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Pubmed
Journal: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology
October/14/2019
Abstract
While antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been detected in extreme environments, including Antarctica, to date there are no reports of Acinetobacter species isolated from this region. Here, we characterized by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) the genetic content of a single antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolate (A154) collected in Antarctica. The isolate was recovered in 2013 from soil samples at Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica, and was identified by detection of the intrinsic OXA-23 gene, and confirmed by Tetra Correlation Search (TCS) and WGS. The antibiotic susceptibility profile was determined by disc diffusion, E-test, and broth microdilution methods. From WGS data, the acquired resistome and insertion sequence (IS) content were identified by in silico analyses. Plasmids were studied by the alkaline lysis method followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and conventional PCR. The A154 isolate was identified as A. radioresistens by WGS analysis and displayed >99.9 of similarity by TCS in relation with the databases. Moreover, it was resistant to ampicillin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefepime, cefotaxime, streptomycin, and kanamycin. Likewise, in addition to the intrinsic blaOXA-23-like gene, A154 harbored the plasmid-encoded antibiotic-resistance genes blaPER-2, tet(B), aph(3')-Vla, strA, and strB, as well as a large diversity of ISs. This is the first report of antibiotic-resistant A. radioresistens in Antarctica. Our findings show the presence of several resistance genes which could be either intrinsic or acquired in the region.
Pubmed
Journal: Preventive nutrition and food science
October/14/2019
Abstract
Vitamin E, phytosterol, and phospholipids are classes of lipids that are also referred to as nutraceuticals. These lipids are components of foods, which have nutritional as well as numerous other health benefits, and consumption has been shown to prevent certain deadly diseases. These compounds can only be obtained from plant products; there is therefore a need for more research on the availability of these compounds from common food sources. Oils extracted from Citrullus colocynthis and Parkia biglobosa seeds were analysed for vitamin E, phospholipid, and phytosterol contents using a chromatographic technique. The seeds had total vitamin E contents of 53.47 and 42.57 mg/100 g, phytosterol contents of 260 and 451 mg/100 g, and phospholipid contents of 409 and 1,603 mg/100 g for C. colocynthis and P. biglobosa, respectively. Thus, consumption of these two plants as condiments will help people consume these essential lipids and could serve as dietary supplements to prevent and combat occurrence of certain deadly diseases; this is important as the world is revolving towards disease prevention rather than curing, which is often more expensive and difficult.
Pubmed
Journal: Preventive nutrition and food science
October/14/2019
Abstract
In this study we investigated the antidiabetic and antiobesity effects of aqueous ethanol extracts of traditional kochujang and doenjang. The average α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and adipogenesis inhibitory activity for the kochujang samples were 29.6% and 20.8%, respectively, while those of the doenjang samples were 46.3% and 11.6%, respectively. Therefore, antidiabetic activity is high in doenjang and antiobesity activity is high in kochujang. Kochujang and doenjang components responsible for suppressing the functional effects were investigated by metabolomic analysis. For kochujang, p-coumaric acid, N6,N6,N6-trimethyllysine, threonine, and methionine positively correlated with inhibition of adipogenesis activity, whereas for doenjang, betaine and betaine aldehyde were thought to be responsible for the antidiabetic effects. As p-coumaric acid and betaine were the most probable candidates with functional effects, these two compounds were selected for further analysis. Inhibition of adipogenesis was shown to be 14.0±1.85% for betaine chloride and 38.3±3.27% for p-coumaric acid, suggesting that p-coumaric acid is more effective than betaine against obesity. However, betaine exhibited higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than p-coumaric acid. Our results suggest that both kochujang and doenjang can be used against diabetes and obesity. However, clinical trials are necessary to support these results.
Pubmed
Journal: Preventive nutrition and food science
October/14/2019
Abstract
De-glycosylation could be an important process for enhancing the biological activities of flavonoids. In this study we investigated de-glycosylation of rutin by acid treatment by comparing hydrolysis of rutin to quercetin with two different solvents and acid concentrations. Antioxidant activity was measured using chemical methods and biological activities were examined in cell-based systems. Rutin hydrolysis occurred more rapidly when 80% ethanol was used as the reaction solvent (as compared to water), and the rate of hydrolysis accelerated as acid concentrations increased. In reactions of rutin with 0.5 M HCl in 80% ethanol for 3 h, almost all the rutin was converted into quercetin. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging activities, and reducing powers were correlated with conversion rate. Protective activity in HepG2 cells, anti-inflammatory activity in RAW264.7 cells, and antiadipogenic activity were increased with increased conversion of rutin to quercetin. This study suggests that de-glycosylation of glycoside flavonoids may increase physiological activity and, therefore, enhance its use in various fields.
