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Publication
Journal: Nature Immunology
November/14/2005
Abstract
CD4(+) T cells producing interleukin 17 (IL-17) are associated with autoimmunity, although the precise mechanisms that control their development are undefined. Here we present data that challenge the idea of a shared developmental pathway with T helper type 1 (T(H)1) or T(H)2 lineages and instead favor the idea of a distinct effector lineage we call 'T(H)-17'. The development of T(H)-17 cells from naive precursor cells was potently inhibited by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-4, whereas committed T(H)-17 cells were resistant to suppression by T(H)1 or T(H)2 cytokines. In the absence of IFN-gamma and IL-4, IL-23 induced naive precursor cells to differentiate into T(H)-17 cells independently of the transcription factors STAT1, T-bet, STAT4 and STAT6. These findings provide a basis for understanding how inhibition of IFN-gamma signaling enhances development of pathogenic T(H)-17 effector cells that can exacerbate autoimmunity.
Publication
Journal: Science
June/28/1994
Abstract
Through the study of transcriptional activation in response to interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), a previously unrecognized direct signal transduction pathway to the nucleus has been uncovered: IFN-receptor interaction at the cell surface leads to the activation of kinases of the Jak family that then phosphorylate substrate proteins called STATs (signal transducers and activators of transcription). The phosphorylated STAT proteins move to the nucleus, bind specific DNA elements, and direct transcription. Recognition of the molecules involved in the IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma pathway has led to discoveries that a number of STAT family members exist and that other polypeptide ligands also use the Jak-STAT molecules in signal transduction.
Publication
Journal: Blood
March/2/2005
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells found in several adult tissues. Transplanted allogeneic MSCs can be detected in recipients at extended time points, indicating a lack of immune recognition and clearance. As well, a role for bone marrow-derived MSCs in reducing the incidence and severity of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) during allogeneic transplantation has recently been reported; however, the mechanisms remain to be investigated. We examined the immunomodulatory functions of human MSCs (hMSCs) by coculturing them with purified subpopulations of immune cells and report here that hMSCs altered the cytokine secretion profile of dendritic cells (DCs), naive and effector T cells (T helper 1 [T(H)1] and T(H)2), and natural killer (NK) cells to induce a more anti-inflammatory or tolerant phenotype. Specifically, the hMSCs caused mature DCs type 1 (DC1) to decrease tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion and mature DC2 to increase interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion; hMSCs caused T(H)1 cells to decrease interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and caused the T(H)2 cells to increase secretion of IL-4; hMSCs caused an increase in the proportion of regulatory T cells (T(Regs)) present; and hMSCs decreased secretion of IFN-gamma from the NK cells. Mechanistically, the hMSCs produced elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) in co-cultures, and inhibitors of PGE(2) production mitigated hMSC-mediated immune modulation. These data offer insight into the interactions between allogeneic MSCs and immune cells and provide mechanisms likely involved with the in vivo MSC-mediated induction of tolerance that could be therapeutic for reduction of GVHD, rejection, and modulation of inflammation.
