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Publication
Journal: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
November/28/2021
Abstract
The convergence of the HIV and SARS-CoV-2 pandemics is an emerging field of interest. In this review, we outline the central nervous system (CNS) effects of COVID-19 in the general population and how these effects may manifest in people with HIV (PWH). We discuss the hypothetical mechanisms through which SARS-CoV-2 could impact the CNS during both the acute and recovery phases of infection and the potential selective vulnerability of PWH to these effects as a result of epidemiologic, clinical, and biologic factors. Finally, we define key research questions and considerations for the investigation of CNS sequelae of COVID-19 in PWH.
Keywords: COVID-19; Central nervous system; HIV; SARS-CoV-2.
Publication
Journal: Urology
November/28/2021
Abstract
The seventh multi-stakeholder Paediatric Strategy Forum focused on chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells for children and adolescents with cancer. The development of CAR T-cells for patients with haematological malignancies, especially B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL), has been spectacular. However, currently, there are scientific, clinical and logistical challenges for use of CAR T-cells in BCP-ALL and other paediatric malignancies, particularly in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), lymphomas and solid tumours. The aims of the Forum were to summarise the current landscape of CAR T-cell therapy development in paediatrics, too identify current challenges and future directions, with consideration of other immune effector modalities and ascertain the best strategies to accelerate their development and availability to children. Although the effect is of limited duration in about half of the patients, anti-CD19 CAR T-cells produce high response rates in relapsed/refractory BCP-ALL and this has highlighted previously unknown mechanisms of relapse. CAR T-cell treatment as first- or second-line therapy could also potentially benefit patients whose disease has high-risk features associated with relapse and failure of conventional therapies. Identifying patients with very early and early relapse in whom CAR T-cell therapy may replace haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and be definitive therapy versus those in whom it provides a more effective bridge to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a very high priority. Development of approaches to improve persistence, either by improving T cell fitness or using more humanised/fully humanised products and co-targeting of multiple antigens to prevent antigen escape, could potentially further optimise therapy. Many differences exist between paediatric B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHL) and BCP-ALL. In view of the very small patient numbers with relapsed lymphoma, careful prioritisation is needed to evaluate CAR T-cells in children with Burkitt lymphoma, primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma and other NHL subtypes. Combination trials of alternative targets to CD19 (CD20 or CD22) should also be explored as a priority to improve efficacy in this population. Development of CD30 CAR T-cell immunotherapy strategies in patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma will likely be most efficiently accomplished by joint paediatric and adult trials. CAR T-cell approaches are early in development for AML and T-ALL, given the unique challenges of successful immunotherapy actualisation in these diseases. At this time, CD33 and CD123 appear to be the most universal targets in AML and CD7 in T-ALL. The results of ongoing or planned first-in-human studies are required to facilitate further understanding. There are promising early results in solid tumours, particularly with GD2 targeting cell therapies in neuroblastoma and central nervous system gliomas that represent significant unmet clinical needs. Further understanding of biology is critical to success. The comparative benefits of autologous versus allogeneic CAR T-cells, T-cells engineered with T cell receptors T-cells engineered with T cell receptor fusion constructs, CAR Natural Killer (NK)-cell products, bispecific T-cell engager antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates require evaluation in paediatric malignancies. Early and proactive academia and multi-company engagement are mandatory to advance cellular immunotherapies in paediatric oncology. Regulatory advice should be sought very early in the design and preparation of clinical trials of innovative medicines, for which regulatory approval may ultimately be sought. Aligning strategic, scientific, regulatory, health technology and funding requirements from the inception of a clinical trial is especially important as these are very expensive therapies. The model for drug development for cell therapy in paediatric oncology could also involve a 'later stage handoff' to industry after early development in academic hands. Finally, and very importantly, strategies must evolve to ensure appropriate ease of access for children who need and could potentially benefit from these therapies.
Keywords: Adoptive cellular immunotherapy; CAR T-cell; Cancer therapeutics; Drug development; Paediatric Strategy Forum; Paediatric oncology.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
November/28/2021
Abstract
Introduction: Point-of-care viscoelastic haemostatic assays such as rotational thromboelastometry (including ROTEM and TEG) have been used in the management of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). This study compared results obtained from the automated ROTEM Sigma with laboratory tests of coagulation and platelet count during PPH.