Pubmed
Journal: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology
October/14/2019
Abstract
For a long time Leishmaniasis had been considered as a neglected tropical disease. Recently, it has become a priority in public health all over the world for different aspects such as geographic spread, number of population living at risk of infection as well as the potential lethality and/or the development of disfiguring lesions in the, respectively, visceral and tegumentary forms of the disease. As a result, several groups have been bending over this issue and many valuable data have been published. Nevertheless, parasite-host interactions are still not fully known and, consequently, we do not entirely understand the infection dynamics and parasite persistence. This knowledge may point targets for modulation or blockage, being very useful in the development of measures to interfere in the course of infection/ disease and to minimize the risks and morbidity. In the present review we will discuss some aspects of the Leishmania spp-mammalian host interaction in the onset of infection and after the clinical cure of the lesions. We will also examine the information already available concerning the parasite strategy to evade immune response mainly at the beginning of the infection, as well as during the parasite persistence. This knowledge can improve the conditions of treatment, follow-up and cure control of patients, minimizing the potential damages this protozoosis can cause to infected individuals.
Pubmed
Journal: PeerJ
October/14/2019
Abstract
Short-term water submergence to soybean (Glycine max L.) create hypoxic conditions hindering plant growth and productivity. Nitric oxide (NO) is considered a stress-signalling and stress-evading molecule, however, little is known about its role during flooding stress. We elucidated the role of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitroso L-cysteine (CySNO) as NO donor in modulation of flooding stress-related bio-chemicals and genetic determinants of associated nitrosative stress to Daewon and Pungsannamul soybean cultivars after 3 h and 6 h of flooding stress. The results showed that exogenous SNP and CysNO induced glutathione activity and reduced the resulting superoxide anion contents during short-term flooding in Pungsannamul soybean. The exo- SNP and CysNO triggered the endogenous S-nitrosothiols, and resulted in elevated abscisic acid (ABA) contents in both soybean cultivars overtime. To know the role of ABA and NO related genes in short-term flooding stress, the mRNA expression of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR1), NO overproducer1 (NOX1) and nitrate reductase (NR), Timing of CAB expression1 (TOC1), and ABA-receptor (ABAR) were assessed. The transcripts accumulation of GSNOR1, NOX1, and NR being responsible for NO homeostasis, were significantly high in response to early or later phases of flooding stress. ABAR and TOC1 showed a decrease in transcript accumulation in both soybean plants treated with exogenous SNP and CySNO. The exo- SNP and CySNO could impinge a variety of biochemical and transcriptional programs that can mitigate the negative effects of short-term flooding stress in soybean.
Pubmed
Journal: PeerJ
October/14/2019
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a disease that is associated with high mortality; currently, there is no curative and reliable treatment. Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 3 (CELSR3) is the key signaling molecule in the wingless and INT-1/planar cell polarity (WNT/PCP) pathway. This study aimed to elucidate the prognostic significance of CELSR3 in HCC patients.The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) database and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were used to analyze the expression of CELSR3 mRNA in HCC samples and cells. The relationship between CELSR3 mRNA and clinical features was assessed by the chi-square test. the diagnostic and predictive value of CELSR3 mRNA expression were analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox regression analyses were performed to assess the prognostic value of CELSR3 mRNA in HCC patients. Finally, all three cohorts database was used for gene set enrichment analysis(GSEA) and the identification of CELSR3-related signal transduction pathways.

Results
The expression of CELSR3 mRNA was upregulated in HCC, and its expression was correlated with age (P = 0.025), tumor status (P = 0.022), clinical stage (P = 0.003), T classification (P = 0.010), vital status (P = 0.001), and relapse (P = 0.005). The ROC curve assessment indicated that CELSR3 mRNA expression has high diagnostic value in HCC and in the subgroup analysis of stage. In addition, the Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox analyses suggested that patients with high CELSR3 mRNA expression have a poor prognosis, indicating that CELSR3 mRNA is an independent prognostic factor for the overall survival of HCC patients. GSEA showed that GO somatic diversification of immune receptors, GO endonuclease activity, GO DNA repair complex and GO somatic cell DNA recombination, were differentially enriched in the meta-GEO cohort, the HCC cell line cohort and the TCGA cohort of the high CELSR3 mRNA expression phenotype.

