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Journal: Journal of cardiovascular imaging
December/5/2019
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Journal: Aging cell
December/5/2019
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Journal: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (UK)
December/5/2019
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Journal: American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology
December/5/2019
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Journal: PloS one
December/5/2019
Abstract
Quantifying the spatial pattern of landscapes has become a common task of many studies in landscape ecology. Most of the existing software to compute landscape metrics is not well suited to be used in interactive environments such as Jupyter notebooks nor to be included as part of automated computational workflows. This article presents PyLandStats, an open-source Pythonic library to compute landscape metrics within the scientific Python stack. The PyLandStats package provides a set of methods to quantify landscape patterns, such as the analysis of the spatiotemporal patterns of land use/land cover change or zonal analysis. The implementation is based on the prevailing Python libraries for geospatial data analysis in a way that they can be forthwith integrated into complex computational workflows. Notably, the provided methods offer a large variety of options so that users can employ PyLandStats in the way that best supports their needs. The source code is publicly available, and is organized in a modular object-oriented structure that enhances its maintainability and extensibility.
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Journal: PloS one
December/5/2019
Abstract
The reaction-diffusion equation serves to model systems in the diffusion regime with sources. Specific applications include diffusion processes in chemical reactions, as well as the propagation of species, diseases, and populations in general. In some of these applications the location of an outbreak, for instance, the source point of a disease or the nest of a vector spreading a virus is important. Also important are the environmental parameters of the domain where the process diffuses, namely the space-dependent diffusion coefficient and the proliferation parameter of the process. Determining both, the location of a source and the environmental parameters, define an inverse problem that in turn, involves a partial differential equation. In this paper we classify the values of these parameters using Support Vector Machines (SVM) trained with numerical solutions of the reaction-diffusion problem. Our set up has accuracy of classifying the outbreak location above 90% and 77% of classifying both, the location and the environmental parameters. The approach presented in our analysis can be directly implemented by measuring the population under study at specific locations in the spatial domain as function of time.
Publication
Journal: MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
December/5/2019
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Journal: IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics
December/5/2019
Abstract
Light field cameras (LFCs) have received increasing attention due to their wide-spread applications. However, current LFCs suffer from the well-known spatio-angular trade-off, which is considered an inherent and fundamental limit for LFC designs. In this paper, by doing a detailed optical analysis of the sampling process in an LFC, we show that the effective resolution is generally higher than the number of micro-lenses. This contribution makes it theoretically possible to super-resolve a light field. Further optical analysis proves the "2D predictable series" nature of the 4D light field, which provides new insights for analyzing light field using series processing techniques. To model this nature, a specifically designed epipolar plane image (EPI) based CNN-LSTM network is proposed to super-resolve a light field in the spatial and angular dimensions simultaneously. Rather than leveraging semantic information, our network focuses on extracting geometric continuity in the EPI domain. This gives our method an improved generalization ability and makes it applicable to a wide range of previously unseen scenes. Experiments on both synthetic and real light fields demonstrate the improvements over state-of-the-arts, especially in large disparity areas.
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Journal: Circulation research
December/5/2019
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Journal: Nature reviews. Clinical oncology
December/5/2019
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Journal: Simulation in healthcare : journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
December/5/2019
Abstract
Simulation sutures are a low-cost option for training purposes, but they may not perform as well as the more expensive clinical suture. Trainees at our institution have raised concerns about their quality and integrity compared with clinical suture. The objective was to determine whether significant differences in strength of the sutures and knot holding capabilities between low and high-cost sutures existed.Two sutures were compared: 3-0 braided silk simulation suture (Sim*Vivo LLC, Willsboro, NY) and 3-0 Perma-Hand silk braided clinical suture (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ). The diameter of the suture was assessed with light microscopy. Tensile strength of the suture and knotted suture were assessed. Both sutures were tested dry and wet.Tensile strength of the sutures, knotted or unknotted, were not significantly different. Knot type did not change this comparison. Soaking in saline did not change the tensile strength but did introduce a substantial difference in knot failure mode between sutures. The mean diameter of the Ethicon suture was larger than that of the Sim*Vivo suture, which could influence suture behavior.The applied mechanical tests identified that clinical and simulation sutures differ some in their inherent mechanical characteristics related to suture handling. However, these differences did not translate to a key measure of performance of a sutured junction, namely, the strength of the knotted suture. Based on the results of the study, any subjective impressions of simulation suture strength and knot holding should not negatively impact its use for medical education.