Methods: A prospective observational cohort study recruited women with PPH ≥1000 mL (or clinical concern of bleeding). The Fibtem A5, Extem CT and Pltem (Extem A5 - Fibtem A5) results were compared with laboratory tests of fibrinogen, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and platelet count.
Results: 521 women were recruited, including 274/277 (98.9%) of women with PPH ≥1500 mL. Fibtem A5 results were matched with laboratory fibrinogen in 552/644 (85.7%) samples. The incidence of abnormal laboratory results was low: fibrinogen ≤2 g/L 23/464 (5.0%), PT or APTT >1.5 × midpoint of reference range 4/464 (0.9%), and platelet count <75 × 109/L 11/477 (2.3%). Area-under- the-receiver operator characteristic curve for Fibtem A5 to detect fibrinogen ≤2 g/L was 0.96 (95% Confidence Intervals (CI) 0.94 to 0.98, P<0.001), with sensitivity and specificity of Fibtem A5 ≤11 mm to detect fibrinogen ≤2 g/L of 0.76 and 0.96. Prolonged Extem CT results improved after treatment of hypofibrinogenaemia alone. Intervention points for platelet and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion based on ROTEM Sigma parameters could not be established.
Conclusion: During PPH (≥1000 mL or cases of clinical concern about bleeding), ROTEM Sigma Fibtem A5 can detect fibrinogen ≤2 g/L and guide targeted fibrinogen replacement. Laboratory results should continue to be used to guide platelet and FFP transfusion.
Keywords: Coagulation; Fibrinogen; Postpartum haemorrhage; ROTEM; Viscoelastography.
Publication
Journal: Biosensors and Bioelectronics
November/28/2021
Abstract
Common reference methods for COVID-19 diagnosis include thermal cycling amplification (e.g. RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification methods (e.g. LAMP and RPA). However, they may not be suitable for direct detection in environmental and biological samples due to background signal interference. Here, we report a rapid and label-free interference reduction nucleic acid amplification strategy (IR-NAAS) that exploits the advantages of luminescent iridium(III) probes, time-resolved emission spectroscopy (TRES) and multi-branch rolling circle amplification (mbRCA). Using IR-NAAS, we established a luminescence approach for diagnosing COVID-19 RNAs sequences RdRp, ORF1ab and N with a linear range of 0.06-6.0 × 105 copies/mL and a detection limit of down to 7.3 × 104 copies/mL. Moreover, the developed method was successfully applied to detect COVID-19 RNA sequences from various environmental and biological samples, such as domestic sewage, and mice urine, blood, feces, lung tissue, throat and nasal secretions. Apart from COVID-19 diagnosis, IR-NAAS was also demonstrated for detecting other RNA viruses, such as H1N1 and CVA10, indicating that this approach has great potential approach for routine preliminary viral detection.
Keywords: Coronavirus detection; G-quadruplex; Iridium(III) complex; Rolling circle amplification.
Publication
Journal: Biosensors and Bioelectronics
November/28/2021
Abstract
Localized DNA circuits have shown good performance regarding reaction rate and sensitivity for sensing intracellular microRNAs (miRNAs). However, these methods reported recently require large kinds of DNA strands and suffer from low signal-to-background (S/B) ratio, which hinder their clinical application. To circumvent these issues, we herein developed a novel strategy for sensitive sensing and imaging miRNAs in living cells based on dispersion-to-localization of catalytic hairpin assembly (DL-CHA). This strategy consists of only three classes of DNA strands (two hairpins and a linker strand), which largely reduces sequence design complexity. Additionally, owing to the unique engineering of the substrate transformation from dispersion to localization, the DL-CHA exhibits not only minimal background leakage but also intensive signal amplification, thus significantly improving the S/B ratio. In particular, the simple sensing method is capable of imaging miRNAs in cells from clinical blood samples for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Therefore, this work provides a powerful tool for intracellular molecules detection and gives a much broader design space for constructing high-performance DNA circuits.
Keywords: Catalytic hairpin assembly; Dispersion-to-localization; Living cells imaging; MicroRNAs; Whole blood.
Publication
Journal: Pediatrics
November/28/2021
Abstract
Objective: The aim of the study was to determine how parental modeling of thoughtful behavior and the home physical environment may reduce the number of developmental problems exhibited by Native American, African American, and Latinx adolescents.