Our results indicate that CELSR3 mRNA is involved in the progression of cancer and can be used as a biomarker for the prognosis of HCC patients.
Pubmed
Journal: PeerJ
October/14/2019
Abstract
Cumulative evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in tumorigenesis. This study aims to identify lncRNAs that can serve as new biomarkers for breast cancer diagnosis or screening.First, the linear fitting method was used to identify differentially expressed genes from the breast cancer RNA expression profiles in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Next, the diagnostic value of all differentially expressed lncRNAs was evaluated using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Then, the top ten lncRNAs with the highest diagnostic value were selected as core genes for clinical characteristics and prognosis analysis. Furthermore, core lncRNA-mRNA co-expression networks based on weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) were constructed, and functional enrichment analysis was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). The differential expression level and diagnostic value of core lncRNAs were further evaluated by using independent data set from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Finally, the expression status and prognostic value of core lncRNAs in various tumors were analyzed based on Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA).Seven core lncRNAs (LINC00478, PGM5-AS1, AL035610.1, MIR143HG, RP11-175K6.1, AC005550.4, and MIR497HG) have good single-factor diagnostic value for breast cancer. AC093850.2 has a prognostic value for breast cancer. AC005550.4 and MIR497HG can better distinguish breast cancer patients in early-stage from the advanced-stage. Low expression of MAGI2-AS3, LINC00478, AL035610.1, MIR143HG, and MIR145 may be associated with lymph node metastasis in breast cancer.Our study provides candidate biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer, as well as a bioinformatics basis for the further elucidation of the molecular pathological mechanism of breast cancer.
Pubmed
Journal: PeerJ
October/14/2019
Abstract
Assistive devices (ADs) are products intended to overcome the difficulties produced by the reduction in mobility and grip strength entailed by ageing and different pathologies. Nevertheless, there is little information about the effect that the use of these devices produces on hand kinematics. Thus, the aim of this work is to quantify this effect through the comparison of kinematic parameters (mean posture, ROM, median velocity and peak velocity) while performing activities of daily living (ADL) using normal products and ADs. Twelve healthy right-handed subjects performed 11 ADL with normal products and with 17 ADs wearing an instrumented glove on their right hand, 16 joint angles being recorded. ADs significantly affected hand kinematics, although the joints affected differed according to the AD. Furthermore, some pattern effects were identified depending on the characteristics of the handle of the ADs, namely, handle thickening, addition of a handle to products that initially did not have one, extension of existing handles or addition of handles to apply higher torques. An overview of the effects of these design characteristics on hand kinematics is presented as a basis for the selection of the most suitable AD depending on the patient's impairments.
Pubmed
Journal: Journal of healthcare quality research
October/14/2019
Related with
Pubmed
Journal: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
October/14/2019
Pubmed
Journal: Environmental research
October/14/2019
Abstract
Exposure to environmental chemicals has become one of the major concerns in the past decades. Phthalates are a family of synthetic organic chemicals used in the manufacture of plastics, solvents, and personal care products. These compounds are considered as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) since they may interfere with the endocrine system and disrupt its physiologic function.The purpose of this work is to synthesize results from published literature on the association between the exposure to phthalates and adiposity in adults and children.We searched PubMed from inception up to 01 August 2019, to retrieve original papers reporting data on the association between EDCs and adiposity, using the following search expression: (("Endocrine disruptor" OR Endocrine disruptor[mh] OR phthalate) AND (Obesity OR Overweight OR BMI OR "Body fat" OR Adipose tissue[mh] OR Body size[mh] OR "body size" OR "body weight" OR Anthropometry OR "anthropometric measures")) AND (humans[mh]). The study variables and characteristics were collected during data extraction, namely the study design, sample, exposure, outcome, descriptive and association measures. Study quality was assessed using the STROBE template for observational studies. Although studies examined several adiposity measures, Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC) were the most commonly used, therefore, we used the beta coefficients regarding BMI and WC, and odds ratios when BMI outcome was categorical to perform the meta-analysis. Data from the studies were combined using fixed effects meta-analyses to compute summary regression coefficients or odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the I2 statistic.In the systematic review we found 29 publications addressing the association between phthalate compounds and adiposity. The vast majority of the included studies reported associations that were not statistically significant. For most of the phthalate compounds there were few studies providing compatible measures and therefore it was not possible to combine the results in a meta-analysis. Both for BMI and WC, the meta-analysis for MiBP, MCPP and MbzP showed negative associations and null association for MBP in children, although none of them was significant. For MEP, positive but not significant associations were found both in children and adults. Conversely, for MEHP a negative association was found also in children and adults although it did not reach statistical significance. Only for MECPP a significant association was found for obesity in adults (OR = 1.67 (95% CI 1.30; 2.16).In general, a positive association between phthalates and adiposity measures was found, especially in adults. However, most of the results did not reach statistical significance and the inconsistencies found between studies did not allow to reach a definitive conclusion. Additionally, we cannot exclude a possible effect of publication bias.
