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Publication
Journal: Innovation
November/26/2020
Abstract
The organoid model represents a major breakthrough in cell biology that has revolutionised biomedical research. Organoids are 3D physiological in vitro structures that recapitulate morphological and functional features of in vivo tissues and offer significant advantages over traditional cell culture methods. Liver organoids are of particular interest because of the pleiotropy of functions exerted by the human liver, their utility to model different liver diseases, and their potential application as cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine. Moreover, because they can be derived from patient tissues, organoid models offer new perspectives in personalised medicine and drug discovery. In this review, we discuss the current liver organoid models for the study of liver disease.
Keywords: 3D cultures; A1AT, alpha-1 antitrypsin; ALD, alcohol-related liver disease; CCA, cholangiocarcinoma; CFTR, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; CHC, combined hepato-cholangiocarcinoma; CLD, chronic liver disease; CTLN1, citrullinemia type 1; Chol-orgs, cholangiocyte organoids; Disease modelling; EGF, epidermal growth factor; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; ESCs, embryonic stem cells; FFAs, free fatty acids; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; HUVEC, human umbilical vein endothelial cells; Hep-orgs, hepatocyte organoids; IL-, interleukin-; Liver disease; MSC, mesenchymal stem cell; NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Organoids; PDO, patient-derived organoid; PDX, patient-derived xenograft; PHH, primary human hepatocyte; PSC, primary sclerosing cholangitis; Personalised medicine; Preclinical models; iPSC, induced pluripotent stem cell.
Publication
Journal: iScience
November/26/2020
Abstract
Cellular cheating leading to cancers exists in all branches of multicellular life, favoring the evolution of adaptations to avoid or suppress malignant progression, and/or to alleviate its fitness consequences. Ecologists have until recently largely neglected the importance of cancer cells for animal ecology, presumably because they did not consider either the potential ecological or evolutionary consequences of anticancer adaptations. Here, we review the diverse ways in which the evolution of anticancer adaptations has significantly constrained several aspects of the evolutionary ecology of multicellular organisms at the cell, individual, population, species, and ecosystem levels and suggest some avenues for future research.
Keywords: Biological Sciences; Cancer Systems Biology; Evolutionary Biology; Evolutionary Ecology.
Related with
Publication
Journal: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
November/26/2020
Publication
Journal: Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology
November/26/2020
Publication
Journal: Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology
November/26/2020
Publication
Journal: Soft Matter
November/26/2020
Publication
Journal: IUBMB Life
November/26/2020
Publication
Journal: Soft Matter
November/26/2020
Publication
Journal: Soft Matter
November/26/2020
Publication
Journal: Brain
November/26/2020
Abstract
Advances in gene discovery have identified genetic variants in the solute carrier family 6 member 1 gene as a monogenic cause of neurodevelopmental disorders, including epilepsy with myoclonic atonic seizures, autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. The solute carrier family 6 member 1 gene encodes for the GABA transporter protein type 1, which is responsible for the reuptake of the neurotransmitter GABA, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, from the extracellular space. GABAergic inhibition is essential to counterbalance neuronal excitation, and when significantly disrupted, it negatively impacts brain development leading to developmental differences and seizures. Aggregation of patient variants and observed clinical manifestations expand understanding of the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of this disorder. Here, we assess genetic and phenotypic features in 116 individuals with solute carrier family 6 member 1 variants, the vast majority of which are likely to lead to GABA transporter protein type 1 loss-of-function. The knowledge acquired will guide therapeutic decisions and the development of targeted therapies that selectively enhance transporter function and may improve symptoms. We analysed the longitudinal and cell type-specific expression of solute carrier family 6 member 1 in humans and localization of patient and control missense variants in a novel GABA transporter protein type 1 protein structure model. In this update, we discuss the progress made in understanding and treating solute carrier family 6 member 1-related disorders thus far, through the concerted efforts of clinicians, scientists and family support groups.
