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Publication
Journal: JMIR mHealth and uHealth
May/6/2021
Abstract
Background: Parents juggling caregiving and paid employment encounter a range of barriers in providing healthy food to their families. Mobile apps have the potential to help parents in planning, purchasing, and preparing healthy family food. The utility and acceptability of apps for supporting parents are unknown. User perspectives of existing technology, such as commercially available apps, can guide the development of evidence-based apps in the future.
Objective: This study aims to determine the feasibility of existing commercially available apps for supporting the healthy food provision practices of working parents.
Methods: Working parents (N=133) were recruited via the web and completed a 10-item Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, and Behavior (COM-B) self-evaluation survey assessing their needs in relation to the provision of healthy family meals. A total of 5 apps were selected for testing, including a meal planning app, recipe app, recipe manager app, family organizer app, and barcode scanning app. Survey items were mapped to app features, with a subsample of parents (67/133, 50.4%) allocated 2 apps each to trial simultaneously over 4 weeks. A semistructured interview exploring app utility and acceptability and a web-based survey, including the System Usability Scale and the user version of the Mobile App Rating Scale, followed app testing. The interview data were analyzed using a theoretical thematic approach.
Results: Survey participants (N=133; mean age 34 years, SD 4 years) were mainly mothers (130/133, 97.7%) and partnered (122/133, 91.7%). Participants identified a need for healthy recipes (109/133, 82% agreed or strongly agreed) and time for food provision processes (107/133, 80.5%). Engagement quality was the lowest rated domain of the user version of the Mobile App Rating Scale across all 5 apps (mean score per app ranging from 3.0 to 3.7 out of a maximum of 5). The family organizer, requiring a high level of user input, was rated the lowest for usability (median 48, IQR 34-73). In the interviews, participants weighed the benefits of the apps (ie, time saving) against the effort involved in using them in determining their acceptability. Organization was a subtheme emerging from interviews, associated with the use of meal planners and shopping lists. Meal planners and shopping lists were used in time, while behavior was occurring.
Conclusions: Meal planning apps and features promoting organization present feasible, time-saving solutions to support healthy food provision practices. Attention must be paid to enhancing app automation and integration, as well as recipe and nutrition content, to ensure that apps do not add to the time burden of food provision and are supportive of healthy food provision behavior in time.
Keywords: behavior modification; diet; family; mobile applications; nutrition.
Publication
Journal: British Journal of Radiology
May/6/2021
Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the utility and efficacy of MR neurography (MRN) in the diagnostic work-up for intercostal neuralgia and to assess the treatment course and outcomes in MRN-imaged clinically suspected intercostal neuropathy cases of chronic chest and abdominal wall pain syndromes.
Methods: Following a retrospective cross-sectional study, a consecutive series of patients who underwent MRN of torso for suspected intercostal neuralgia were included. Patient demographics, pain location/level/duration, previous work-up for the same indication, MRN imaging results, and MRN cost per patient were recorded. An inter-reader reliability assessment was performed on the MRN findings using Cohen's weighted κ analysis. Post-MRN treatment choice, as well as success rates of MRN directed perineural injections and surgical management were also evaluated.
Results: A total of 28 patients (mean ± SD age, 48.3 ± 18.0 years, female/male = 3.0) were included. Pain and/or numbness in the right upper quadrant were the most common complaints. The mean maximum pain level experienced was 7.4 ± 2.5 on a 1 (lowest pain level) - 10 (highest pain level) visual analog scale. The duration of pain before MRN work-up was 36.9 ± 37.9 months. The patients had seen an average of 5 ± 2.8 physicians for such syndromes. 20 (71%) patients had one or multiple other imaging studies for prior work-up. MRN identified positive intercostal nerve abnormality in 19 cases with clinical symptoms of intercostal neuralgia. From the inter-reader reliability assessment, a Cohen's weighted κ value of 0.78 was obtained. The costs of work-up was about one-third with MRN for diagnostic purposes with less financial and psychological harm. Among the MRN-positive cases, 9/19 patients received perineural injections, of which 6 reported improvement after their first round, lasting an average of 41.1 ± 83 days. Among the nine MRN-negative cases, two received perineural injections, of which none reported improvement. Surgical management was mostly successful with a positive outcome in six out of seven operated cases (85.7%).