Method: Demographic and home environmental data were collected from 54 Native American, 131 African American, and 159 Latinx families living in 4 states as part of a home visit. Parents and adolescents were administered surveys that captured adolescent health, social skills, problem behavior, self-efficacy beliefs, vocabulary attainment, and school grades. Scores from the surveys were combined to construct both an adolescent problems index and a household risk index. For each of the 3 racial/ethnic groups examined, the adolescent problems index was regressed on parental modeling and encouragement of mature behavior, the home physical environment, and the household risk index.
Results: Modeling and encouragement of mature behavior was a significant bivariate predictor of overall problems in all 3 groups of adolescents-albeit the overall regression model was nonsignificant for Native Americans. By contrast, the other 2 predictors were nonsignificant in regression models for all 3 groups.
Conclusion: Native American, African American, and Latinx adolescents often face a multitude of risks, including poverty and discrimination. As a consequence, adolescents from these 3 racial/ethnic groups frequently display problems pertaining to health, competence, and adaptive behavior. The results from this study suggest that adolescents from such demographic groups are less likely to manifest developmental problems if their parents model mature behavior and encourage the adolescent to act in thoughtful ways.
Publication
Journal: Vaccine
November/28/2021
Abstract
Elderly adults hold different beliefs regarding vaccination and are at higher risks for COVID-19 related illnesses and deaths. The current study aims to explore elderly (aged 65 or above) Chinese adults' intentions to get vaccinated against COVID-19 and the facilitators and barriers to vaccination intentions. We conducted in-depth interviews with 35 elderly adults in China through the lens of the integrative model of behavioral prediction. The results identified a number of facilitators, including convenience (both individual and collective), psychological and physiological wellbeing, collective wellbeing, supportive normative referents, and trust in the government, and some barriers, including vaccine ineffectiveness, side effects, safety, unsupportive normative referents, and the accessibility, affordability, and availability of COVID-19 vaccines. In addition, the results revealed participants' decision-making process: collective wellbeing and trust in the government overrode perceived barriers and perceived individual-level risks, which eventually overwhelmingly led to a high level of intentions to get vaccinated. Practical implications related to vaccine promotion and trust in the government were discussed.
Keywords: COVID-19 vaccination; Elderly Chinese adults; Integrative model of behavioral prediction; Vaccination decision-making process.
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Journal: Waste Management
November/28/2021
Abstract
The cone angle of a hydrocyclone is believed to be an important parameter to affect the separation performance. For the recycling of waste plastics, this paper focused on the study of the influence of cone angles on the separation of light dispersed plastics (PET) and heavy dispersed plastics (PVC) by experiments and numerical simulations. The cone angle was changed from 3° to 28° either at given length of the cylindrical section or at fixed total length of the hydrocyclone. The separation performance varied with cone angles at given length of the cylindrical section more greatly than that at fixed total length of the hydrocyclone. Results show that particles with different sizes in mixture exhibited discrepant separation behaviors at various cone angles. There was an optimum cone angle at which the Newton efficiency peaked as 90.2%, while the purity of PET could also reach the highest. The proportion of cylindrical section could be properly small for the enhancement of Newton efficiency.
Keywords: Cone angle; Density separation; Hydrocyclone; Recycling of waste plastics.
Publication
Journal: Revista Clinica Espanola
November/28/2021
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Publication
Journal: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
November/28/2021
Authors
Publication
Journal: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
November/28/2021
Abstract
We recently discovered a new family of prodrugs deriving from phenyl 4-(2-oxo-3-imidazolidin-1-yl)benzenesulfonates (PIB-SOs) bioactivatable by cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) into potent antimitotics referred to as phenyl 4-(2-oxo-3-alkylimidazolidin-1-yl)benzenesulfonates (PAIB-SOs). PAIB-SOs display significant selectivity toward human breast cancer cells based on the N-dealkylation of PAIB-SOs into their corresponding PIB-SOs by CYP1A1. In this study, we have evaluated the molecular mechanism of the bioactivation of PAIB-SOs into PIB-SOs by branching the linear alkyl chain on the imidazolidin-2-one (IMZ) moiety of PAIB-SOs by branched alkyl groups such as isopropyl, isobutyl and sec-butyl. Our results show that PAIB-SOs bearing an isobutyl group on the IMZ moiety and either a methoxy, a chloro or a bromo group at positions 3, 3,5 or 3,4,5 on the aromatic ring B exhibit antiproliferative activity ranging from 0.13 to 6.9 μM and selectivity toward MCF7 and MDA-MB-468 mammary cancer cells comparatively to other cell lines tested. Moreover, the most potent and selective PAIB-SOs bearing an isobutyl group and either a 3,5-Cl (44), 3,5-Br (45) or a 3,4,5-OMe (46) on the IMZ moiety exhibit antiproliferative activity in the sub-micromolar range and high selectivity ratios toward mammary cancer cells. They stop the cell cycle of MCF7 cells in the G2/M phase and disrupt their cytoskeleton. Furthermore, our studies evidenced that PAIB-SOs bearing either an isopropyl, a sec-butyl or an isobutyl group are hydroxylated on the carbon atom adjacent to the IMZ (Cα-OH) but only PAIB-SOs bearing an isobutyl group are bioactivated into PIB-SOs. Finally, PAIB-SOs 45 and 46 exhibit low toxicity toward normal cells and chick embryos and are thus promising antimitotic prodrugs highly selective toward CYP1A1-expressing breast cancer cells.