Keywords: GABA transporter 1; SLC6A1 haploinsufficiency; SLC6A1-related disorders; neurodevelopmental disorders; seizures.
Publication
Journal: Macromolecular Bioscience
November/26/2020
Abstract
In this focused progress review, the recent developments and trends of hydrogel-forming microneedles (HFMs) and potential future directions are presented. Previously, microneedles (solid, hollow, coated, and dissolving microneedles) have primarily been used to enhance the effectiveness of transdermal drug delivery to facilitate a wide range of applications such as vaccinations and antibiotic delivery. However, the recent trend in microneedle development has resulted in microneedles formed from hydrogels which have the ability to offer transdermal drug delivery and, due to the hydrogel swelling nature, passively extract interstitial fluid from the skin, meaning they have the potential to be used for biocompatible minimally invasive monitoring devices. Thus, in this review, these recent trends are highlighted, which consolidate microneedle design considerations, hydrogel formulations, fabrication processes, applications of HFMs and the potential future opportunities for utilizing HFMs for personalized healthcare monitoring and treatment.
Keywords: hydrogel-forming microneedles; interstitial fluid extraction; micro-molding; polymers; transdermal drug delivery.
Publication
Journal: Pest Management Science
November/26/2020
Related with
Publication
Journal: ANZ Journal of Surgery
November/26/2020
Related with
Publication
Journal: Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology
November/26/2020
Publication
Journal: Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology
November/26/2020
Publication
Journal: Journal of AOAC International
November/26/2020
Publication
Journal: Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology
November/26/2020
Publication
Journal: Soft Matter
November/26/2020
Publication
Journal: Bone
November/26/2020
Abstract
Objectives: This review aims to summarize the outcomes used to describe effectiveness of treatments for paediatric wrist fractures within existing literature.
Method: We searched the Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Ovid Medline for studies pertaining to paediatric wrist fractures. Three authors independently identified and reviewed eligible studies. This resulted in a list of outcome domains and outcomes measures used within clinical research. Outcomes were mapped onto domains defined by the COMET collaborative.
Results: Our search terms identified 4,262 different papers. Screening of titles excluded 2,975, leaving 1,287 papers to be assessed for eligibility. Of this 1,287, 30 studies were included for full analysis. Overall, five outcome domains, 16 outcome measures, and 28 measurement instruments were identified as outcomes within these studies. 24 studies used at least one measurement pertaining to the physiological/clinical outcome domain. The technical, life impact, and adverse effect domains were recorded in 23, 20, and 11 of the studies respectively. Within each domain it was common for different measurement instruments to be used to assess each outcome measure. The most commonly reported outcome measures were range of movement, a broad array of "radiological measures" and pain intensity, which were used in 24, 23, and 12 of the 30 studies.
Conclusion: This study highlights the heterogeneity in outcomes reported within clinical effectiveness studies of paediatric wrist fractures. We provided an overview of the types of outcomes reported in paediatric wrist fracture studies and identified a list of potentially relevant outcomes required for the development of a core outcome set.
Keywords: Outcome; Paediatric; Wrist fracture.
Publication
Journal: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders
November/26/2020
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the pandemic of the new millennium. COVID-19 can cause both pulmonary and systemic inflammation, potentially determining multi-organ dysfunction. Data on the relationship between COVID-19 and thyroid have been emerging, and rapidly increasing since March 2020. The thyroid gland and the virus infection with its associated inflammatory-immune responses are known to be engaged in complex interplay. SARS-CoV-2 uses ACE2 combined with the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) as the key molecular complex to infect the host cells. Interestingly, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression levels are high in the thyroid gland and more than in the lungs. Our literature search provided greater evidence that the thyroid gland and the entire hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis could be relevant targets of damage by SARS-CoV-2. Specifically, COVID-19-related thyroid disorders include thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, as well as nonthyroidal illness syndrome. Moreover, we noticed that treatment plans for thyroid cancer are considerably changing in the direction of more teleconsultations and less diagnostic and therapeutical procedures. The current review includes findings that could be changed soon by new results on the topic, considering the rapidity of worldwide research on COVID-19.