Conclusion: MRN is useful in diagnostic algorithm of intercostal neuralgia and MRN-positive cases demonstrate favorable treatment response to perineural injections and subsequent surgical management.
Advances in knowledge: The use of MRN in intercostal neuralgia is an application that has not been previously explored in the literature. This study demonstrates that MRN offers superior visualization of pathology in intercostal neuralgia and confirms that treatment directed at MRN identified neuropathy results in good outcomes while maintaining cost efficiency.
Publication
Journal: Future Microbiology
May/6/2021
Abstract
Aim: To determine the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Escherichia coli in South Asia. Methodology: A systematic review and meta-analysis of data published in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Scopus. Results: The pooled prevalence of ESBL and MBL-producing E. coli in South Asia were 33% (95% CI: 27-40%) and 17% (95% CI: 12-24%), respectively. The prevalence of blaCTX-M type was 58% (95% CI: 49-66%) with blaCTX-M-15 being the most prevalent (51%, 95% CI: 40-62%) variant. The most prevalent MBL variant was blaNDM-1 (33%, 95% CI: 20-50%). Conclusion: This study suggests a high prevalence of ESBLs and MBLs among E. coli clinical isolates. Comprehensive resistance surveillance is required to guide clinicians prescribing antibiotics in South Asia.
Keywords: Escherichia coli; South Asia; extended-spectrum β-lactamase; meta-analysis; metallo-β-lactamase; prevalence.
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Publication
Journal: Surgical Innovation
May/6/2021
Abstract
Current experience suggests that artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) may be useful in the management of hospitalized patients, including those with COVID-19. In light of the challenges faced with diagnostic and prognostic indicators in SARS-CoV-2 infection, our center has developed an international clinical protocol to collect standardized thoracic point of care ultrasound data in these patients for later AI/ML modeling. We surmise that in the future AI/ML may assist in the management of SARS-CoV-2 patients potentially leading to improved outcomes, and to that end, a corpus of curated ultrasound images and linked patient clinical metadata is an invaluable research resource.
Keywords: biomedical engineering; radiologist; surgical education.
Publication
Journal: Ital J Dermatol Venerol
May/6/2021
Abstract
Pemphigus comprises a heterogeneous group of autoimmune blistering diseases, which can affect both skin and mucous membranes, especially oral mucosa. This group of diseases shows usually a chronic-relapsing course. Since pemphigus is a rare disease, the diagnosis is often delayed, because it is based upon the recognition of consistent clinical, histologic, and direct immunofluorescence findings, as well as indirect immunofluorescence, and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Usually the patients are treated for multiple other conditions before starting the correct therapy, leading to a critical reduction of the patients' quality of life. This review is a succinct compilation of pearls gathered from clinical experience in pemphigus and the myths that may have influenced everyday practice but have been proven false. This review provided a selection of such dilemmas and controversies, focusing on myths and pearls that can help young dermatologist in the clinic, while also dispelling them.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry A
May/6/2021
Abstract
We theoretically study the dynamics of charge transfer induced by femtosecond laser-pulse excitation. Models involving coupled electronic states of symmetrically bridged organic mixed-valence molecules are investigated, where the motion proceeds along two reaction coordinates. Linear absorption spectra of two species that differ in the energetical position of the bridge, relative to acceptor and donor states, are determined and compared to experimental results. From the wave packet dynamics it emerges that relaxation dominates the charge transfer. This behavior is reflected in transient absorption spectra, which are obtained from a directional decomposition of the time-dependent polarization. Due to the nature of the coupled dynamics the extraction of the relevant contributions needs an extension of well-known techniques for the decomposition.