Publication
Journal: Nature Reviews Immunology
March/20/2003
Abstract
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric pro-inflammatory cytokine that induces the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), favours the differentiation of T helper 1 (T(H)1) cells and forms a link between innate resistance and adaptive immunity. Dendritic cells (DCs) and phagocytes produce IL-12 in response to pathogens during infection. Production of IL-12 is dependent on differential mechanisms of regulation of expression of the genes encoding IL-12, patterns of Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and cross-regulation between the different DC subsets, involving cytokines such as IL-10 and type I IFN. Recent data, however, argue against an absolute requirement for IL-12 for T(H)1 responses. Our understanding of the relative roles of IL-12 and other factors in T(H)1-type maturation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells is discussed here, including the participation in this process of IL-23 and IL-27, two recently discovered members of the new family of heterodimeric cytokines.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
March/25/2004
Abstract
Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) coordinates a diverse array of cellular programs through transcriptional regulation of immunologically relevant genes. This article reviews the current understanding of IFN-gamma ligand, receptor, signal transduction, and cellular effects with a focus on macrophage responses and to a lesser extent, responses from other cell types that influence macrophage function during infection. The current model for IFN-gamma signal transduction is discussed, as well as signal regulation and factors conferring signal specificity. Cellular effects of IFN-gamma are described, including up-regulation of pathogen recognition, antigen processing and presentation, the antiviral state, inhibition of cellular proliferation and effects on apoptosis, activation of microbicidal effector functions, immunomodulation, and leukocyte trafficking. In addition, integration of signaling and response with other cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-4, type I IFNs, and lipopolysaccharide are discussed.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
November/30/2008
Abstract
A decrease in the abundance and biodiversity of intestinal bacteria within the dominant phylum Firmicutes has been observed repeatedly in Crohn disease (CD) patients. In this study, we determined the composition of the mucosa-associated microbiota of CD patients at the time of surgical resection and 6 months later using FISH analysis. We found that a reduction of a major member of Firmicutes, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, is associated with a higher risk of postoperative recurrence of ileal CD. A lower proportion of F. prausnitzii on resected ileal Crohn mucosa also was associated with endoscopic recurrence at 6 months. To evaluate the immunomodulatory properties of F. prausnitzii we analyzed the anti-inflammatory effects of F. prausnitzii in both in vitro (cellular models) and in vivo [2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced] colitis in mice. In Caco-2 cells transfected with a reporter gene for NF-kappaB activity, F. prausnitzii had no effect on IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB activity, whereas the supernatant abolished it. In vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cell stimulation by F. prausnitzii led to significantly lower IL-12 and IFN-gamma production levels and higher secretion of IL-10. Oral administration of either live F. prausnitzii or its supernatant markedly reduced the severity of TNBS colitis and tended to correct the dysbiosis associated with TNBS colitis, as demonstrated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. F. prausnitzii exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on cellular and TNBS colitis models, partly due to secreted metabolites able to block NF-kappaB activation and IL-8 production. These results suggest that counterbalancing dysbiosis using F. prausnitzii as a probiotic is a promising strategy in CD treatment.
Publication
Journal: Annual Review of Immunology
May/25/2009
Abstract
Macrophages are innate immune cells with well-established roles in the primary response to pathogens, but also in tissue homeostasis, coordination of the adaptive immune response, inflammation, resolution, and repair. These cells recognize danger signals through receptors capable of inducing specialized activation programs. The classically known macrophage activation is induced by IFN-gamma, which triggers a harsh proinflammatory response that is required to kill intracellular pathogens. Macrophages also undergo alternative activation by IL-4 and IL-13, which trigger a different phenotype that is important for the immune response to parasites. Here we review the cellular sources of these cytokines, receptor signaling pathways, and induced markers and gene signatures. We draw attention to discrepancies found between mouse and human models of alternative activation. The evidence for in vivo alternative activation of macrophages is also analyzed, with nematode infection as prototypic disease. Finally, we revisit the concept of macrophage activation in the context of the immune response.
Publication
Journal: Blood
August/13/2006
Abstract
Establishing a CD8(+) T cell-mediated immune correlate of protection in HIV disease is crucial to the development of vaccines designed to generate cell-mediated immunity. Historically, neither the quantity nor breadth of the HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell response has correlated conclusively with protection. Here, we assess the quality of the HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell response by measuring 5 CD8(+) T-cell functions (degranulation, IFN-gamma, MIP-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-2) simultaneously in chronically HIV-infected individuals and elite nonprogressors. We find that the functional profile of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in progressors is limited compared to that of nonprogressors, who consistently maintain highly functional CD8(+) T cells. This limited functionality is independent of HLA type and T-cell memory phenotype, is HIV-specific rather than generalized, and is not effectively restored by therapeutic intervention. Whereas the total HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell frequency did not correlate with viral load, the frequency and proportion of the HIV-specific T-cell response with highest functionality inversely correlated with viral load in the progressors. Thus, rather than quantity or phenotype, the quality of the CD8(+) T-cell functional response serves as an immune correlate of HIV disease progression and a potential qualifying factor for evaluation of HIV vaccine efficacy.