Publication
Journal: Simulation in healthcare : journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
December/5/2019
Abstract
Bronchoscopy-guided percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (BG-PDT) is an invasive procedure regularly performed in the intensive care unit. Risk of serious complications have been estimated in up to 5%, focused during the learning phase. We have not found any published formal training protocols, and commercial simulators are costly and not widely available in some countries. The objective of this study was to present the design and simulator performance of a low-cost BG-PDT simulator.A simulator was designed with materials available in a hardware store, synthetic skin pads, ex vivo bovine tracheas, and a pipe inspection camera. The simulator was tested in 8 experts and 9 novices. Sessions were video recorded, and participants were equipped with the Imperial College Surgical Device, a hand motion-tracking device. Performance was evaluated with a multimodal approach, including first attempt success rate, global success rate, total procedural time, Imperial College Surgical Device-derived proficiency parameters, and global rating scale applied blindly by 2 expert observers. A satisfaction survey was applied after the procedure.A simulator was successfully constructed, allowing multiple iterations per assembly, with a fixed cost of US $30 and $4 per use. Experts had greater global and first attempt success rate, performed the procedure faster, and with greater proficiency. It presented high user satisfaction and fidelity.A low-cost BG-PDT simulator was successfully constructed, with the ability to discriminate between experts and novices, and with high fidelity. Considering its ease of construction and cost, it can be replicated in almost any intensive care unit.
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Journal: Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies
December/5/2019
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Journal: The Journal of cardiovascular nursing
December/5/2019
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Journal: The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume
December/5/2019
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Journal: Journal of clinical gastroenterology
December/5/2019
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Journal: The European respiratory journal
December/5/2019
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Journal: Psychological assessment
December/5/2019
Abstract
Across multiple RCTs, discrepancies between patient and clinician reports of PTSD symptoms are at least a partial contributing factor to large discrepancies between treatment outcome effect sizes from self-report and clinician reports within the same patients. Using secondary data from the NIDA-funded Women and Trauma Study, we demonstrated Common Persons Item Response Theory (IRT) Calibration for calibrating self-reported and clinician-reported PTSD severity scores in a manner similar to the process used to produce equated scores across multiple forms of standardized tests (e.g., SAT, GRE). Under IRT calibration, treatment effect sizes between the CAPS and MPSS-SR did not differ, while with the noncalibrated measures, the CAPS effect size was 85% larger than the MPSS-SR. Further, across the range of a combined CAPS/MPSS-SR gold standard, IRT-calibrated CAPS and MPSS-SR individual scores did not differ; for uncalibrated individual scores, MPSS scores were higher than CAPS scores at higher levels of PTSD severity while the reverse was true at lower levels of severity. The use of IRT calibration approaches for calibrating self-report and clinical interview measures of PTSD will allow treatment researchers to reflect the treatment effect on PTSD as a construct (regardless of reporter) as opposed to being limited to reporting treatment effects that may be discrepant within patients and specific to the particular assessment measure being employed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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Journal: Psychiatric rehabilitation journal
December/5/2019
Abstract
In spite of the effectiveness of the individual placement and support model of supported employment (IPS) for the recovery of people with mental illness, the implementation and dissemination of IPS in Japan have not been straightforward. This paper summarizes barriers against the implementation of IPS in Japan and discusses potential strategies to overcome them.We reviewed IPS research performed in Japan through literature search, and summarized current employment services and policies in Japan along with a practice report of an ongoing IPS program in a local city in Japan.Barriers against the implementation of IPS in Japan included: (a) systems designed mainly for group-based services, (b) weak recognition of IPS, and (c) cultural background. Nevertheless, we identified 4 intervention studies of IPS in Japanese settings, and all found that more than 40% of the participants gained their employment through IPS. By utilizing available services, the IPE program in Hamada City achieved ∼50% employment rate and sufficient fidelity.The present data indicate that, by combining currently available services, IPS can be implemented successfully in Japan. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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Journal: Human brain mapping
December/5/2019
Abstract
Computer systems for medical diagnosis based on machine learning are not mere science fiction. Despite undisputed potential benefits, such systems may also raise problems. Two (interconnected) issues are particularly significant from an ethical point of view: The first issue is that epistemic opacity is at odds with a common desire for understanding and potentially undermines information rights. The second (related) issue concerns the assignment of responsibility in cases of failure. The core of the two issues seems to be that understanding and responsibility are concepts that are intrinsically tied to the discursive practice of giving and asking for reasons. The challenge is to find ways to make the outcomes of machine learning algorithms compatible with our discursive practice. This comes down to the claim that we should try to integrate discursive elements into machine learning algorithms. Under the title of "explainable AI" initiatives heading in this direction are already under way. Extensive research in this field is needed for finding adequate solutions.