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Publication
Journal: AJOB Neuroscience
May/6/2021
Publication
Journal: AJOB Neuroscience
May/6/2021
Publication
Journal: Journal of Urology
May/6/2021
Publication
Journal: Journal of Urology
May/6/2021
Publication
Journal: Food and Function
May/6/2021
Abstract
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that commences as inflammation and progressively destroys the articular joint. In this study, we assess the anti-rheumatic potential of the monoterpenoid class of thymol conjugated with Carbon Dots (CDs). Waste biomass in the form of dried rose petals was chosen as a precursor for the synthesis of CDs via a one-step hydrothermal bottom-up methodology. The prepared CDs exhibited absorption in the near-visible region, and unique excitation-dependent emission behaviour was confirmed from UV-Visible and fluorescence measurements. The surface morphology of CDs was confirmed by SEM and HR-TEM analysis to be quasi-spherical particles with an average size of ∼5-6 nm. The presence of various functional moieties (hydroxyl, carbonyl, and amino) was confirmed via FT-IR measurement. The graphitization of CDs was confirmed by the D and G bands for sp2 and sp3 hybridization, respectively, through Raman analysis. Esterification methodology was adopted to prepare the CDs-thymol conjugate and confirmed via FT-IR analysis. CDs play the role of a nanocarrier for thymol, an anti-arthritic agent. The bioactive compound of thymol showed potent anti-arthritic activity against RA targets through in silico docking studies. Further, the in vivo studies revealed that CDs-thymol conjugates (10 mg per kg body weight) showed a significant reduction in rat paw volume along with reduced levels of RF and CRP (2.23 ± 0.42 IU ml-1 and 16.96 ± 0.22 mg ml-1) when compared to the disease control rats. X-ray radiography and ultrasonic imaging revealed less bone destruction, joint derangement, and swelling in arthritis-induced Wistar rats. They could also potentially improve the Hb (14.14 ± 0.19), RBC (6.01 ± 0.11), PCV (6.01 ± 0.11) levels and elevate the status of antioxidant enzymes (GPx, SOD, MDA), and the activity was comparable to the standard drug, ibuprofen (10 mg kg-1), suggesting that the CDs-thymol conjugate at 10 mg kg-1 could act as a strong anti-arthritic agent. This work is evidence for the utilization of waste biomass as a value-added product such as a nanocarrier for biomedical applications.
Publication
Journal: Biochemical Journal
May/6/2021
Abstract
Human hepatic tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (hTDO) is a homotetrameric hemoprotein. It is one of the most rapidly degraded liver proteins with a half-life (t1/2) of ~2.3 h, relative to an average t1/2 of ~2-3 days for total liver protein. The molecular mechanism underlying the poor longevity of hTDO remains elusive. Previously, we showed that hTDO could be recognized and ubiquitinated by two E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligases, gp78/AMFR and CHIP, and subsequently degraded via Ub-dependent proteasomal degradation (UPD) pathway. Additionally, we identified 15 ubiquitination K sites and demonstrated that Trp-binding to an exosite impeded its proteolytic degradation. Here we further established autophagic lysosomal degradation (ALD) as an alternative back-up pathway for cellular hTDO degradation. In addition, with protein kinases A and C, we identified 13 phosphorylated Ser/Thr (pS/pT) sites. Mapping these pS/pT sites on the hTDO surface revealed their propinquity to acidic Asp/Glu (D/E) residues engendering negatively charged DEpSpT clusters vicinal to the ubiquitination K sites over the entire protein surface. Through site-directed mutagenesis of positively charged patches of gp78, previously documented to interact with the DEpSpT clusters in other target proteins, we uncovered the likely role of the DEpSpT clusters in the molecular recognition of hTDO by gp78 and plausibly other E3 Ub-ligases. Furthermore, cycloheximide-chase analyses revealed the critical structural relevance of the disordered N- and C-termini not only in the Ub-ligase recognition, but also in the proteasome engagement. Together, the surface DEpSpT clusters and the N- and C-termini constitute an intrinsic bipartite degron for hTDO physiological turnover.
Keywords: Human tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase; Ub-dependent proteasomal degradation; a-methyltryptophan; disordered termini; exosite; surface DEpSpT-clusters.
Publication
Journal: Biochemical Society Transactions
May/6/2021
Abstract
Renal ciliopathies are a heterogenous group of inherited disorders leading to an array of phenotypes that include cystic kidney disease and renal interstitial fibrosis leading to progressive chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease. The renal tubules are lined with epithelial cells that possess primary cilia that project into the lumen and act as sensory and signalling organelles. Mutations in genes encoding ciliary proteins involved in the structure and function of primary cilia cause ciliopathy syndromes and affect many organ systems including the kidney. Recognised disease phenotypes associated with primary ciliopathies that have a strong renal component include autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney disease and their various mimics, including atypical polycystic kidney disease and nephronophthisis. The molecular investigation of inherited renal ciliopathies often allows a precise diagnosis to be reached where renal histology and other investigations have been unhelpful and can help in determining kidney prognosis. With increasing molecular insights, it is now apparent that renal ciliopathies form a continuum of clinical phenotypes with disease entities that have been classically described as dominant or recessive at both extremes of the spectrum. Gene-dosage effects, hypomorphic alleles, modifier genes and digenic inheritance further contribute to the genetic complexity of these disorders. This review will focus on recent molecular genetic advances in the renal ciliopathy field with a focus on cystic kidney disease phenotypes and the genotypes that lead to them. We discuss recent novel insights into underlying disease mechanisms of renal ciliopathies that might be amenable to therapeutic intervention.