Pubmed
Journal: Ecotoxicology and environmental safety
October/14/2019
Abstract
Cadmium, a typical heavy metal, causes serious toxicities on many organs and tissues. As the last partially controlled class of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), BDE209 can also induce various health issues. Although apoptosis mediated by mitochondria has been known to be a key player in inducing toxicities by cadmium, the detailed mechanisms are incompletely understood. Moreover, co-existence of cadmium and PBDEs has been found in various environment context and human body. However, studies on the joint toxicity of cadmium and PBDEs are still limited with largely unknown mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated the adverse effects and mechanisms of single or combined treatment of CdCl2 and BDE209 on hepatocytes. We observed that apoptosis were significantly induced by CdCl2, and the combined treatment of CdCl2 and BDE209 greatly promoted the progression of apoptosis. BDE209 induced mild apoptosis. Mitochondria was the pivot of several mechanisms to induce apoptosis, including ROS production, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mtDNA damage and disordered calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis. However, we found that mtDNA damage and disordered Ca2+ homeostasis were the main mechanisms for CdCl2-induced apoptosis while ROS production played important roles in BDE209-induced apoptosis. Less mtDNA damage occurred in BDE209-treated cells. In the cells with combined treatment, CdCl2 and BDE209 exhibited a complementary pattern for the underlying mechanisms of apoptosis, leading to the joint toxicities, in which CdCl2 showed more contributions. In a conclusion, our results demonstrated that combined exposure to cadmium and BDE209 causes joint adverse effects on hepatocytes through diverse mechanisms as mediated by mitochondria.
Pubmed
Journal: European journal of medicinal chemistry
October/14/2019
Abstract
A series of 2,6-diaminopyridines was synthesized for the first time, containing phosphoryl sterically hindered phenolic fragments in the aromatic core. The antioxidant activity of these compounds was investigated, 2,6-diaminopyridine derivatives were shown to exhibit higher activity in comparison with their structural analogues. For dialkyl/diphenyl [(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) (2,6-diaminopyridin-3-yl) methyl] phosphonates, their structural analogues based on meta-phenylenediamine, phosphorus-containing sterically hindered phenols and the corresponding cyclohexadienones cytotoxicity against tumor lines of epithelioid carcinoma of the cervix uteri (M-Hela) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) has been studied in vitro, as well as on normal human Chang liver cell lines. Diphenyl [(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) (2,6-diaminopyridin-3-yl) methyl] phosphonate was shown to be the most active against the epithelioid line M-Hela - IC50 comprises 7.4 μM. It was shown that apoptosis induced by the lead compound proceeds along the internal pathway of caspase-9 activation. It was established that all studied compounds do not possess hemolytic activity.