Publication
Journal: Biological Psychiatry
May/19/2010
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Major depression occurs in 4.4% to 20% of the general population. Studies suggest that major depression is accompanied by immune dysregulation and activation of the inflammatory response system (IRS). Our objective was to quantitatively summarize the data on concentrations of specific cytokines in patients diagnosed with a major depressive episode and controls.
METHODS
We performed a meta-analysis of studies measuring cytokine concentration in patients with major depression, with a database search of the English literature (to August 2009) and a manual search of references.
RESULTS
Twenty-four studies involving unstimulated measurements of cytokines in patients meeting DSM criteria for major depression were included in the meta-analysis; 13 for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, 9 for interleukin (IL)-1beta, 16 for IL-6, 5 for IL-4, 5 for IL-2, 4 for IL-8, 6 for IL-10, and 4 for interferon (IFN)-gamma. There were significantly higher concentrations of TNF-alpha (p < .00001), weighted mean difference (WMD) (95% confidence interval) 3.97 pg/mL (2.24 to 5.71), in depressed subjects compared with control subjects (438 depressed/350 nondepressed). Also, IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher (p < .00001) in depressed subjects compared with control subjects (492 depressed/400 nondepressed) with an overall WMD of 1.78 pg/mL (1.23 to 2.33). There were no significant differences among depressed and nondepressed subjects for the other cytokines studied.
CONCLUSIONS
This meta-analysis reports significantly higher concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 in depressed subjects compared with control subjects. While both positive and negative results have been reported in individual studies, this meta-analytic result strengthens evidence that depression is accompanied by activation of the IRS.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Experimental Medicine
December/27/1993
Abstract
Tuberculosis, a major health problem in developing countries, has reemerged in recent years in many industrialized countries. The increased susceptibility of immunocompromised individuals to tuberculosis, and many experimental studies indicate that T cell-mediated immunity plays an important role in resistance. The lymphokine interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) is thought to be a principal mediator of macrophage activation and resistance to intracellular pathogens. Mice have been developed which fail to produce IFN-gamma (gko), because of a targeted disruption of the gene for IFN-gamma. Upon infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, although they develop granulomas, gko mice fail to produce reactive nitrogen intermediates and are unable to restrict the growth of the bacilli. In contrast to control mice, gko mice exhibit heightened tissue necrosis and succumb to a rapid and fatal course of tuberculosis that could be delayed, but not prevented, by treatment with exogenous recombinant IFN-gamma.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Experimental Medicine
December/12/1991
Abstract
In the present study we demonstrate that human monocytes activated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were able to produce high levels of interleukin 10 (IL-10), previously designated cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), in a dose dependent fashion. IL-10 was detectable 7 h after activation of the monocytes and maximal levels of IL-10 production were observed after 24-48 h. These kinetics indicated that the production of IL-10 by human monocytes was relatively late as compared to the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which were all secreted at high levels 4-8 h after activation. The production of IL-10 by LPS activated monocytes was, similar to that of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and G-CSF, inhibited by IL-4. Furthermore we demonstrate here that IL-10, added to monocytes, activated by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), LPS, or combinations of LPS and IFN-gamma at the onset of the cultures, strongly inhibited the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, GM-CSF, and G-CSF at the transcriptional level. Viral-IL-10, which has similar biological activities on human cells, also inhibited the production of TNF alpha and GM-CSF by monocytes following LPS activation. Activation of monocytes by LPS in the presence of neutralizing anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibodies resulted in the production of higher amounts of cytokines relative to LPS treatment alone, indicating that endogenously produced IL-10 inhibited the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, GM-CSF, and G-CSF. In addition, IL-10 had autoregulatory effects since it strongly inhibited IL-10 mRNA synthesis in LPS activated monocytes. Furthermore, endogenously produced IL-10 was found to be responsible for the reduction in class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression following activation of monocytes with LPS. Taken together our results indicate that IL-10 has important regulatory effects on immunological and inflammatory responses because of its capacity to downregulate class II MHC expression and to inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines by monocytes.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Clinical Investigation
