiation induces cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) as the major form of DNA damage, but the mechanism of how CPDs cause mutations is unclear. To map CPDs at single-base resolution genome wide, we developed the circle damage sequencing (circle-damage-seq) method. In human cells, CPDs form preferentially in a tetranucleotide sequence context (5'-Py-T<>Py-T/A), but this alone does not explain the tumor mutation patterns. To test whether mutations arise at CPDs by cytosine deamination, we specifically mapped UVB-induced cytosine-deaminated CPDs. Transcription start sites (TSSs) were protected from CPDs and deaminated CPDs, but both lesions were enriched immediately upstream of the TSS, suggesting a mutation-promoting role of bound transcription factors. Most importantly, the genomic dinucleotide and trinucleotide sequence specificity of deaminated CPDs matched the prominent mutation signature of melanomas. Our data identify the cytosine-deaminated CPD as the leading premutagenic lesion responsible for mutations in melanomas.
Publication
Journal: Science advances
July/31/2021
Abstract
A wide variety of intracellular membraneless compartments are formed via liquid-liquid phase separation of charged proteins and nucleic acids. Understanding the stability of these compartments, while accounting for the compositional heterogeneity intrinsic to cellular environments, poses a daunting challenge. We combined experimental and theoretical efforts to study the effects of nonstoichiometric mixing on coacervation behavior and accurately measured the concentrations of polyelectrolytes and small ions in the coacervate and supernatant phases. For synthetic polyacrylamides and polypeptides/DNA, with unequal mixing stoichiometry, we report a general "looping-in" phenomenon found around physiological salt concentrations, where the polymer concentrations in the coacervate initially increase with salt addition before subsequently decreasing. This looping-in behavior is captured by a molecular model that considers reversible ion binding and electrostatic interactions. Further analysis in the low-salt regime shows that the looping-in phenomenon originates from the translational entropy of counterions that are needed to neutralize nonstoichiometric coacervates.
Publication
Journal: BMJ Case Reports
July/31/2021
Abstract
Complement-mediated kidney disease has been an evolving area in the field of nephrology. Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare thrombotic microangiopathy that affects multiple organs, particularly kidneys. The disease is characterised by a triad of haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury (AKI). aHUS is most commonly caused by dysregulation of alternative complement pathway. In contrast to shiga toxin-associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome, diarrheal prodrome is usually absent in children with aHUS. We report a 2-year, 9-month-old boy who presented with acute dysentery and AKI. He had an unusual prolonged course of illness with hypocomplementaemia; hence, genetic testing was performed. He had a storming course in the hospital and succumbed to complications of the disease. Genetic study revealed digenic mutation in Complement Factor I and C3 Therefore, it is important to differentiate aHUS from other thrombotic microangiopathies to improve the outcome.
Keywords: genetics; haematology (incl blood transfusion); immunology; paediatrics; renal medicine.
load more...