Keywords: Anticancer agents; Antimicrotubule agents; Antimitotics; CYP1A1-activated prodrugs; PAIB-SOs; Phenyl 4-(2-oxo-3-alkylimidazolidin-1-yl)benzenesulfonates.
Publication
Journal: Vaccine
November/28/2021
Abstract
Introduction: A 20-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PCV20, was developed to expand protection against vaccine-preventable pneumococcal disease. PCV20 contains the components of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PCV13, and includes capsular polysaccharide conjugates for 7 additional serotypes. Thus, PCV20 may cover those additional serotypes in individuals previously vaccinated with PCV13 or provide benefits of immunization with a conjugate vaccine to individuals previously immunized with a pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. This study described the safety and immunogenicity of PCV20 in adults ≥65 years of age with prior pneumococcal vaccination.
Methods: This phase 3, multicenter, randomized, open-label study was conducted in the United States and Sweden. Adults ≥65 years of age were enrolled into 1 of 3 cohorts based on their prior pneumococcal vaccination history (23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine [PPSV23], PCV13, or both PCV13 and PPSV23). Participants were randomized 2:1 within their cohort to receive a single dose of PCV20 or PCV13 in those with prior PPSV23 only, and PCV20 or PPSV23 in those with prior PCV13 only; all participants with prior PCV13 and PPSV23 received PCV20. Safety was assessed by prompted local reactions within 10 days, systemic events within 7 days, adverse events (AEs) within 1 month, and serious AEs (SAEs) and newly diagnosed chronic medical conditions (NDCMCs) within 6 months after vaccination. Immune responses 1 month after PCV20 were assessed.
Results: The percentages of participants reporting local reactions, systemic events, and AEs after PCV20 administration were similar across cohorts and comparable with the PCV13 and PPSV23 control groups. SAE and NDCMC rates were low in all groups. Robust immune responses, including opsonophagocytic antibody responses, to the 20 vaccine serotypes were observed 1 month after PCV20 regardless of prior pneumococcal vaccination.
Conclusions: PCV20 was well tolerated and immunogenic in adults ≥65 years of age previously vaccinated with different pneumococcal vaccine regimens. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03835975.
Keywords: Clinical trial; Immunogenicity; Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; Safety; Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Hazardous Materials
November/28/2021
Abstract
Consumers often believe that "natural food" is harmless, however naturally occurring toxins in food represent a health risk to humans. Honey as a natural, nutritious sweetener, is one of the most commonly consumed foods throughout the world. However, food safety concerns for honey arise when honeybees collect nectar from poisonous plants such as Rhododendron sp., Coriaria arborea, and Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. Such honey contains natural plant toxins. Humans may develop intoxication symptoms after consuming toxic honey; in some cases, it can be fatal. As a result, toxic honey poses an often-ignored threat to public health. Typical plant toxins such as grayanotoxins, triptolides, tutin and pyrrolizidine alkaloids, have been identified in toxic honey. Although different toxic honeys elicit similar symptoms, such as vomiting, nausea, and dizziness, the mechanism of toxicity may be different. Thus, it is necessary to determine the exact toxicity mechanism of different toxins to further develop effective antidotes and cures. Another important challenge is preventing toxic honey from entering the food chain. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry has a wide range of applications in the detection of different toxins due to its accuracy and simplicity. More methods, however, are urgently needed to detect multiple plant-derived toxins in honey and its derivatives. Developing uniform international standards for toxin detection during quarantine using advanced techniques is critical for preventing human consumption of toxic honey.