Pubmed
Journal: Midwifery
October/14/2019
Abstract
To investigate the prevalence, severity and impact of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and to explore individual, work-related and psychosocial risk factors DESIGN: A cross sectional survey SETTING: A self-reported online questionnaire was used to collect data over seven months (May-December 2016).The survey was distributed to midwives across the United Kingdom through the Consultant Midwives Network and the Royal College of Midwives.Prevalence, severity and impact (12-month) of MSDs for nine body parts are presented. The associations between individual, occupational and psychosocial factors and symptoms are examined using Independent samples t-test or Chi-square statistical analyses, with Logistic regression analysis to understand the relative importance of variables. It was found that 92% of the participants reported MSDs, most commonly in the low back (71%), neck (45%) and shoulders (45%). Symptoms impacted on normal activities at work and/or leisure (50%), sick leave (30%) and jobs/duties (45%). Age and time practicing in midwifery were inversely associated with low back symptoms; reported less frequently with increasing age and experience. Longer working hours was a predictor for shoulder symptoms. Over commitment (intrinsic job stress) was associated with neck and more strongly with shoulder symptoms. Those caring for a dependent adult for more than 50 h a week were 4.54 times more likely to have neck discomfort.This first survey of UK Midwives reveals a very high prevalence of low back, neck and shoulder symptoms, resulting in sickness absenteeism, reduction in normal activities and changing roles. Age, years in practice, body mass index, working hours, job satisfaction and job stress are contributory factors.This study highlights the prevalence and impact of musculoskeletal symptoms and the potential harmful impacts on their working life and patient care. The findings will promote risk-awareness and national actions for risk management.
Pubmed
Journal: Multiple sclerosis and related disorders
October/14/2019
Abstract
Cognitive impairment is a common symptom in all stages of multiple sclerosis (MS), yet it is underreported and not routinely evaluated. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) is a short and easily administered test battery for screening of cognitive impairment in MS that can be completed within 15 min and incorporated into routine clinical practice. The test battery consists of the oral version of the Symbols Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and the initial learning trials of the California Verbal Learning Test 2nd edition (CVLT-II) and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test Revised (BVMT-R).To investigate if the Norwegian version of the BICAMS could identify cognitive impairment in early stages of MS and be used as part of routine follow-up procedures.A total of 65 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients and 68 healthy controls were examined with the BICAMS test battery. A randomly selected subset of 29 controls were retested 1-4 weeks after baseline. All participants were screened for anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).There were statistically significant differences between the patients with MS and the healthy controls on all three subtests, and the differences remained significant for the CVLT-II (p = 0.003) and BVMT-R (p = 0.011) after adjusting for education. There were no statistically significant correlations between BICAMS scores and anxiety and depression. SDMT and BVMT-R results in the control group at baseline and re-test were strongly correlated (r ≥ 0.70, p < 0.001), and CVLT-II achieved an adequate value of r = 0.60 (p = 0.001). On the SDMT, there was a statistically significant improvement between the two test-sessions. Cognitive impairment, defined as an abnormal test score on ≥1 subtest, was identified in 46.2% of the patient sample, whereas 15.4% were considered cognitively impaired on ≥2 subtests.This study supports that the Norwegian version of the BICAMS should be included as a screening procedure for cognitive impairment in Norwegian MS patients.
Pubmed
Journal: Pregnancy hypertension
October/14/2019
Abstract
Visit-to-visit blood pressure variability (VVV) was an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. In pregnant women whose hemodynamic changes are unique, the role of VVV in hypertensive disorders is still obscure. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association of VVV with gestational hypertension (GH) and pre-eclampsia (PE).14,702 pregnant women were recruited at around 13 weeks of their gestation. VVV during the second, third trimester and the whole pregnancy, were estimated as standard deviation (SD) or coefficient of variation (CV) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The associations between VVV, GH and PE were assessed by multivariate logistic regression models.878 and 131 women developed GH and PE, respectively. VVV was significantly higher in GH and PE subjects than normotensive controls, regardless of whichever metric was calculated. In maximally adjusted models, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of SBP-CV during the whole pregnancy was 1.62 (1.56-1.68) for GH, 1.14 (1.06-1.21) for PE, and 1.51 (1.47-1.56) for either GH or PE. The cooperation of SBP-CV to other risk factors could help in discriminating pregnant women at high risk of GH and PE.VVV during pregnancy, especially SBP-CV, was independently associated with GH and PE. These results suggested that VVV could provide additional information to identify pregnant women at high risk of GH or PE. Further studies exploring prospective association between VVV, GH and PE are warranted.