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Journal: RoFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Rontgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
December/5/2019
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Journal: Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association
December/5/2019
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of the learning curve in performing hip arthroscopy for FAI and labral tears on total operating room time, including times for set up, surgery, and wake up, during a single surgeon's initial hip arthroscopy procedures.A single surgeon's case list was retrospectively reviewed to identify all primary hip arthroscopy surgeries between November 1, 2018 and February 28, 2018 for the treatment of FAI and labral tears. Surgical times were recorded including Total Room Time; Surgical Time; Setup Time; and Wake Up Time. Linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship of these times relative to case number in the series. In addition the series was divided into 3 sequential groups to further compare these times.

RESULTS
225 patients were included in the study. The mean Total Room Time for all cases was 155.4 minutes (min), 95% CI [150.9, 160.0]; mean Surgical Time was 115.6 min, 95% CI [111.5, 119.8]; and mean Setup Time was 32.6 min, 95% CI [31.8, 33.4]. Decreasing Surgical Time was associated with advancing number in the case series (p<0.001, R2=0.36). Decreasing total room time was accordingly associated with advancing number in the case series (p<0.001, R2=0.34). There were no significant differences in Setup Time and Wake Up Time as the case series advanced. When groups of 75 sequential cases were compared, significant decreases in Surgical and Total Room time were noted between the first and second groups (p<0.001), but not between the second and third groups (p=0.52). Increasing complexity of surgeries was noted as the series advanced, including capsular closure and subspine decompression.

This study supports the existence of a substantial learning curve for hip arthroscopy in the treatment of FAI and labral tears. Our findings suggest decreasing surgical time as the surgeon advances through the learning curve, with the initial 75 procedures requiring longer time to perform than subsequent cases.Hip arthroscopy is a technically demanding procedure. Understanding the long duration of the hip arthroscopy learning curve is helpful for surgeons considering the addition of hip arthroscopy to their practice.
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Journal: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences
December/5/2019
Abstract
To examine the relationship between obesity and mortality as a function of polygenic risk for obesity among older US adults.Using data from the 1994-2014 Health and Retirement Study in conjunction with genome-wide data, we evaluated the risk of mortality as a function of obesity classification, an individual's polygenic risk score (PGS) for obesity, and their interaction, stratified by sex. We conducted our analyses using cox proportional hazard models.Among those with an average PGS for obesity (8,143 [68.8 %]), obese I (HR = 0.79, p = 0.336) adults show no difference in their risk for mortality and obese II/III (HR = 3.17, p = 0.000) adults present higher risk of mortality relative to non-obese adults. The interaction of obesity classification and PGS suggests that obese II/III respondents with low PGS in the total sample (HR = 2.71, p = 0.006) and among women (HR = 3.02, p = 0.023) are at significantly higher risk of death when compared to obese II/III respondents with average or high PGS.We posit that these findings suggest that the pathway to obesity, in this case more socio-behavioral rather than genetic, may influence subsequent risk of death in older adults. We suggest that practitioners and population researchers be mindful of these pathways as to better identify and understand mortality risk.
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Journal: IEEE transactions on cybernetics
December/5/2019
Abstract
Optimal control of networks is to minimize the cost function of a network in a dynamical process with an optimal control strategy. For the time-invariant linear systems, ẋ(t)=Ax(t)+Bu(t), and the traditional linear quadratic regulator (LQR), which minimizes a quadratic cost function, has been well established given both the adjacency matrix A and the control input matrix B. However, this conventional approach is not applicable when we have the freedom to design B. In this article, we investigate the situation when the input matrix B is a variable to be designed to reduce the control cost. First, the problem is formulated and we establish an equivalent expression of the quadratic cost function with respect to B, which is difficult to obtain within the traditional theoretical framework as it requires obtaining an explicit solution of a Riccati differential equation (RDE). Next, we derive the gradient of the quadratic cost function with respect to the matrix variable B analytically. Further, we obtain three inequalities of the cost functions, after which several possible design (optimization) problems are discussed, and algorithms based on gradient information are proposed. It is shown that the cost of controlling the LTI systems can be significantly reduced when the input matrix becomes ``designable.'' We find that the nodes connected to input sources can be sparsely identified and they are distributed as evenly as possible in the LTI networks if one wants to control the networks with the lowest cost. Our findings help us better understand how the LTI systems should be controlled through designing the input matrix.
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