Keywords: detection technologies; honey; human health; metabolomics; plant toxins; toxicological mechanisms.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
November/28/2021
Abstract
Objectives: To measure the impact of social determinants of health and clinical comorbidities on the incidence of post-tympanotomy tube otorrhea (PTTO).
Methods: Retrospective observational cohort study. All children between the ages of 0 and 17 having tympanotomy tube placement between 2009 and 2019. Between group comparisons entailed the calculation of odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals and associated p-values.
Results: Among 12,757 patients who underwent myringotomy and tube placement, 2217 (17.4%) presented with PTTO within 1 year. Race and sex did not correlate with the development of PTTO. Non-Hispanic ethnicity had a negative association with PTTO (OR: 0.80 (0.70-0.91), p < .0001). Insurance status correlated with incidence of PTTO with a higher rate noted among those with public insurance (OR: 1.12 (1.02-1.23), p = .02) and a lower rate among those with private insurance (OR: 0.84 (0.77-0.92), p < .0001). Craniofacial abnormalities had the strongest positive correlation with PTTO, particularly, cleft lip and/or cleft palate (OR>2.24, p < .0001). Immunodeficiency had similar impact on PTTO (OR: 2.38 (1.46-3.91), p < .0001). Asthma and prematurity did not significantly correlate with occurrence of PTTO.
Conclusion: Higher rates of PTTO correlated strongest with clinical factors; particularly craniofacial abnormalities and immunodeficiency. Social determinants, including private insurance and non-Hispanic ethnicity, were associated with lower rates of PTTO. Race and sex did not show significant correlations.
Keywords: Otitis media; Otorrhea; Social determinants; Tympanotomy tube.
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Journal: Food Chemistry
November/28/2021
Abstract
In this study, hydrostatic high-pressure processing (HHP), a non-thermal pasteurisation method, was used to achieve the microbiological safety of donor human milk. After HHP, no bacteria were detected in human milk processed at 400 MPa for 5 min. Activities of a selection of bioactive components, including lysozyme, xanthine oxidase, lactoperoxidase, immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lipoprotein lipase and bile salt-stimulated lipase, did not decrease significantly. This study further investigated the gastrointestinal digestion kinetics of HoP and HHP milk compared with raw human milk, using an in vitro static infant digestion model. After 60 min of 'gastric digestion', the microstructure and protein profile of HHP milk samples were more similar to raw milk samples than HoP milk samples. Overall, HPP showed a better retention in milk nutrients and closer digestion behavior than that of HoP.
Keywords: Bioactive proteins; Breastmilk; Donor human milk; High hydrostatic-pressure processing; Holder pasteurisation; Infant digestion; Microstructure.
Publication
Journal: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
November/28/2021
Abstract
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of virtual monoenergetic images (VMI) in pre-operative CT angiography of potential donors for living donor adult liver transplantation (LDALT), and to determine the optimal energy level to maximize vascular signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios (SNR and CNR, respectively).
Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated 29 CT angiography studies performed preoperatively in potential liver donors on a spectral detector CT scanner. All studies included arterial, early venous, and delayed venous phase imaging. Conventional polyenergetic images were generated for each patient, as well as virtual monoenergetic images in 10 keV increments from 40 -100 keV. Arteries (aorta and celiac, superior mesenteric, common hepatic, right and left hepatic arteries) were assessed on arterial phase images; portal venous system branches (splenic, superior mesenteric, main, right, and left portal veins) on early venous phase images; and hepatic veins on late venous phase images. Vascular attenuation, background parenchymal attenuation, and noise were measured on each set of virtual monoenergetic and conventional images.
Results: Background hepatic and vascular noise decreased with increasing keV, with the lowest noise at 100 keV. Vascular SNR and CNR increased with decreasing keV and were highest at 40 keV, with statistical significance compared with conventional ( P < 0.05).
Conclusions: In preoperative CT angiography for potential liver donors, the optimal keV for assessing the vasculature to improve SNR and CNR is 40 keV. Use of low keV VMI in LDALT CT protocols may facilitate detection of vascular anatomical variants that can impact surgical planning.
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Journal: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
November/28/2021
Abstract
Cutaneous leishmaniasis represents a public health problem that affects 85 countries. It is an endemic disease in Brazil, having an important socioeconomic impact. An exuberant case of cutaneous leishmaniasis is reported herein. A 28-year-old male patient with Down syndrome had had verrucous plaques on the back for over a year, with progressive growth. PCR of a lesion sample was positive for Leishmania braziliensis. The patient's condition was classified as atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis. He was successfully treated with amphotericin B and miltefosine. The treatment remains a challenge, given the toxicity and low cure rate of the currently recommended drugs.
