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Publication
Journal: Trends in Ecology and Evolution
October/11/2021
Abstract
There are increasing calls to incorporate developmental plasticity into the framework of eco-evolutionary dynamics. The current way is via genotype-specified reaction norms in which inheritance and phenotype expression are gene-based. I propose a developmental system perspective in which phenotypes are formed during individual development in a process comprising a complex set of interactions that involve genes, biochemistry, somatic state, and the (a)biotic environment, and where the developmental system is the unit of phenotype evolution. I explain how the two perspectives differ in assumptions and predictions, which can be contrasted using cue-and-response systems of anticipatory or mitigating developmental plasticity. This can lead to new ways of eco-evolutionary thinking, and deliver important explanations of how populations respond to environmental change through evolved developmental plasticity.
Keywords: anticipatory developmental plasticity; developmental systems theory; eco-evolutionary feedbacks; genotype-specified reaction norms; mitigating developmental plasticity.
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Publication
Journal: Clinics
October/11/2021
Abstract
The Childhood Arthritis & Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) launched in 2000 as a small network of pediatric rheumatologists and investigators dedicated to promoting collaborative research to improve the care and outcomes of childhood-onset rheumatic diseases. Over the past 2 decades, CARRA has grown to become a major driver of advances in evidence-based medicine and career development in pediatric rheumatology. Its research approach has transformed pediatric rheumatology. CARRA is a vibrant organization that will continue to facilitate impactful research in the care of children, adolescents, and young adults with rheumatic disease in the years to come.
Keywords: Consensus; Pediatric; Registry; Rheumatic disease.
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Publication
Journal: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
October/11/2021
Abstract
Conflict is pervasive in pediatric surgery - it is experienced during patient care, in the operating room and between colleagues. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficience, non-maleficience and justice are firmly anchored in any discourse regarding conflict in the setting of healthcare. The authors review key features of conflict in healthcare including the effect on patient outcomes as well as implications for the ability of the surgeon and the medical team to function appropriately and safely when conflicts arise. Although most pediatric surgery fellowship programs have no formal training in conflict management, much has been written about strategies to teach and utilize techniques of conflict mitigation and negotiation. In this article, the authors discuss common areas of conflict in the medical environment and suggest useful tools for the practicing pediatric surgeon to aid in the resolution of conflict.
Keywords: Conflict resolution; End of life conflict; Negotiations.
Publication
Journal: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
October/11/2021
Abstract
Solid organ transplantation is now an accepted therapeutic modality for children and teenagers suffering from a wide variety of complex medical conditions. Unfortunately, patients continue to die while on the organ waiting list as there remains an imbalance between the number of recipients listed for transplantation and the number of donors available. The organ allocation process continues to generate ethical questions and debates. In this publication, we discuss some of the most frequently reported ethical matters in the field of pediatric solid organ transplantation.
Keywords: Genomic and genetics contraindications; Organ allocation; Patient non-compliance; Pediatric organ transplantation; Undocumented patient.
Publication
Journal: Functional Plant Biology
October/11/2021
Abstract
R is one of the most commonly used analytical tools in the plant sciences. To identify key trends in general reported R use and patterns in photosynthesis research, we explored the frequency of R use in 2966 articles published in the 377 journals with 'photosynthesis' in the title from 2010 to 2019 using the Web of Science search. Solutions provided by each R package cited in the articles or online sources was recorded and classified. The percentage of research articles reporting R use increased linearly from 3.6% in 2010 to 12.5% in 2019. The three main categories of R package solutions were 'general statistical calculations and graph packages' (G); 'photosynthesis special-purpose packages' (S); and 'genetic and evolutionary packages' (E). The top five R packages cited were nlme (G), lme4 (G), multcomp (G), plantecophys (S), and ape (E). The increasing popularity of R use in photosynthesis research is due to its user-friendly and abundant open-source codes online for handling specific issues, particularly in fitting photosynthesis models. These findings are limited by the number of articles and online sources, but they reveal a significant increase in usage in photosynthesis research over the past decade and have a bright prospect in the future.
Publication
Journal: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
October/11/2021
Abstract
Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Oligometastases; ctDNA.
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Publication
Journal: Journal of Critical Care
October/11/2021
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic taxed critical care and its leaders in unprecedented ways. Medical directors, nursing directors, division chiefs and department chairs were forced to lead their staff through a pandemic wrought with personal and professional safety concerns, uncertainty, and more death than most critical care practitioners had ever seen. No leader was fully prepared for the COVID-19 pandemic. Herein, we describe what we believe are the three most important qualities of a leader in times of crisis: presence, transparency, and empathy.
Keywords: COVID-19; Critical care; Ethics; Leadership; Moral injury.
Publication
Journal: Neuromuscular Disorders
October/11/2021
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Publication
Journal: Heart
October/11/2021
Abstract
Keywords: aortic diseases.
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Publication
Journal: Academic Radiology
October/11/2021
Abstract
Keywords: Community; creativity; culture; education; ethics; intellectual discourse; professionalism.
Publication
Journal: Research
October/11/2021
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
October/11/2021
Abstract
The family Reoviridae is a nonenveloped virus group with a double-stranded (ds) RNA genome comprising 9 to 12 segments. In the family Reoviridae, the genera Cardoreovirus, Phytoreovirus, Seadornavirus, Mycoreovirus, and Coltivirus contain virus species having 12-segmented dsRNA genomes. Reverse genetics systems used to generate recombinant infectious viruses are powerful tools for investigating viral gene function and for developing vaccines and therapeutic interventions. Generally, this methodology has been utilized for Reoviridae viruses such as Orthoreovirus, Orbivirus, Cypovirus, and Rotavirus, which have genomes with 10 or 11 segments, respectively. However, no reverse genetics system has been developed for Reoviridae viruses with a genome harboring 12 segments. Herein, we describe development of an entire plasmid-based reverse genetics system for Tarumizu tick virus (TarTV) (genus Coltivirus, family Reoviridae), which has a genome of 12 segments. Recombinant TarTVs were generated by transfection of 12 cloned complementary DNAs encoding the TarTV genome into baby hamster kidney cells expressing T7 RNA polymerase. Using this technology, we generated VP12 mutant viruses and demonstrated that VP12 is an N-glycosylated protein. We also generated a reporter virus expressing the HiBiT-tagged VP8 protein. This reverse genetics system will increase our understanding of not only the biology of the genus Coltivirus but also the replication machinery of the family Reoviridae.
Keywords: Reoviridae viruses; coltiviruses; reverse genetics system.
Publication
Journal: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
October/11/2021
Abstract
Recognized worldwide as an unusual "overlap" syndrome, Parkinsonism and motor neuron disease, with or without dementia, is best exemplified by the former high-incidence clusters of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Parkinsonism-Dementia Complex (ALS/PDC) in Guam, USA, in the Kii Peninsula of Honshu Island, Japan, and in Papua, Indonesia, on the western side of New Guinea. Western Pacific ALS/PDC is a disappearing neurodegenerative disorder with multiple and sometime overlapping phenotypes (ALS, atypical parkinsonism, dementia) that appear to constitute a single disease of environmental origin, in particular from exposure to genotoxins/neurotoxins in seed of cycad plants (Cycas spp.) formerly used as a traditional source of food (Guam) and/or medicine (Guam, Kii-Japan, Papua-Indonesia). Seed compounds include the principal cycad toxin cycasin, its active metabolite methylazoxymethanol (MAM) and a non-protein amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA); each reproduces components of ALS/PDC neuropathology when individually administered to laboratory species in single doses perinatally (MAM, L-BMAA) or repeatedly for prolonged periods to young adult animals (L-BMAA). Human exposure to MAM, a potent DNA-alkylating mutagen, also has potential relevance to the high incidence of diverse mutations found among Guamanians with/without ALS/PDC. In sum, seven decades of intensive study of ALS/PDC has revealed field and laboratory approaches leading to discovery of disease etiology that are now being applied to sporadic neurodegenerative disorders such as ALS beyond the Western Pacific region. This article is part of the Special Issue "Parkinsonism across the spectrum of movement disorders and beyond" edited by Joseph Jankovic, Daniel D. Truong and Matteo Bologna.
Keywords: ALS; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia complex; Epigenotoxin; Genotoxin; Methylazoxymethanol; Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease; β-N-methylamino-L-alanine.
Publication
Journal: Talanta
October/11/2021
Abstract
Exosomes encapsulate genomic and proteomic biomarkers for non-invasive diagnosis and disease monitoring. However, exosome surface-markers heterogeneity is a major drawback of current isolation methods. Here, we report a direct, one-step exosome sampling technology, ExoPRIME, for selective capture of CD63+ exosome subpopulations using an immune-affinity protocol. Microneedles (300μm × 30 mm), functionalized with anti-CD63 antibodies, were incubated under various experimental conditions in conditioned astrocyte medium and astrocyte-derived exosome suspension. The probe's capture efficiency and specificity were validated using FluoroCet assay, immunofluorescent imaging, and OMICS analyses. Significantly higher exosomes were captured by probes incubated for 16 h at 4 0C in enriched exosomal suspension (23 × 10 6 exosomes per probe) vis-à-vis 2 h at 4 0 C (12 × 10 6) and 16 h at 22 0C (3 × 10 6) in conditioned cell media. Our results demonstrate the application of ExoPRIME over a broad dynamic range of temperature and incubation parameters, offering flexibility for any desired application. ExoPRIME permits the use and re-use of minimal sample volumes (≤200 μL), can be multiplexed in arrays, and integrated into a lab-on-a-chip platform to achieve parallel, high-throughput isolation of different exosome classes in a semi-automated workstation. This platform could provide direct exosomal analysis of biological fluids since it can elegantly interface with existing room-temperature, picomolar-range nucleic acid assays to provide a clinical diagnostic tool at the point of care.
Keywords: Exosomes; Immunosensing; Layer-by-layer; Omics; Solid-phase purification.
Publication
Journal: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
October/11/2021
Abstract
The systematic safety surveillance of real-world use of medicinal products and related activities (pharmacovigilance) started in earnest as a scientific field only in the 1960s. While developments have occurred over the past 50 years, adding to its complexity and sophistication, the extent to which some of these advances have positively impacted the capability for ensuring patient safety is questionable. We review how the conduct of safety surveillance has changed, highlight recent scientific advances, and argue how they need to be harnessed to enhance pharmacovigilance in the future. Specifically, we describe five changes that we believe should and will need to happen globally in the coming years: (i) better, more diverse data used for safety; (ii) the switch from manual activities to automation; (iii) removal of limited value, extraneous transactional activities and replacement with sharpened focus on scientific efforts to improve patient safety; (iv) patient-involved and focussed safety; and (v) personalised safety.
Keywords: machine learning, automation; patient centricity; pharmacovigilance; phenotypic safety; transactional safety activities of limited scientific value.
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Publication
Journal: Trends in Immunology
October/11/2021
Abstract
Memory B cells are central to effective protection against reinfection. Glaros et al. used single-cell techniques to illuminate how activated mouse B cells are diverted into forming memory cells a few days post-immunogenic exposure. Early memory subsets contribute to a crucial goal: building a diverse and agile humoral defense system.
Keywords: activated B cells; germinal center-independent; memory B cell; plasmablasts; single-cell RNA sequencing.
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Publication
Journal: BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine
October/11/2021
Abstract
Keywords: drug development; drug discovery.
Publication
Journal: Schizophrenia Research
October/11/2021
Abstract
Keywords: Schizophrenia; Taxonomy.
Related with
Publication
Journal: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
October/11/2021
Related with
Publication
Journal: Asian Journal of Surgery
October/11/2021
Publication
Journal: Cell Death Discovery
October/11/2021
Abstract
With the development of sequencing technology, a large number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified in addition to coding genes. LncRNAs, originally considered as junk RNA, are dysregulated in various types of cancer. Although protein-coding signaling pathways underlie various biological activities, and abnormal signal transduction is a key trigger and indicator for tumorigenesis and cancer progression, lncRNAs are sparking keen interest due to their versatile roles in fine-tuning signaling pathways. We are just beginning to scratch the surface of lncRNAs. Therefore, despite the fact that lncRNAs drive malignant phenotypes from multiple perspectives, in this review, we focus on important signaling pathways modulated by lncRNAs in cancer to demonstrate an up-to-date understanding of this emerging field.
Publication
Journal: Nature Communications
October/11/2021
Abstract
Death from acute hemorrhage is a major problem in military conflicts, traffic accidents, and surgical procedures, et al. Achieving rapid effective hemostasis for pre-hospital care is essential to save lives in massive bleeding. An ideal hemostasis material should have those features such as safe, efficient, convenient, economical, which remains challenging and most of them cannot be achieved at the same time. In this work, we report a rapid effective nanoclay-based hemostatic membranes with nanoclay particles incorporate into polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) electrospun fibers. The nanoclay electrospun membrane (NEM) with 60 wt% kaolinite (KEM1.5) shows better and faster hemostatic performance in vitro and in vivo with good biocompatibility compared with most other NEMs and clay-based hemostats, benefiting from its enriched hemostatic functional sites, robust fluffy framework, and hydrophilic surface. The robust hemostatic bandages based on nanoclay electrospun membrane is an effective candidate hemostat in practical application.
Publication
Journal: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
October/11/2021
Abstract
Application of Quality Improvement methodology to nuanced clinical scenarios may be useful to ensure consistent delivery of equitable and comprehensive care. The purpose of this article is to inform the pediatric surgical readership of opportunities where quality improvement methodology may aid in navigating ethical nuances of complex surgical care. We present three case scenarios and discuss how quality improvement methodology could be utilized to address issues of provider autonomy, patient autonomy, and justice.
Keywords: Medical ethics; Pediatric surgery; Quality improvement.
Publication
Journal: Trends in Immunology
October/11/2021
Abstract
Living organisms have evolved conserved 'catchers' for detecting and handling molecular patterns from invading viruses. Slavik et al. and Holleufer et al. recently identified cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS)-like receptors that detect double-stranded viral RNA in Drosophila. cGAS-like receptors constitute a new expanding family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) for viral nucleic acids.
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