Keywords: atypical cystic kidney disease; autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; cilia; cystic kidney disease; nephronophthisis.
Publication
Journal: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
May/6/2021
Abstract
Ni-rich layered oxides, like LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 (NCM811), have been widely investigated as cathodes due to their high energy density. However, gradual structural transformation during cycling can lead to capacity degradation and potential decay of cathode materials. Herein, we doped high-valence transition metal (TM) ions (V5+, Nb5+, and Zr4+) at the Ni site of NCM811 by first principles simulations and explored the mechanism of doping TMs in NCMs for enhancing the electrochemical performance. Analysis of the calculations shows that doping V, Nb and Zr has an efficient influence on alleviating the Ni oxidation, reducing the loss of oxygen, and facilitating Li+ migration. Moreover, V doping can further suppress the lattice distortion due to the radius of V5+ being close to the radius of Mn4+. In particular, compared with the barrier of the pristine NCM in Li divacancy, the barrier of V-doped NCM reaches the lowest. In conclusion, V is the most favorable dopant for NCM811 to improve the electrochemical properties and achieve both high capacity and cycling stability.
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Publication
Journal: Dalton Transactions
May/6/2021
Abstract
Herein, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to explore the reaction mechanism of three cascade cycles for the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to methanol (CO2 + 3H2 → CH3OH + H2O) catalyzed by a manganese pincer complex [Mn(Ph2PCH2SiMe2)2N(CO)2]. The three cascade cycles involve: the hydrogenation of CO2 to formic acid, the hydrogenation of formic acid to methanediol and the decomposition of methanediol to formaldehyde and water, and the hydrogenation of formaldehyde to methanol. The calculated results demonstrate that hydrogen activation is the rate-determining step of each catalytic cycle under solvent-free conditions, and the energy span of the whole reaction is 27.1 kcal mol-1. Furthermore, the solvent was found to be of importance in this reaction. In three different solvents, the rate-determining steps of this reaction are all the hydrogen transfer step of the formic acid hydrogenation stage, and the corresponding energy spans in water, toluene and THF solvents are 21.3, 20.8 and 20.4 kcal mol-1, respectively. Such a low energy span implies that this manganese complex could be a promising catalyst for the efficient conversion of CO2 and H2 to methanol at temperatures below 100-150 °C.
Publication
Journal: Dalton Transactions
May/6/2021
Abstract
Treatment of bis(arylimino)acenaphthene (ArBIAN) with Ni(COD)2 in toluene afforded dmpBIANNi(COD) (2a, dmp = 2,6-Me2C6H3) and dippBIANNi(COD) (2b, dipp = 2,6-iPrC6H3), respectively, in moderate yields. Complexes 2a and 2b can be oxidized by a small amount of oxygen at low temperature leading to oxygen-bridged dinuclear Ni(ii) complexes (dmpBIANNi)2(μ-O)2 (4a) and (dippBIANNi)2(μ-O)2 (4b), respectively, as a purple powder. The reaction of ArBIAN with 0.5 equiv of Ni(COD)2 or Ni(Ph3P)4 gave bisligated complexes (dmpBIAN)2Ni (3a) and (dippBIAN)2Ni (3b), which can be considered as Ni(0) complexes supported by two neutral BIAN ligands. Oxidation of the bisligated nickel complexes 3a and 3b with [Cp2Fe][B(C6F5)4] afforded cationic Ni(i) complexes [(dmpBIAN)2Ni][B(C6F5)4] (5a) and [(dippBIAN)2Ni][B(C6F5)4] (5b), respectively, in which the Ni(i) centre is chelated by two neutral Ar-BIAN ligands. These complexes were characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopy and DFT calculation, and the molecular structures of 3b, 4b, and 5b were well established by X-ray diffraction analysis. These complexes were evaluated as catalysts for ethylene polymerization in which 2b showed high activity in the presence of AlMe3. 13C NMR analysis of polymers showed that the 2b/AlMe3 catalytic system gave less-branched polymers when compared to that obtained with dippBIANNiBr2 under the same conditions.