Pubmed
Journal: Food chemistry
October/14/2019
Abstract
This study represents the first attempt to combine mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy and multivariate data processing for prediction of alcohol degree, sugars content and total acidity in straw wine. 302 Italian samples, representing different vintages, production regions and grape varieties, were analysed using FT-MIR spectroscopy and reference methods. New regression functions based on a combination of Orthogonal Signal Correction and Partial Least Squares regression are proposed for prediction of quality parameters: this approach allows overcoming the issue of matrix complexity, reducing spectral interferences and enhancing the information embodied in fingerprinting data. The models proposed are characterised by an excellent reliability, with low error in prediction (alcohol: 0.28%; sugars: 9.9 g/L; acidity: 0.29 g/L) comparable both to reference methods and table wine models. Results demonstrate that vibrational spectroscopy, combined with a proper multivariate data strategy, represents a suitable strategy for the quick and non-destructive assessment of quality parameters of straw wine.
Pubmed
Journal: Legal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
October/14/2019
Abstract
The present study is an attempt to estimation of stature and sex from skull measurements by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in contemporary Chinese. In the present study, fifteen measurements for every skull were taken from CT image of 382 Chinese. The sample was composed of 200 males and 182 females with an average age of 47 and 46 years, respectively. Discriminant function was used in sex determination and regression analysis was used in stature estimation from skull measurements. The stepwise analysis of all measurements yielded a sex classification accuracy rate of 89.3%. The classification accuracy rates of the univariate discriminant function analyses were from 50.5% to 84.8%. For stature estimation, the standard error of estimate (SEE) ranged from 5.072 to 6.355 cm for male, from 5.090 to 5.829 cm for female, respectively. This study is the first to provide a metric and statistical characterization of the skull in contemporary Chinese, and indicates that it is feasible to sex estimation by skull measurement. Furthermore, the equations presented for stature estimation in this study may be used as alternatives in forensic cases, particularly in cases where better predictors such as the long bones are not available.
Pubmed
Journal: iScience
October/14/2019
Abstract
Juveniles must reach a critical body size to become a mature adult. Molecular determinants of critical size have been studied, but the evolutionary importance of critical size is still unclear. Here, using nine fly species, we show that interspecific variation in organism size can be explained solely by species-specific critical size. The observed variation in critical size quantitatively agrees with the interspecific scaling relationship predicted by the life history model, which hypothesizes that critical size mediates an energy allocation switch between juvenile and adult tissues. The mechanism underlying critical size scaling is explained by an inverse relationship between growth duration and growth rate, which cancels out their contributions to the final size. Finally, we show that evolutionary changes in growth duration can be traced back to the scaling of ecdysteroid hormone dynamics. We conclude that critical size adaptively optimizes energy allocation, and has a central role in organism size determination.
Pubmed
Journal: The Annals of thoracic surgery
October/14/2019
Abstract

BACKGROUND
Postoperative outcomes of 3rd generation porcine bioprosthesis for mitral valve replacement (MVR) have been poorly addressed. The objective of this study was to perform an independent, retrospective, multicenter study on outcomes of patients undergoing MVR with Mosaic (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN) porcine bioposthesis.

From 1998 to 2011, 805 patients underwent MVR with Mosaic porcine valve in 11 cardiac centers. There were 465 female patients (58%) and overall mean age was 73.5±7 years. Associated procedures included CABG (201 patients, 24.9%), aortic valve replacement (152 patients, 18.9%), tricuspid annuloplasty (187 patients, 22.3%), and other cardiac procedures (116 patients, 14.4%).Median follow-up was 44 months (IQR range 16 - 63) with a cumulative duration of 2.769 patient-years. Early mortality for isolated elective MVR was 3.8% (12/313) and overall early mortality was 7.8% (n=63). Rate of late mortality was 3.4% per patient/year (95 late deaths). At 10 years, overall survival was 57.4% (95%CI 48.8%-67.5%) , and cumulative rates of cardiac- and valve-related death were 7.4% (95%CI 4.8%-10.1%) and 1.1% (95%CI 0.2%-1.9%). Ten year cumulative rates of thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events were 6.6% (95CI 1.4%-11.8%)% and 3.9% (95%CI 0.1%-8%) and 10 year cumulative incidence of prosthetic valve endocarditis was 3% (95%CI 1.2%-4.9%). Finally, 10-year cumulative incidence of SVD and reoperations were 5.8% (95% CI 0.2%-11.5%) and 4.8% (95%CI 0.7%-10.3%), respectively.This independent, multicenter, retrospective study indicates that Mosaic porcine bioprosthesis for MVR provides satisfactory results in terms of early outcomes and long term outcomes up to 14 years from its implant.
