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Publication
Journal: Trends in Immunology
October/11/2021
Abstract
RORγt, the master transcription factor for cytokine interleukin (IL)-17, is expressed explicitly in Th17 cells, γδT cells, and type 3 innate lymphoid cells in mice and humans. Since dysregulated IL-17 expression is strongly linked to several human inflammatory diseases, the RORγt-IL-17 axis has been the focus of intense research. Recently, several studies have shown that RORγt is modified by multiple post-translational mechanisms, including ubiquitination, acetylation, SUMOylation, and phosphorylation. This review discusses how post-translational modifications modulate RORγt function and its turnover to regulate IL-17-driven inflammation. Broad knowledge of these pathways is crucial for a clear understanding of the pathogenic role of RORγt+IL-17+ cells and for the development of putative therapeutic strategies to target IL-17-driven diseases such as multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and inflammatory bowel disease.
Keywords: IL-17; RORγt; Th17; autoimmune diseases; post-translational modifications.
Publication
Journal: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
October/11/2021
Abstract
Peer review is an essential tool for institutions and providers to meet the modern goals of safety and quality in health care. It is a mechanism that leads to a just culture within a health care institution whereby errors and complications are considered products of the system rather than isolated actions by an individual. The benefits and potential drawbacks of peer review are outlined in this review with a special emphasis on the interface between peer review and principles of medical ethics. It is argued that peer review, in the ideal setting, is founded upon the principles of beneficence and justice, and to varying levels on non-maleficence and autonomy.
Keywords: Ethics; Impaired provider; Just culture; Peer review; Systems.
Publication
Journal: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
October/11/2021
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to new ethical challenges and exposed or exacerbated others that were already present. Through the lens of pediatric surgery, this article aims to discuss issues that have been impacted by the pandemic including triage of care and allocation of scarce resources, equity and access to care, and a physician's competing responsibilities to their patients, families, and selves.
Keywords: COVID-19; Disparity; Moral distress; Pediatric surgery; Resource allocation.
Publication
Journal: Heart
October/11/2021
Abstract
Keywords: aortic valve stenosis; cardiomyopathy; echocardiography; heart failure; restrictive.
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Publication
Journal: Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angeiologie
October/11/2021
Publication
Journal: Trends in Genetics
October/11/2021
Related with
Publication
Journal: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
October/11/2021
Publication
Journal: Cancer Discovery
October/11/2021
Abstract
Ivosidenib extends overall survival in patients with previously treated, advanced cholangiocarcinoma whose disease harbors IDH1 mutations. Median overall survival was 10.3 months in patients who received the drug, versus 7.5 months in the placebo group. The difference was even larger-5.1 months-when researchers accounted for patient crossover into the treatment group.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
October/11/2021
Publication
Journal: Neuromuscular Disorders
October/11/2021
Abstract
ADSSL1 myopathy is an inherited myopathy with limb weakness, respiratory muscle paralysis, dysphagia, and myocardial symptoms. We present an autopsy case of a 66-year-old male carrying compound heterozygous variants c.781G>A (p.D261N) and c.919delA (p.I307fs) in ADSSL1. He had not run fast since school with no family history. He showed a gradual progression of limb weakness and developed dyspnoea, dysphagia, and Brugada syndrome at the age of 56. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bright tongue sign. Muscle biopsy showed only chronic myopathic changes. He died of respiratory muscle weakness at the age of 66. Autopsy revealed that there were many fibres with vacuoles and nemaline rods in the biceps brachii, tongue, diaphragm, and iliopsoas. Many lipopigments and nuclear clumps were also detected. The myocardium and central nervous system had only nonspecific age-related changes. This is the first autopsied case to clarify the terminal state of ADSSL1 myopathy.
Keywords: ADSSL1 myopathy; Autopsy; Bright tongue sign; Brugada syndrome; Pathology.
Publication
Journal: Talanta
October/11/2021
Abstract
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based on plasmonic metal nanoparticles and semiconductors has been used as performance-enhancing structures for sensing trace chemicals. We have selected a case of oxide functional oxide organic nanostructure between ZnFe2O4 and ZnO, denoted as ZZF. By decorating such nanostructure with AuNPs, to identify R6G in varying concentrations (10-6 M - 10-12 M), an enhancement factor of 1.6 × 108 was observed. The material was used for the identification of melamine in the concentration range of 0.39 μM-7.92 μM. This high-performance nanocomposite provides improved melamine sensitivity towards SERS and the limit of detection as low as 0.39 μM. The Au-ZZF SERS substrate can yield a SERS enhancement factor of 1.37 × 107. The experimental performance demonstrates that excellent SERS enhancement is due to electrons movement within ZZF and Au nanoparticles. Owing to its easy and effective synthesis methodology, this sensitive and specific SERS substrate is a promising technique to detect trace chemicals. We further study the best energetically favorable orientation of melamine molecules over the substrate leading to the SERS activity using density functional theoretical study.
Keywords: Melamine; R6G; SERS; Semiconductor.
Publication
Journal: Clinics
October/11/2021
Abstract
Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) often have involvement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) during their disease course. Active arthritis of the TMJ remains difficult to assess. Clinical signs and symptoms alone are unreliable, and active TMJ arthritis needs confirmation by gadolinium-enhanced MRI. In recent years, changes in treatment approach have occurred. This article discusses the latest evidence on diagnosis and treatment of JIA-associated TMJ arthritis.
Keywords: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis; Temporomandibular joint; Temporomandibular joint arthritis; Temporomandibular joint involvement; Treatment.
Publication
Journal: Talanta
October/11/2021
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an essential role in regulating various physiological functions of living organisms. Superoxide anion (O2-.), one kind of ROS, is the single-electron reduction product of oxygen molecules, which mainly exists in plants and animals, and is closely related to many inflammatory diseases. In the field of biomedicine, with the deepening understanding of superoxide anion, more and more detection methods have been developed. This review mainly introduces the detection techniques for superoxide anion in recent years.
Keywords: Biomedicine; Detection; Inflammation; Reactive oxygen species (ROS); Superoxide anion radical (O(2)(−.)).
Publication
Journal: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
October/11/2021
Abstract
Ethical considerations surrounding clinical research have been a topic of intense debate and discussion for many years, however, issues specific to the surgeon-scientist are rarely discussed. This article summarizes ethical issues pertinent to the surgeon-scientist including conflicts of interest, use of human biospecimens, data integrity, manuscript authorship, and mentorship for trainees. The methods include a review of the current and past literature on each of these topics with a brief overview of how it relates to the surgeon-scientist. Case examples are provided throughout to provide further discussion points related to the topic. The purpose of this review is to promote awareness of the ethical challenges that the surgeon-scientist faces when engaging in basic science research in order to spark discussion and encourage integrity and ethical behavior.
Keywords: Ethics; Research; Surgeon-scientist.
Publication
Journal: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
October/11/2021
Abstract
The concept of culture includes many defining characteristics such race, ethnicity, gender, identity, socioeconomic status, beliefs, traditions, and habits. Multiculturalism is a concept that allows for respect, understanding and acknowledgement of a diversity of identities. The cases discussed in this manuscript indicate the importance of multiculturalism in the practice of pediatric surgery.
Keywords: Clinical ethics; Multiculturalism; Pediatric surgery.
Publication
Journal: Heart
October/11/2021
Abstract
Keywords: epidemiology; risk factors.
Publication
Journal: Acta Reumatol Port
October/11/2021
Publication
Journal: An Pediatr (Engl Ed)
October/11/2021
Publication
Journal: Nature Communications
October/11/2021
Abstract
GTPases are regulators of cell signaling acting as molecular switches. The translational GTPase EF-G stands out, as it uses GTP hydrolysis to generate force and promote the movement of the ribosome along the mRNA. The key unresolved question is how GTP hydrolysis drives molecular movement. Here, we visualize the GTPase-powered step of ongoing translocation by time-resolved cryo-EM. EF-G in the active GDP-Pi form stabilizes the rotated conformation of ribosomal subunits and induces twisting of the sarcin-ricin loop of the 23 S rRNA. Refolding of the GTPase switch regions upon Pi release initiates a large-scale rigid-body rotation of EF-G pivoting around the sarcin-ricin loop that facilitates back rotation of the ribosomal subunits and forward swiveling of the head domain of the small subunit, ultimately driving tRNA forward movement. The findings demonstrate how a GTPase orchestrates spontaneous thermal fluctuations of a large RNA-protein complex into force-generating molecular movement.
Publication
Journal: Talanta
October/11/2021
Abstract
A rapid detection test for SARS-CoV-2 is urgently required to monitor virus spread and containment. Here, we describe a test that uses nanoprobes, which are gold nanoparticles functionalized with an aptamer specific to the spike membrane protein of SARS-CoV-2. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirms aptamer binding with the spike protein on gold surfaces. Protein recognition occurs by adding a coagulant, where nanoprobes with no bound protein agglomerate while those with sufficient bound protein do not. Using plasmon absorbance spectra, the nanoprobes detect 16 nM and higher concentrations of spike protein in phosphate-buffered saline. The time-varying light absorbance is examined at 540 nm to determine the critical coagulant concentration required to agglomerates the nanoprobes, which depends on the protein concentration. This approach detects 3540 genome copies/μl of inactivated SARS-CoV-2.
Keywords: Aptamer; Biosensing; Gold nanoparticle; SARS-CoV-2; Spike protein; Surface plasmon resonance.
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Publication
Journal: Trends in Microbiology
October/11/2021
Abstract
In recent decades, RNA-based therapeutics have transitioned from a near impossibility to a compelling treatment alternative for genetic disorders and infectious diseases. The mRNA vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are truly groundbreaking, and new adaptations are already being proposed to fight other microbes. Unfortunately, the potential of RNA-based therapeutics to treat human fungal infections has remained mostly absent from the conversation, despite the fact that invasive fungal infections kill as many per year as tuberculosis and even more than malaria. Here, we argue that RNA-based therapeutics should be investigated for the treatment of human fungal infections and discuss several major roadblocks and potential circumventions that may allow for the realization of RNA-based therapies against human fungal pathogens.
Keywords: RNA-based therapeutics; antifungal; fungal infection; fungi; medical mycology.
Publication
Journal: Clinics
October/11/2021
Abstract
Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis, or its most severe form, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, is an autoinflammatory bone disease that causes skeletal inflammation characterized by bone pain and swelling that primarily affects children. It is a diagnosis of exclusion and its clinical presentation may mimic underlying infectious processes and malignancy. Clinical suspicion for this diagnosis and timely referral to pediatric rheumatology is crucial to achieve earlier diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and improved quality of life of affected patients and families. This article focuses on recent insights into the pathogenesis of chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis and outlines recent advances and ongoing research.
Keywords: Autoinflammatory bone disease; Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis; Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.
Publication
Journal: Clinics
October/11/2021
Abstract
Children and adolescents with localized scleroderma (LS) are at high risk for extracutaneous-related functional impairment including hemiatrophy, arthropathy, seizures, and vision impairment. Compared with adult-onset LS, pediatric disease has a higher likelihood for poor outcome, with extracutaneous involvement twice as prevalent in linear scleroderma, disease relapses more common, and disease duration more than double. Consensus among pediatric rheumatologists on treating patients at risk for significant morbidity with systemic immunosuppressants has led to major improvements in outcome. This review discusses recent progress in assessment and treatment strategies and in our understanding of key disease pathways.
Keywords: Extracutaneous involvement; Linear scleroderma; Morphea; Outcome; Pathophysiology; Pediatric scleroderma; Treatment; en coup de sabre.
Publication
Journal: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism
October/11/2021
Abstract
Exposure to direct or contextual adversities during early life programs the functioning of the brain and other biological systems, contributing to the development of physical as well as mental health issues in the long term. While the role of glucocorticoids in mediating the outcomes of early adversity has been explored for many years, less attention has been given to insulin. Beyond its metabolic effects in the periphery, central insulin action affects synaptic plasticity, brain neurotransmission, and executive functions. Knowledge about the interactions between the peripheral metabolism and brain function from a developmental perspective can contribute to prevention and diagnosis programs, as well as early interventions for vulnerable populations.
Keywords: brain; early adversity; executive function; insulin.
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