Publication
Journal: Biochemical Society Transactions
May/6/2021
Abstract
Missense mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2) gene represent the most common cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). In the years LRRK2 has been associated with several organelles and related pathways in cell. However, despite the significant amount of research done in the past decade, the contribution of LRRK2 mutations to PD pathogenesis remains unknown. Growing evidence highlights that LRRK2 controls multiple processes in brain immune cells, microglia and astrocytes, and suggests that deregulated LRRK2 activity in these cells, due to gene mutation, might be directly associated with pathological mechanisms underlying PD. In this brief review, we recapitulate and update the last LRRK2 functions dissected in microglia and astrocytes. Moreover, we discuss how dysfunctions of LRRK2-related pathways may impact glia physiology and their cross-talk with neurons, thus leading to neurodegeneration and progression of PD.
Keywords: LRRK2; Parkinson's disease; astrocytes; glia; microglia.
Publication
Journal: Faraday Discussions
May/6/2021
Abstract
This introduction to the Faraday Discussion on carbon dioxide utilization (CDU) provides a framework to lay out the need for CDU, the opportunities, boundary conditions, potential pitfalls, and critical needs to advance the required technologies in the time needed. CDU as a mainstream climate-relevant solution is gaining rapid traction as measured by the increase in the number of related publications, the investment activity, and the political action taken in various countries.
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Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases
May/6/2021
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Publication
Journal: Drug Delivery
May/6/2021
Abstract
Itraconazole (ITC), a well-tolerated antifungal drug, exerts multiple anticancer effects which justified its preclinical and clinical investigation as potential anti-cancer agent with reduced side effects. Enhancement of ITC anti-cancer efficacy would bring valuable benefits to patients. We propose herein lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) modified with a subtherapeutic dose of miltefosine (MFS) as a membrane bioactive amphiphilic additive (M-ITC-LNC) for the development of an ITC nanoformulation with enhanced anticancer activity compared with ITC solution (ITC-sol) and unmodified ITC-LNC. Both LNC formulations showed a relatively small size (43-46 nm) and high entrapment efficiency (>97%), though ITC release was more sustained by M-ITC-LNC. Cytotoxicity studies revealed significantly greater anticancer activity and selectivity of M-ITC-LNC for MCF-7 breast cancer cells compared with ITC-sol and ITC-LNC. This trend was substantiated by in vivo findings following a 14 day-treatment of murine mammary pad Ehrlich tumors. M-ITC-LNC showed the greatest enhancement of the ITC-induced tumor growth inhibition, proliferation, and necrosis. At the molecular level, the tumor content of Gli 1, caspase-3, and vascular endothelial growth factor verified superiority of M-ITC-LNC in enhancing the ITC antiangiogenic, apoptotic, and Hedgehog pathway inhibitory effects. Finally, histopathological and biochemical analysis indicated greater reduction of ITC systemic toxicity by M-ITC-LNC. Superior performance of M-ITC-LNC was attributed to the effect of MFS on the structural and release properties of LNC coupled with its distinct bioactivities. In conclusion, MFS-modified LNC provides a simple nanoplatform integrating the potentials of LNC and MFS for enhancing the chemotherapeutic efficacy of ITC and possibly other oncology drugs.
Keywords: Ehrlich tumor; Itraconazole; MCF-7 cells; biomarkers; breast cancer; lipid nanocapsules; miltefosine.
Publication
Journal: Environmental Research
May/6/2021
Abstract
A new subset of furan-pyrazole piperidine derivatives was used for QSAR model development. These compounds exhibit good Akt1 inhibitory activity; moreover, antiproliferative activities in vitro against OVCAR-8 (Human ovarian carcinoma cells) and HCT116 (human colon cancer cells), were confirmed for them. Based on the relevant three-dimensional (3D) and 2D autocorrelation descriptors, selected by genetic algorithm (GA), multiple linear regression (MLR) was established on half maximal-inhibitory concentration (IC50), in Akt1 and cancer cell lines independently. Robustness, stability, and predictive ability of the models were evaluated using external and internal validation (r2: 0.742-0.832, Q2LOO: 0.684-0.796, RMSE: 0.247-0.299, F: 32.283-57.578, and r2y-random: 0.049-0.080). Furthermore, in the new strategy, each of the evaluated models was generalized to two other subfamilies of piperidines to simultaneously compare the activities and structural similarity of these three subsets. Probably, structural similarity can be more considered as a criterion of similarity in the mechanism of action. Also, external verification of suggested predictive models was performed by another subset. Finally, by focusing on M64 as the most potent in vivo antitumor compound, 15 new derivatives were designed and six potent candidates were proposed for further investigation.