Keywords: COVID-19; Hyperthyroidism; Hypothyroidism; Thyroid; Thyroid cancer.
Publication
Journal: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
November/26/2020
Abstract
Petroleum, coal, and natural gas reservoir were depleting continuously due to an increase in industrialization, which enforced study to identify alternative sources. The next option is the renewable resources which are most important for energy purpose coupled with environmental problem reduction. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have become a promising approach to generate cleaner and more sustainable electrical energy. The involvement of various disciplines had been contributing to enhancing the performance of the MFCs. This review covers the performance of MFC along with different wastewater as a substrate in terms of treatment efficiencies as well as for energy generation. Apart from this, effect of various parameters and use of different nanomaterials for performance of MFC were also studied. From the current study, it proves that the use of microbial fuel cell along with the use of nanomaterials could be the waste and energy-related problem-solving approach. MFC could be better in performances based on optimized process parameters for handling any wastewater from industrial process.
Keywords: Anode and cathode material; Microbial fuel cell; Substrate; Waste water treatment.
Related with
Publication
Journal: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
November/26/2020
Abstract
Microplastics are considered to be ubiquitous and widespread emerging contaminants. They are persistent in the nature and pose considerable harm to the environment. Their omnipresence is documented in almost all aquatic habitats, several atmospheric and terrestrial environments, and also in human consumables. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the environmental prevalence of the microplastics in all environmental compartments, and their possible adverse impacts. It also presents review of the studies conducted in India and the epitome of potential mitigation measures. The need and direction of future research are highlighted. The review will help in determining the exposure levels, environmental consequences, and risk estimations, and will guide the researchers and policymakers.
Keywords: Environmental prevalence; Fate; Harmful effects; India; Microplastics; Mitigation measures.
Related with
Publication
Journal: Laboratory Medicine
November/26/2020
Abstract
Background: The purpose of a medical laboratory test is to provide information on the pathophysiologic condition of an individual patient as an aid in diagnosis, therapy, or assessment of risk for a disease. For optimal laboratory service, results from different measurement procedures (MPs) for the same measurand should be equivalent (harmonized) within stated specifications, enabling the results to be used reliably for medical decisions. The term "harmonization" refers to any process that enables establishing equivalence of reported values among different end-user MPs. The term "standardization" refers to achieving harmonization by metrological traceability of patients' results to higher order reference materials and/or reference measurement procedures.
Content: New procedures for harmonization and standardization were published in 2020 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and by the IFCC. ISO 17511:2020 provides revised requirements for establishing metrologically traceable calibration hierarchies for end-user MPs used in clinical laboratories. ISO 21151:2020 provides new requirements to implement a harmonization protocol to address the situation when there are no fit-for-purpose certified reference materials or reference MPs available for a measurand. The IFCC Working Group on Commutability published recommendations for applying a correction for noncommutability of a certified reference material to enable using that material in a metrologically traceable calibration hierarchy for an end-user MP.
Summary: We review metrological traceability and how these new approaches will improve the capability to achieve harmonized results for clinical samples.
Keywords: Calibration hierarchy; commutability; harmonization; metrological traceability; standardization.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Cellular Physiology
November/26/2020
Abstract
MicroRNA-128 (miR-128) is associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, and survival. Genetic analysis studies have demonstrated that miR-128 participates in bone metabolism, which involves bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and adipocytes. miR-128 also participates in regeneration of skeletal muscles by targeting myoblast-associated proteins. The deregulation of miR-128 could lead to a series of musculoskeletal diseases. In this review, we discuss recent findings of miR-128 in relation to bone metabolism and muscle regeneration to determine its potential therapeutic effects in musculoskeletal diseases, and to propose directions for future research in this significant field.
Keywords: bone homeostasis; miR-128; muscle regeneration; musculoskeletal diseases; review.
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