Pubmed
Journal: Life sciences
October/14/2019
Abstract
The objective of the study was to determine whether β-caryophyllene (BCP) exerts a neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury by inhibiting microglial activation and modulating their polarization via the TLR4 pathway.Wild-type (WT) and TLR4 knockout (KO) C57BL/6J mice were subjected to cerebral I/R injury and neurologic dysfunction, cerebral infarct volume, brain edema, microglia activation and polarization, and TLR4 expression were determined. In vitro, primary microglia were stimulated with LPS and IFN-γ or IL-4 to induce polarization of microglia toward M1 or M2 phenotypes.BCP reduced cerebral infarct volume, brain edema, and neurologic deficits in WT mice after I/R. The optimal dose of BCP, 72 mg/kg body weight, inhibited microglial activation and reduced the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-6 by microglia of WT mice. BCP inhibited the level of TLR4 in WT mice, and partially reduced neurologic deficits, infarct volume, and brain edema in TLR4 KO mice. Importantly, BCP reduced the number of activated M1-type microglia and increased the number of M2-type microglia in the ipsilateral cortex of both WT and TLR4 KO mice. In vitro, BCP decreased the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines induced by LPS plus IFN-γ, downregulated the level of TLR4 protein, and polarized microglia towards the M2 phenotype.The decrease in TLR4 activity mediated, at least in part, the anti-inflammatory effects of BCP and its ability to shift microglia polarization from the M1 to M2 phenotype.
Pubmed
Journal: Life sciences
October/14/2019
Abstract
Sirt3 enzyme and mitochondrial abnormality can be related to excess fatigue or muscular dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS).Ellagic acid (EA) has a mitochondrial protector, iron chelator, antioxidant, and axon regenerator in neurons.In this study the effect of EAon muscle dysfunction, its mitochondria, and Sirt3 enzyme incuprizone-induced model of MSwas examined. Demyelination was induced by a diet containing 0.2% w/w cuprizone (Cup) for 42 days and EA administered daily (5, 50, and 100 mg/kg P.O) either with or without cuprizone in mice. Behavioral tests were assessed, and muscle tissue markers ofoxidative stress, mitochondrial parameters, mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, the Sirt3 protein level, and Sirt3 expression were also determined. Luxol fast blue staining and the behavioral tests were performed toassess the implemented model. In Cup group an increased oxidative stress in their muscle tissues was observed. Also, muscle mitochondria exhibited mitochondria dysfunction, lowered mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, Sirt3 protein level, and Sirt3 expression.EA prevented most of these anomalous alterations. Sub-chronicEA co-treatment dose-dependently ameliorated behavioral and muscular impairment in mice that received Cup.EA can effectively protect muscle tissue against cuprizone-induced demeylination via the mitochondrial protection, oxidative stress prevention and Sirt3 overexpression.
Pubmed
Journal: Life sciences
October/14/2019
Abstract
To assess the role of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) and β-catenin in the protection of ischemic injury by dexmedetomidine (Dex).Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to (middle cerebral artery occlusion, MCAO) for 2 h followed by reperfusion and Dex was administered 30min before MCAO. The neurological deficit score, cerebral infarct size and neuron survival were evaluated at 24 h after reperfusion. The expression of pAKT, pGSK3β and β-catenin in the ischemic penumbra was assayed by Western blot at 2 h after reperfusion.We found that the Dex-induced increment of neuron survival in the ischemic penumbra was diminished by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and the β-catenin inhibitor XAV939, respectively. The increasing expression of pAKT, pGSK3β and β-catenin induced by Dex was markedly inhibited by LY294002. And the increasing expression of β-catenin in nuclei induced by Dex was markedly inhibited by XAV939. At the same time, the GSK3β inhibitor SB216763 also caused an increment of neuron survival and an increasing expression of pGSK3β and β-catenin in the ischemic penumbra.Our data suggested that treatment with Dex reduced cerebral injury in rats exposed to cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) by the activation of the PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathways as well the activation of downstream Wnt/β-catenin pathway. And the Wnt/β-catenin pathway may play an important role in the protection against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.
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