Keywords: GA-MLR; Williams plot-based analyses; conformational restriction; furan-pyrazole piperidines; structure-based drug design; three-dimensional descriptors.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Toxicology
May/6/2021
Abstract
Downregulation of the apoptotic protein DNA fragmentation factor 40 (DFF40) is correlated with poor overall survival in some malignancies, including melanoma. In this study, DFF40 gene expression driven by survivin promoter, a tumor-specific promoter, was used to selectively induce cytotoxicity in melanoma cells. The activity and strength of survivin promoter were examined in B16F10 murine melanoma, and L929 murine normal fibroblast cell lines using enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The effect of expression of DFF40 under the control of cytomegalovirus (CMV) or survivin promoter on viability of cancerous and normal cells was determined by MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide] assay. Apoptosis induction by expression of DFF40 was evaluated using Annexin-V/propidium iodide staining. Our findings showed high activity of survivin promoter comparable to the control promoter (ie, CMV) in melanoma cells, while survivin activity in normal cells was negligible. Survivin promoter-derived DFF40 gene expression led to selective inhibition of cell viability and induction of apoptosis in cancerous cells. Low and sublethal concentrations of a chemotherapeutic drug, dacarbazine, significantly enhanced the growth inhibitory effect of DFF40 gene therapy. Combination of survivin-driven gene therapy and chemotherapy could be considered as a potential therapeutic treatment for melanoma and possibly other malignancies with similar features.
Keywords: DFF40; chemotherapy; gene therapy; melanoma; survivin; tumor-specific promoter.
Publication
Journal: Substance Use and Misuse
May/6/2021
Abstract
The transition to college is an important developmental phase, usually met with increased social desirability, access to alcohol, and new peer groups. Recently, research has utilized social media as a predictor of events during college, but few have assessed how social media can influence alcohol use during the transition to college. Methods: Participants (N = 320) were recruited prior to entering their first year of college. Participants were 18 years old, 60.7% were women, with 46.3% identifying as White, 16.5% Hispanic, 14.9% Asian, 9.5% Black, and 7.6% other. Each participant was assessed three times: prior to matriculation, first semester, and second semester of their freshman year. We assessed the effect of exposure to alcohol content via social media on long-term trajectories of alcohol use. We also assessed self-reported sex as a moderator. Results: Exposure to alcohol content (over and above one's own posting of alcohol content) was associated with greater frequency of drinking during the transition to college. In the multi-group model, exposure to alcohol content was associated with greater drinking prior to matriculation for men. However, for women, exposure to alcohol content was associated with greater alcohol use in the first semester of college. Conclusion: Our results indicate exposure to alcohol-related media content is a strong predictor, over and above one's own positing, of increased drinking, and this effect varies by sex and point in time. Our results lend support for more tailored and time-specific prevention programming for incoming freshmen that should integrate social media normative feedback.
Keywords: Social media; alcohol exposure; alcohol use; college transition; sex differences.
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Journal: Natural Product Research
May/6/2021
Abstract
The study aimed to evaluate trace elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) concentrations and fatty acids of three Black Sea bivalve species - Donax trunculus, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Chamelea gallina as well as human health risk and benefit-risk ratio based on n-3 LC-PUFA vs. toxic/essential elements. The results showed variations in the element concentrations among the analysed species. D. trunculus generally contained higher levels of the essential elements Cu and Zn, while C. gallina - higher Cr and Fe. Toxic elements content did not exceed the international standards for mollusks. D. trunculus and C. gallina were better dietary sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, with approximately two-fold higher EPA + DHA content than M. galloprovincialis. Health risks for most toxic and essential elements exposed from bivalve consumption were safe based on THQ, HI and TR indices. The benefit-risk ratio indicated that studied species are safe for human consumption, except one case.
Keywords: Black Sea; bivalves; fatty acids; human health risk; risk-benefit; trace elements.
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