March/28/2020
Abstract
Since December 2019, an outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, and is now becoming a global threat. We aimed to delineate and compare the immunologic features of severe and moderate COVID-19.In this retrospective study, the clinical and immunologic characteristics of 21 patients (17 male and 4 female) with COVID-19 were analyzed. These patients were classified as severe (11 cases) and moderate (10 cases) according to the Guidelines released by the National Health Commission of China.The median age of severe and moderate cases was 61.0 and 52.0 years, respectively. Common clinical manifestations included fever, cough and fatigue. Compared to moderate cases, severe cases more frequently had dyspnea, lymphopenia, and hypoalbuminemia, with higher levels of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, ferritin and D-dimer as well as markedly higher levels of IL-2R, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α. Absolute number of T lymphocytes, CD4+T and CD8+T cells decreased in nearly all the patients, and were markedly lower in severe cases (294.0, 177.5 and 89.0 × 106/L) than moderate cases (640.5, 381.5 and 254.0 × 106/L). The expressions of IFN-γ by CD4+T cells tended to be lower in severe cases (14.1%) than moderate cases (22.8%).The SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect primarily T lymphocytes particularly CD4+T and CD8+ T cells, resulting in decrease in numbers as well as IFN-γ production. These potential immunological markers may be of importance due to their correlation with disease severity in COVID-19.
Publication
Journal: Nature Methods
January/15/2007
Abstract
Cellular processes can only be understood as the dynamic interplay of molecules. There is a need for techniques to monitor interactions of endogenous proteins directly in individual cells and tissues to reveal the cellular and molecular architecture and its responses to perturbations. Here we report our adaptation of the recently developed proximity ligation method to examine the subcellular localization of protein-protein interactions at single-molecule resolution. Proximity probes-oligonucleotides attached to antibodies against the two target proteins-guided the formation of circular DNA strands when bound in close proximity. The DNA circles in turn served as templates for localized rolling-circle amplification (RCA), allowing individual interacting pairs of protein molecules to be visualized and counted in human cell lines and clinical specimens. We used this method to show specific regulation of protein-protein interactions between endogenous Myc and Max oncogenic transcription factors in response to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) signaling and low-molecular-weight inhibitors.
Publication
Journal: Cell
March/15/2005
Abstract
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen persisting within phagosomes through interference with phagolysosome biogenesis. Here we show that stimulation of autophagic pathways in macrophages causes mycobacterial phagosomes to mature into phagolysosomes. Physiological induction of autophagy or its pharmacological stimulation by rapamycin resulted in mycobacterial phagosome colocalization with the autophagy effector LC3, an elongation factor in autophagosome formation. Autophagy stimulation increased phagosomal colocalization with Beclin-1, a subunit of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase hVPS34, necessary for autophagy and a target for mycobacterial phagosome maturation arrest. Induction of autophagy suppressed intracellular survival of mycobacteria. IFN-gamma induced autophagy in macrophages, and so did transfection with LRG-47, an effector of IFN-gamma required for antimycobacterial action. These findings demonstrate that autophagic pathways can overcome the trafficking block imposed by M. tuberculosis. Autophagy, which is a hormonally, developmentally, and, as shown here, immunologically regulated process, represents an underappreciated innate defense mechanism for control of intracellular pathogens.