Keywords: Leishmania braziliensis; Leishmaniasis, cutaneous; Neglected diseases.
Publication
Journal: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
November/28/2021
Abstract
The caliber-persistent labial artery is a vascular anomaly in which a primary arterial branch penetrates into the submucosal tissue without reduction in diameter. Most lesions are benign and do not require treatment, except for complications and/or on patient demands. In this way, noninvasive diagnostic tools are preferred such as high-resolution and color Doppler ultrasonography which allow direct observation of the lesion, assessing its exact location and diameter at every axis, as well as the blood flow velocity. An excisional biopsy of these lesions or even their surgical extirpation could have a fatal outcome with profuse bleeding.
Keywords: Biopsy; Bleeding; Doppler; Lip; Lip diseases; Pulsatile flow; Ultrasonography.
Publication
Journal: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
November/28/2021
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Journal: Journal of Hand Surgery
November/28/2021
Abstract
Purpose: Local steroid injection is an effective treatment modality for carpal tunnel syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the success rate of ultrasonography-guided local steroid injection and determine the prognostic value of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve for steroid injection.
Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 40 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome whose median nerve CSA was >15 mm2 (large-CSA group; n = 16) or ≤15 mm2 (small-CSA group; n = 24). The CSA was measured using ultrasonography, and all the patients were treated with ultrasonography-guided corticosteroid injection. Demographic characteristics, symptoms, initial QuickDASH score, Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaires, and results of the nerve conduction study were assessed at baseline. Treatment success was defined in this study as the absence of symptom recurrence within the entire follow-up period.
Results: The treatment success rate was 45% (n = 18) after an average follow-up of 16 months. Overall, 11 patients (28%) underwent carpal tunnel release on an average of 11 months after steroid injection. The large-CSA group showed a significantly worse grade of electrodiagnostic testing at baseline than did the small-CSA group; however, there was no significant difference in final Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaires symptom score (1.7 vs 1.8, respectively) and the rate of continued treatment success at the last follow-up (42% vs 50%, respectively). The proportions of patients who required carpal tunnel decompression were 29% and 25% in the small-CSA and large-CSA groups, respectively.
Conclusions: Local steroid injection for carpal tunnel syndrome has an overall success rate of 45% after a mean follow-up of 16 months. Preinjection CSA was not associated with whether the steroid injection was considered successful. This indicates that increased median nerve CSA does not preclude the possibility of symptomatic relief after a local steroid injection.
Type of study/level of evidence: Therapeutic IV.
Keywords: Carpal tunnel syndrome; cross-sectional area; median nerve; sonography; steroid injection.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
November/28/2021
Abstract
Carbon-based perovskite solar cells (C-PSCs) have attracted widespread research interest because of their excellent stability. However, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of C-PSCs, especially planar C-PSCs, lags far behind the certified efficiency (25.5%) of metal-based PSCs. The simple architecture of planar C-PSCs imparts stringent requirements for device configuration. In this study, we fabricated high-performance planar C-PSCs through device configuration engineering in terms of the perovskite active layer and carbon electrode. Through the combination of component and additive engineering, the crystallization and absorption profiles of perovskite active layer have been improved, which afforded sufficient photogenerated carriers and decreased nonradiative recombination. Furthermore, the mechanical and physical properties of carbon electrode were evaluated comprehensively to regulate the back-interface contact. Based on the compromise of the flexibility and conductivity of carbon film, an excellent back-interface contact has been formed, which promoted fast interface charge transfer, thereby decreasing interface recombination and improving carrier collection efficiency. Finally, the as-prepared devices achieved a remarkable PCE of up to 20.04%, which is a record-high value for planar C-PSCs. Furthermore, the as-prepared devices exhibited excellent long-term stability. After storage for 1000 h at room temperature and 25% relative humidity without encapsulation, the as-prepared device retained 94% of its initial performance.
Keywords: Carbon electrode; Device configuration engineering; Long-term stability; Planar perovskite solar cells.
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Journal: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
November/28/2021
Abstract
Billowy interest during nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) for single-atom catalysts (SACs) has been evoked by the discovery of single transition metal (TM) atom structures featured by TM-Nx coordinate sites as an excellent catalytic center. However, a great challenge of currently available SACs, far away from industrial requirement, is the low activity and poor selectivity. Therefore, in NRR, the first-principles high-throughput screening calculations were performed to evaluate the feasibility of a single TM atom (from Sc to Au) embedded an artificial holey defective SnN3 (d-SnN3) monolayer. Here, all TM atoms can be stably anchored on d-SnN3 (TM/d-SnN3), meanwhile, most of adsorbed N2 molecules can be favorably activated via the "σ donation - π* back-donation" interaction. Eventually, among 27 TM centers, V, Mo, Hf and Ta/d-SnN3 stand out because of extremely low limiting potential (-0.21, -0.40, -0.56 and -0.54 V, respectively), lower than majority of TM-based NRR catalysts and far below that of the Ru (0001) surface (0.98 V), indicative of fast kinetics and low energy cost of NRR. Moreover, their intrinsic characteristic, such as centralized spin-polarization on these TM atoms, high-efficient prohibition of the competitive hydrogen evolution reaction is responsible for high selectivity with theoretical faradic efficiency of 100%. Also, multiple-level descriptors including ΔG∗N, ICOHP, and Φ were used to make the source of NRR activity clear, realizing an efficient and quick prescreening among different candidates. Particularly, their excellent durability, kinetic stability and synthetic accessibility guarantee the feasibility in real experimental conditions.
Keywords: Electrocatalysts; High-throughput first-principles calculations; Monolayer d-SnN(3); Nitrogen reduction reaction; Single atom catalysts.
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Journal: Talanta
November/28/2021
Abstract
In the last decades, a wide multitude of research activity has been focused on the development of new drugs, and devoted to overcome the challenges of high cost and low efficiency in drug evaluation. The measurement of drug response at the single cell level is a quicker, more direct and more accurate way to reflect drug efficacy, which can shorten the drug development period and reduce research costs. Therefore, the single cell drug response (SCDR) measurement technology has aroused extensive attention from researchers, and has become a hot topic in the fields of drug research and cell biology. Recent years have seen the emergence of various SCDR measurement technologies that feature different working principles and different levels of measurement performance. To better examine, compare and summarize the characteristics and functions of these technologies, we select signal-to-noise ratio, throughput, content, invasion, and device complexity as the criteria to evaluate them from the drug efficacy perspective. This review aims to highlight sixteen kinds of SCDR measurement technologies, including patch-clamp technique, live-cell interferometry, capillary electrophoresis, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and more, and report widespread representative examples of SCDR measurement the recent approaches for over the past forty years. Based on their reaction principles, these technologies are classified into four categories: electrical, optical, electrochemical, and mass spectrometry, and a detailed comparison is made between them. After in-depth understanding of these technologies, it is expected to improve or integrate these technologies to propose better SCDR measurement strategies, and explore methods in new drug development and screening, as well as disease diagnosis and treatment.
Keywords: Drug response; Drug screening; Single cell analysis; Single cell detection.
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Journal: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
November/28/2021
Abstract
Hypothesis: The boundary layer holds the key to solve the puzzle of the unusual stability of the nanobubbles in solution. The quantitative determination on its mechanical and structural properties has not been achieved due to its diffusive and dynamic nature, lack of distinctive interfaces, and difficult differentiation from bulk background. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate this boundary using more sensitive interface analysis technologies to effectively differentiate the water molecules at the interface from those in the bulk.
Experiments: An in-situ and non-deconstructive method, solvent relaxation nuclear magnetic resonance, was used to investigate the boundary layer on bulk nanobubbles, where the relaxation rate of the water in the layer and its thickness were measured by solvent relaxation NMR and the ratio between the water molecules at the bubble interfaces and those in the bulk and the corresponding boundary layer thickness were determined.
Findings: The spin-spin relaxation time for the water in the layer (∼101ms) is found to be two orders of magnitude lower than that of the free water (∼103ms). As the first attempt, the determined boundary layer thickness is around 35-45 nm and 17.0 %-8.7 % of the effective gaseous size of the nanobubbles, which increases with the decrease of the bubble diameter. As a result, a quantitative measurement model for bubble boundary layer has been established in order to better understand the interfacial properties and stabilization mechanism for bulk nanobubbles.
Keywords: Boundary layer thickness; Bulk nanobubbles; In-situ measurement; Nuclear magnetic resonance; Solvent relaxation.
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