Publication
Journal: Immunity
January/10/2001
Abstract
A novel sequence discovered in a computational screen appears distantly related to the p35 subunit of IL-12. This factor, which we term p19, shows no biological activity by itself; instead, it combines with the p40 subunit of IL-12 to form a novel, biologically active, composite cytokine, which we term IL-23. Activated dendritic cells secrete detectable levels of this complex. IL-23 binds to IL-12R beta 1 but fails to engage IL-12R beta 2; nonetheless, IL-23 activates Stat4 in PHA blast T cells. IL-23 induces strong proliferation of mouse memory (CD4(+)CD45Rb(low)) T cells, a unique activity of IL-23 as IL-12 has no effect on this cell population. Similar to IL-12, human IL-23 stimulates IFN-gamma production and proliferation in PHA blast T cells, as well as in CD45RO (memory) T cells.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Experimental Medicine
December/27/1993
Abstract
The expression of protective immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice is mediated by T lymphocytes that secrete cytokines. These molecules then mediate a variety of roles, including the activation of parasitized host macrophages, and the recruitment of other mononuclear phagocytes to the site of the infection in order to initiate granuloma formation. Among these cytokines, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) is believed to play a key role is these events. In confirmation of this hypothesis, we show in this study that mice in which the IFN-gamma gene has been disrupted were unable to contain or control a normally sublethal dose of M. tuberculosis, delivered either intravenously or aerogenically. In such mice, a progressive and widespread tissue destruction and necrosis, associated with very high numbers of acid-fast bacilli, was observed. In contrast, despite the lack of protective immunity, some DTH-like reactivity could still be elicited. These data, therefore, indicate that although IFN-gamma may not be needed for DTH expression, it plays a pivotal and essential role in protective cellular immunity to tuberculosis infection.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
January/7/2002
Abstract
Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a stress-activated protein kinase that can be induced by inflammatory cytokines, bacterial endotoxin, osmotic shock, UV radiation, and hypoxia. We report the identification of an anthrapyrazolone series with significant inhibition of JNK1, -2, and -3 (K(i) = 0.19 microM). SP600125 is a reversible ATP-competitive inhibitor with >20-fold selectivity vs. a range of kinases and enzymes tested. In cells, SP600125 dose dependently inhibited the phosphorylation of c-Jun, the expression of inflammatory genes COX-2, IL-2, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and prevented the activation and differentiation of primary human CD4 cell cultures. In animal studies, SP600125 blocked (bacterial) lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inhibited anti-CD3-induced apoptosis of CD4(+) CD8(+) thymocytes. Our study supports targeting JNK as an important strategy in inflammatory disease, apoptotic cell death, and cancer.
Publication
Journal: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
April/3/2002
Abstract
Tremendous progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of the antiviral actions of interferons (IFNs), as well as strategies evolved by viruses to antagonize the actions of IFNs. Furthermore, advances made while elucidating the IFN system have contributed significantly to our understanding in multiple areas of virology and molecular cell biology, ranging from pathways of signal transduction to the biochemical mechanisms of transcriptional and translational control to the molecular basis of viral pathogenesis. IFNs are approved therapeutics and have moved from the basic research laboratory to the clinic. Among the IFN-induced proteins important in the antiviral actions of IFNs are the RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), the 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) and RNase L, and the Mx protein GTPases. Double-stranded RNA plays a central role in modulating protein phosphorylation and RNA degradation catalyzed by the IFN-inducible PKR kinase and the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate-dependent RNase L, respectively, and also in RNA editing by the IFN-inducible RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR1). IFN also induces a form of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS2) and the major histocompatibility complex class I and II proteins, all of which play important roles in immune response to infections. Several additional genes whose expression profiles are altered in response to IFN treatment and virus infection have been identified by microarray analyses. The availability of cDNA and genomic clones for many of the components of the IFN system, including IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, and IFN-gamma, their receptors, Jak and Stat and IRF signal transduction components, and proteins such as PKR, 2',5'-OAS, Mx, and ADAR, whose expression is regulated by IFNs, has permitted the generation of mutant proteins, cells that overexpress different forms of the proteins, and animals in which their expression has been disrupted by targeted gene disruption. The use of these IFN system reagents, both in cell culture and in whole animals, continues to provide important contributions to our understanding of the virus-host interaction and cellular antiviral response.
Authors
Publication
Journal: FASEB Journal
September/27/2004
Abstract
The cause of fibrotic diseases, pathologies characterized by excessive production, deposition, and contraction of extracellular matrix, is unknown. To understand the molecular basis of fibrotic disease, it is essential to appreciate how matrix deposition is normally controlled and how this process is dysregulated in fibrogenesis. This review discusses the current state of knowledge concerning interactions among the profibrotic proteins transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, CCN2), and ED-A fibronectin (ED-A FN) and the antifibrotic proteins tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma).