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Publication
Journal: Journal of Neurochemistry
July/12/2001
Abstract
Estrogen is an active neuroprotectant and is presently investigated as a potential therapy against Alzheimer's disease for women. To determine if male hormones could also be neuroprotective, we investigated the effect of testosterone, methyltestosterone, and epitestosterone at physiological concentrations on primary cultures of human neurons induced to undergo apoptosis by serum deprivation. Serum deprivation significantly induces neuronal apoptosis in a protracted fashion. As expected, physiological concentrations of 17-beta-estradiol and transcriptionally inactive 17-alpha-estradiol protect neurons against apoptosis. Similar to 17-beta-estradiol, physiological concentrations of testosterone are also neuroprotective. Androgen receptors are present at 8 +/- 2 fmol/mg protein in the neuron cultures. The non-aromatizable androgen, mibolerone, is also neuroprotective and aromatase inhibitor, 4-androsten-4-OL-3,17-dione, does not prevent testosterone-mediated neuroprotection. In contrast, anti-androgen, flutamide, eliminates testosterone-mediated neuroprotection. Testosterone analog, methyltestosterone, showed androgen receptor-dependent neuroprotection that was delayed in time indicating that a metabolite may be the active agent. The endogenous anti-androgen, epitestosterone, also showed a slight neuroprotective effect but not through the androgen receptor. These results indicate that androgens induce neuroprotection directly through the androgen receptor. These data suggest that androgens may also be of therapeutic value against Alzheimer's disease in aging males.
Publication
Journal: Drug Metabolism and Disposition
March/12/1998
Abstract
UGT2B7 has been cloned and expressed previously in COS cells and HK293 cells. Two forms have been identified: one with a tyrosine and one with a histidine at position 268. UGT2B7 has been shown to catalyze NSAIDs, catechol estrogens, and morphine-3- and -6-glucuronidation. cDNAs for UGT2B7Y268 and H268 were cloned and stably expressed in HK 293 cells. Studies were designed to test each form for reactivity toward a number of opioid compounds, xenobiotics such as menthol, oxazepam, and propranolol, and androgens such as androsterone and testosterone using membrane preparations derived from HK 293 cells. Both UGT2B7Y and UGT2B7H are highly reactive with many opioids, menthol, androsterone, and (R)- and (S)-propranolol, and similar kinetic values were observed. UGT2B7Y and UGT2B7H react poorly with oxazepam and no difference in (R)- or (S)-glucuronidation rate ratios was found. Thus, UGT2B7Y and H cannot account for the variability in the plasma or urine concentrations of these glucuronides in human populations. Our data suggest that UGT2B7 is a major isoform responsible for the glucuronidation of androsterone. Neither UGT2B7Y nor H catalyzes the glucuronidation of testosterone although each catalyzes the glucuronidation of epitestosterone. UGT2B7 seems to be a major human isoform responsible for the glucuronidation of opioids of the morphinan and oripavine class and is capable of catalyzing the glucuronidation of both the 3- and 6-hydroxyl moieties on these molecules. Thus, UGT2B7 plays a major role in the conversion of morphine to morphine-6-glucuronide, the potent analgesic metabolite of morphine.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
August/21/2008
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Testosterone abuse is conventionally assessed by the urinary testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, levels above 4.0 being considered suspicious. The large variation in testosterone glucuronide (TG) excretion and its strong association with a deletion polymorphism in the uridine diphospho-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) 2B17 gene challenge the accuracy of the T/E ratio test.
OBJECTIVE
Our objective was to investigate whether genotype-based cutoff values will improve the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
METHODS
This was an open three-armed comparative study.
METHODS
A total of 55 healthy male volunteers with either two, one, or no allele [insertion/insertion, insertion/deletion, or deletion/deletion (del/del)] of the UGT2B17 gene was included in the study.
METHODS
A single im dose of 500 mg testosterone enanthate was administered.
METHODS
Urinary excretion of TG after dose and the T/E ratio during 15 d were calculated.
RESULTS
The degree and rate of increase in the TG excretion rate were highly dependent on the UGT2B17 genotype with a 20-fold higher average maximum increase in the insertion/insertion group compared with the del/del group. Of the del/del subjects, 40% never reached the T/E ratio of 4.0 on any of the 15 d after the dose. When differentiated cutoff levels for the del/del (1.0) and the other genotypes (6.0) were applied, the sensitivity increased substantially for the del/del group, and false positives in the other genotypes were eliminated.
CONCLUSIONS
Consideration of the genetic variation in disposition of androgens will improve the sensitivity and specificity of the testosterone doping test. This is of interest not only for combating androgen doping in sports, but also for detecting and preventing androgen abuse in society.
Publication
Journal: Prostate
September/2/1992
Abstract
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has emerged as the most useful marker for management of patients with prostate cancer. The regulation of this glycoprotein in vivo has important clinical implications. Indirect evidence indicates that the PSA glycoprotein might be regulated by androgens, and previous studies in this laboratory have demonstrated that PSA mRNA is upregulated by androgens. The current work reports a detailed study of PSA glycoprotein expression as influenced by steroid hormones in a human prostatic adenocarcinoma cell line, LNCaP. First, we have examined the steroid binding specificity of the androgen receptor in this cell line. In comparison with wild-type rat androgen receptor in prostate, the receptor in LNCaP cells has altered affinity for a number of steroids or analogs such as progesterone (R5020), antiprogesterone (RU486), two antiandrogens (cyperoterone acetate and hydroxyflutamide), and an androgen metabolite (epitestosterone). However, its affinity for androgens (mibolerone, dihydrotestosterone, and testosterone) is not changed. The receptor does not bind to the synthetic glucocorticoids (triaminolone acetonide and dexamethasone) nor to a synthetic estrogen DES (diethylstilbestrol). The change of the steroid binding specificity of the receptor is correlated with a single mutation (A----G at nucleotide #876 relative to the initiation codon) of the steroid binding domain of the receptor. The mutation and alteration of steroid-binding specificity of the androgen receptor is also correlated with PSA glycoprotein expression affected by different ligands tested. We have demonstrated that the PSA glycoprotein is upregulated by androgens and is affected by neither epidermal growth factor nor basic fibroblast growth factor. Moreover, PSA glycoprotein could be induced by R5020, estradiol, and epitestosterone; but neither glucocorticoids nor DES had any effect on PSA induction. Interestingly, although the antiandrogen, cyperotone acetate, had the ability to induce PSA, both RU486 and hydroxyflutamide could block androgen and progesterone induction of PSA glycoprotein. Therefore, we conclude that the PSA glycoprotein expression is influenced predominantly by androgens via its receptor, and the mutation of the receptor can affect the expression of this cellular gene by the steroids other than androgens.
Publication
Journal: Human Reproduction
July/26/2001
Abstract
Three in-vitro bioassays were used to compare the oestrogenic potency of chemicals used as growth promoter in beef cattle in certain non-European Union countries (17beta-oestradiol, alpha-zearalanol, testosterone, trenbolone, trenbolone acetate, melengestrol acetate) or found as food contaminant such as the mycotoxin zearalenone and some of their metabolites (17alpha-oestradiol, oestrone, 17alpha-epitestosterone, 19-nortestosterone, androstendione, zearalanone, alpha-zearalanol, beta-zearalanol, alpha-zearalenol, beta-zearalenol). The strong oestrogens 17alpha-ethinyl oestradiol and diethylstilboestrol were used as standards. The first bioassay was based on the activation of a reporter gene by oestrogens in recombinant yeast expressing human or rainbow trout oestrogen receptor. In the second bioassay, the vitellogenin gene induction of rainbow trout hepatocyte cultures was used as a biomarker for the exposure to oestrogens. The third bioassay was based on the alkaline phosphatase gene induction by oestrogens in the human endometrial Ishikawa cell line. The assessment of oestrogenic potency of these chemicals clearly demonstrates the strong oestrogenicity of the mycotoxin zearalenone and its metabolites and particularly alpha-zearalenol which was as potent as ethinyl oestradiol and diethylstilboestrol in the human endometrial Ishikawa cell line.
Publication
Journal: Drug Metabolism and Disposition
May/14/2009
Abstract
Testosterone and epitestosterone are endogenous steroids that differ in the configuration of the hydroxyl-bearing carbon at C-17. Testosterone is the predominant male sex hormone, whereas the role of epitestosterone is largely unclear. In humans, both androgens are excreted mainly as glucuronide conjugates and the urinary ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E), used to expose illicit testosterone abuse by male athletes, indicates the relative concentrations of the respective glucuronides. Some male athletes have T/E values greater than the accepted threshold value (4.0), even without testosterone abuse. We have analyzed athletes' urine samples and found that the main reason for such false-positive results in doping tests was a low epitestosterone glucuronide concentration not a high level of testosterone glucuronide. Sulfate conjugates of both testosterone and epitestosterone were also detected in the different urine samples. Glucuronidation assays with the 19 human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) of subfamilies UGT1A, UGT2A, and UGT2B revealed that UGT2B17 is the most active enzyme in testosterone glucuronidation. UGT2B17 does not glucuronidate epitestosterone, but inhibition studies revealed that it binds epitestosterone with affinity similar to that of testosterone. Epitestosterone glucuronidation is catalyzed mainly by UGT2B7, and the K(m) of this reaction is significantly lower than the K(m) of UGT2B17 for testosterone. Although UGT2B7 and UGT2B17 exhibited high, although converse, stereoselectivity in testosterone and epitestosterone glucuronidation, UGT2A1, an extrahepatic enzyme that is expressed mainly in the nasal epithelium, catalyzed the glucuronidation of both steroids at considerable rates and similar kinetics. The results shed new light on the substrate specificity and stereoselectivity of human UGTs.
Publication
Journal: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry
July/6/1994
Abstract
We propose a new confirmatory method for testosterone doping in sport. The present method in use, based on measuring the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio in urine, may miss suspicious cases, or lead to reporting cases in which the high ratio is natural. Synthetic testosterone has a 13C abundance different from that of endogenous human testosterone. The connection of a gas chromatograph to an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer via a combustion interface allows the measurement of the corresponding characteristic value (delta /1000) for testosterone, its precursors, and its metabolites. To detect exogenous administration of testosterone, 30-40 mL of urine is sufficient.
Publication
Journal: British Journal of Sports Medicine
July/24/1991
Abstract
A detection method for testosterone administration was developed using radioimmunoassay to measure the urinary ratios of testosterone (T) to epitestosterone (E) and to luteinizing hormone (LH). A comparative study of the effect on these ratios of a single intramuscular injection of testosterone heptanoate followed by stimulation with human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) in three normal men was undertaken. To allow immediate investigation, a commercially supplied epitestosterone antiserum was used. This study showed that both T/E and T/LH ratios could be used to detect testosterone administration, the latter also being an indicator of HCG use due to cross-reactivity with the LH antiserum. Subsequently, an epitestosterone antiserum of superior specificity was raised and used in a study to demonstrate the insignificant effect of exercise on these ratios. Finally, an intramuscular injection of a combined preparation of testosterone/epitestosterone heptanoates resulted in raised ratios of T/LH but not of T/E. This demonstrated the importance of the T/LH ratio in circumstances where the T/E ratio can be easily circumvented.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
April/7/2009
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Testosterone (T) is excreted in urine as water-soluble glucuronidated and sulfated conjugates. The ability to glucuronidate T and other steroids depends on a number of different glucuronidases (UGT) of which UGT2B17 is essential. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of UGT2B17 genotypes on urinary excretion of androgen metabolites in pubertal boys.
METHODS
A clinical study of 116 healthy boys aged 8-19 yr. UGT2B17 genotyping was performed using quantitative PCR. Serum FSH, LH, T, estradiol (E2), and SHBG were analyzed by immunoassays, and urinary levels of androgen metabolites were quantitated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in all subjects.
RESULTS
Ten of 116 subjects (9%) presented with a homozygote deletion of the UGT2B17 gene (del/del), whereas 52 and 54 boys were hetero- and homozygous carriers of the UGT2B17 gene (del/ins and ins/ins), respectively. None of the reproductive hormones were affected by UGT2B17 genotype. In all subjects, mean urinary T/epitestosterone ratio was 1.56 [1.14 (SD); 0.1-6.9 (range)] and unaffected by age or pubertal stage. Subjects with homozygous deletions of UGT2B17 had significantly lower urinary levels of T and 5alpha- and 5beta-androstanediol. Mean urinary T/epitestosterone was significantly reduced in del/del subjects [0.29 (0.30); 0.1-1.0 (range), P < 0.0001].
CONCLUSIONS
In pubertal boys, a common homozygous deletion in the UGT2B17 gene strongly affected urinary excretion pattern of androgen metabolites but did not influence circulating androgen levels.
Publication
Journal: Biostatistics
August/14/2007
Abstract
We developed a test that compares sequential measurements of a biomarker against previous readings performed on the same individual. A probability mass function expresses prior information on interindividual variations of intraindividual parameters. Then, the model progressively integrates new readings to more accurately quantify the characteristics of the individual. This Bayesian framework generalizes the two main approaches currently used in forensic toxicology for the detection of abnormal values of a biomarker. The specificity is independent of the number n of previous test results, with a model that gradually evolves from population-derived limits when n = 0 to individual-based cutoff thresholds when n is large. We applied this model to detect abnormal values in an athlete's steroid profile characterized by the testosterone over epitestosterone (T/E) marker. A cross-validation procedure was used for the estimation of prior densities as well as model validation. The heightened sensitivity/specificity relation obtained on a large data set shows that longitudinal monitoring of an athlete's steroid profile may be used efficiently to detect the abuse of testosterone and its precursors in sports. Mild assumptions make the model interesting for other areas of forensic toxicology.
Publication
Journal: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
August/13/2008
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Testosterone is a commonly abused androgen in sports and in the gym culture of the society. Its abuse is conventionally disclosed by urinary assay of the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) glucuronide ratio, which should not exceed 4. A noteworthy number of athletes, however, have higher natural ratios than 4, most likely because of decreased excretion of epitestosterone glucuronide. Falsely positive doping test results are of great concern for the legal rights of the sportsman. Our objective was to study the genetic aspects of epitestosterone formation, and to elucidate the impact of genetic variation in androgen-metabolizing enzymes.
METHODS
Urine from different study populations was analysed for androgen glucuronides by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All men were genotyped for the uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B17 deletion polymorphism and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cytochrome P-450c17alpha (CYP17), UGT2B15 and UGT2B7 genes. Expression of UGT2B15 mRNA in human liver samples was analysed using real-time PCR.
RESULTS
A T>C (A1>A2) promoter polymorphism in the CYP17 gene was associated with the urinary glucuronide levels of epitestosterone and its putative precursor androstene-3beta, 17alpha-diol, resulting in 64% higher T/E ratios in A1/A1 homozygotes. Individuals devoid of UGT2B17 had significantly higher UGT2B15 mRNA levels in liver than individuals carrying two functional UGT2B17 alleles.
CONCLUSIONS
The CYP17 promoter polymorphism may partly explain high natural (>4) T/E ratios. Our data indicate that 5-androstene-3beta, 17alpha-diol is an important precursor of epitestosterone and that CYP17 is involved in its production. In addition, we found that lack of the UGT2B17 enzyme may be compensated for by increase in UGT2B15 transcription.
Publication
Journal: Steroids
July/2/2007
Abstract
Androgens are considered to play a substantial role in pathogenesis of both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. The importance of determination of androgen levels in tissue and serum for cancer progression and prognosis has been poorly understood. The aim of study was to find out hormonal differences in both diseases, their correlations between intraprostatic and serum levels and predicted value of their investigation. Testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione and also epitestosterone were determined in prostate tissue from 57 patients who underwent transvesical prostatectomy for BPH and 121 patients after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. In 75 subjects with cancer and 51 with BPH the serum samples were analyzed for testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and SHBG. Significantly higher intraprostatic androgen concentrations, i.e. 8.85+/-6.77 versus 6.44+/-6.43 pmol/g, p<0.01 for dihydrotestosterone, and 4.61+/-7.02 versus 3.44+/-4.53 pmol/g, p<0.05 for testosterone, respectively, were found in patients with prostate cancer than in BPH. Higher levels in cancer tissue were found also for epitestosterone. However, no differences were found in serum levels. Highly significant correlations occurred between all pairs of intraprostatic androgens and also epitestosterone as well as between serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (p<0.001) in both BPH and cancer groups. Correlation was not found between corresponding tissue and serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, either in benign or cancer samples. The results point to importance of intraprostatic hormone levels for evaluation of androgen status of patients, contrasting to a low value of serum hormone measurement.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Biological Chemistry
April/4/1985
Abstract
Treatment of Leydig cells with 1 mM 8-Br-cAMP for 48 h decreased microsomal cytochrome P-450 activities, 17 alpha-hydroxylase and C17-20 lyase, by 60-75% and resulted in desensitization of the steroidogenic response. Reduction of the oxygen tension from 19 to 1% O2 prevented the decrease in P-450 activities but not the reduction in steroidogenic capacity. The decrease in activity was also prevented by blocking steroid synthesis with aminoglutethimide. Treatment of cultures with steroid products, androstenedione or testosterone, or product analogs, epitestosterone or 17 alpha-methyltestosterone, at a concentration of 2 microM, which is equivalent to the concentration of testosterone resulting from stimulation with cAMP, also caused oxygen tension-sensitive decreases in hydroxylase activity. Treatment of cultures with 2 microM cortisol, estradiol, or methyltrienolone, an androgen receptor agonist, did not decrease hydroxylase activity, nor did treatment with an androgen receptor antagonist prevent the cAMP- or testosterone-induced decreases in hydroxylase activity. Reductions in hydroxylase and lyase activities resulting from testosterone- or epitestosterone-treatment had little or no effect on acute cAMP-stimulated testosterone production, whereas desensitization with cAMP caused an 80-90% reduction in steroidogenic capacity. 22R-Hydroxycholesterol-supported testosterone synthesis was decreased by both cAMP- and steroid-treatment at 19% O2, but not below the cAMP-stimulated level. Reduction of the oxygen tension partially prevented this decrease. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the decline in microsomal P-450 enzymes in desensitized Leydig cells results from product (pseudosubstrate)-induced, oxygen-derived, free-radical damage rather than a steroid receptor-mediated process.
Publication
Journal: British Journal of Sports Medicine
March/15/2011
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Urinary steroid profiling is used in doping controls to detect testosterone abuse. A testosterone over epitestosterone (T/E) ratio exceeding 4.0 is considered as suspicious of testosterone administration, irrespectively of individual heterogeneous factors such as the athlete's ethnicity. A deletion polymorphism in the UGT2B17 gene was demonstrated to account for a significant part of the interindividual variability in the T/E between Caucasians and Asians. Here, the variability of urinary steroid profiles was examined in a widely heterogeneous cohort of professional soccer players.
METHODS
The steroid profile of 57 Africans, 32 Asians, 50 Caucasians and 32 Hispanics was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
RESULTS
Significant differences have been observed between all ethnic groups. After estimation of the prevalence of the UGT2B17 deletion/deletion genotype (African: 22%; Asian: 81%; Caucasian: 10%; Hispanic: 7%), ethnic-specific thresholds were developed for a specificity of 99% for the T/E (African: 5.6; Asian: 3.8; Caucasian: 5.7; Hispanic: 5.8). Finally, another polymorphism could be hypothesised in Asians based on specific concentration ratio of 5alpha-/5beta-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol in urine.
CONCLUSIONS
These results demonstrate that a unique and non-specific threshold to evidence testosterone misuse is not fit for purpose. An athlete's endocrinological passport consisting of a longitudinal follow-up together with the ethnicity and/or the genotype would strongly enhance the detection of testosterone abuse. Finally, additional genotyping studies should be undertaken to determine whether the remaining unexplained disparities have an environmental or a genetic origin.
Publication
Journal: Steroids
December/29/2009
Abstract
Testosterone and epitestosterone are secreted mainly as glucuronide metabolites and the urinary ratio of testosterone glucuronide to epitestosterone glucuronide, often called T/E, serves as a marker for possible anabolic steroids abuse by athletes. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B17 is the most important catalyst of testosterone glucuronidation. The T/E might be affected by drugs that interact with UGT2B17, or other enzymes that contribute to testosterone glucuronidation. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used by sportsmen and we have examined the effect of two NSAIDs, diclofenac and ibuprofen, on testosterone and epitestosterone glucuronidation in human liver microsomes. In parallel, we have studied the inhibitory effect of these NSAIDs on recombinant UGT2B17 and UGT2B15, as well as other human hepatic UGTs that revealed low but detectable testosterone glucuronidation activity, namely UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A9 and UGT2B7. Both diclofenac and ibuprofen inhibited testosterone glucuronidation in microsomes, as well as UGT2B15 and UGT2B17. Interestingly, UGT2B15 was more sensitive than UGT2B17 to the two drugs, particularly to ibuprofen. Human liver microsomes lacking functional UGT2B17 exhibited significantly higher sensitivity to ibuprofen, suggesting that UGT2B15 plays a major role in the residual testosterone glucuronidation activity in UGT2B17-deficient individuals. Nonetheless, a minor contribution of other UGTs, particularly UGT1A9, to testosterone glucuronidation in such individuals cannot be ruled out at this stage. The epitestosterone glucuronidation activity of human liver microsomes was largely insensitive to ibuprofen and diclofenac. Taken together, the results highlight potential interactions between NSAIDs and androgen glucuronidation with possible implications for the validity of doping tests.
Publication
Journal: Clinical Chemistry
July/31/1997
Abstract
Over the last decade the number of laboratories accredited by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) has grown to 25. Nearly half of the approximately 90,000 samples tested annually are collected on short notice-the most effective means to deter the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). The major urinary metabolites of AAS have been characterized and are identified by their chromatographic retention times and full or partial mass spectra. The process of determining if an athlete has used testosterone (T) begins with finding a T to epitestosterone (E) ratio>> 6 and continues with a review of the T/E-time profile. For the user who discontinues taking T, the T/E reverts to baseline (typically approximately 1.0). For the extremely rare athlete with a naturally increased T/E ratio, the T/E remains chronically increased. Short-acting formulations of T transiently increase T/E, and E administration lowers it. Among ancillary tests to help discriminate between naturally increased T/E values and those reflecting T use, the most promising is determination of the carbon isotope ratio.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Mass Spectrometry
August/21/2008
Abstract
Steroid profiling is one of the most versatile and informative screening tools for the detection of steroid abuse in sports drug testing. Concentrations and ratios of various endogenously produced steroidal hormones, their precursors and metabolites including testosterone (T), epitestosterone (E), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androsterone (And), etiocholanolone (Etio), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (Adiol), and 5beta-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (Bdiol) as well as androstenedione, 6alpha-OH-androstenedione, 5beta-androstane-3alpha,17alpha-diol (17-epi-Bdiol), 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17alpha-diol (17-epi-Adiol), 3alpha,5-cyclo-5alpha-androstan-6beta-ol-17-one (3alpha,5-cyclo), 5alpha-androstanedione (Adion), and 5beta-androstanedione (Bdion) add up to a steroid profile that is highly sensitive to applications of endogenous as well as synthetic anabolic steroids, masking agents, and bacterial activity. Hence, the knowledge of factors that do influence the steroid profile pattern is a central aspect, and pharmaceutical (application of endogenous steroids and various pharmaceutical preparations), technical (hydrolysis, derivatization, matrix), and biological (bacterial activities, enzyme side activities) issues are reviewed.
Publication
Journal: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
August/18/2011
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To study the disposition of serum testosterone and seven of its metabolites before and after 2 days of an intramuscular dose (500 mg) of testosterone enanthate in relation to the phosphodiesterase (PDE7B) and the uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT2B17) genotypes.
METHODS
Patients were genotyped for UGT2B17 deletion polymorphism and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PDE7B gene. The involvement of PDE7B in hydrolysis of enanthate was assessed in human liver homogenates.
RESULTS
Genetic variation in the PDE7B gene was found to be associated with the serum level of testosterone. Individuals homozygous for PDE7B rs7774640 G allele had a smaller increase (2.5-fold) in the serum testosterone levels compared with carriers of the A allele (3.9-fold, P=0.0006). In addition, genetic variation in the PDE7B gene significantly influences the testosterone/epitestosterone ratio, a biomarker of testosterone doping. Our in-vitro incubation studies confirmed that PDE7B serves as a catalyst of the hydrolysis of testosterone enanthate. The UGT2B17 deletion polymorphism did not show any significant association with serum testosterone levels or the other androgen metabolites investigated.
CONCLUSIONS
We have shown that PDE7B is involved in the hydrolysis of testosterone enanthate and that genetic variation in the PDE7B gene is a determinant of the systemic levels of testosterone after administration of testosterone enanthate. It is reasonable to believe that the genetic variation in testosterone bioavailability may be correlated to varying effects of this androgen, whether it is used for replacement therapy or abused in doping. Thus our results may be important to consider in doping test programmes and in therapeutics with androgens and other esterified drugs.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Mass Spectrometry
October/24/1996
Abstract
The current approach to detection of doping with testosterone is based on measuring the testosterone to epitestosterone ratio (T/E) in urine by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The median T/E for healthy males who have not used T is about 1.0. In a single urine, a T/E lower than six leads to a negative report even though it does not exclude T administration. A value greater than six indicates possible T administration or a naturally elevated ratio. It has been shown previously that the carbon isotope ratio of urinary T changes after T administration. In this study a potential confirmation method for T abuse was optimized. Gas chromatography/combustion/carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) was used to analyze two T precursors (cholesterol and 5-androsten-3 beta, 17 beta-diol) and two T metabolites (5 alpha- and 5 beta-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol) in addition to T itself in each of 25 blind urines collected from eight healthy men before, during or after T administration. The carbon isotope ratios of T and the metabolites were lower after T administration. The relationships among the variables were studied using multivariate analysis and beginning with principal components analysis; cluster analysis revealed that the data are composed of two clusters, and classified the samples obtained after T administration in one cluster and the remainder in the other; discriminant analysis correctly identified T users. The measurement of carbon isotope ratios of urinary androgens is comparable to the T/E>> 6 test and continues to show promise for resolving cases where doping with T is suspected.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
December/23/2011
Abstract
BACKGROUND
The conspicuous interindividual differences in metabolism and urinary excretion of testosterone and its metabolites make it challenging to reveal testosterone doping. The variation in testosterone glucuronide excretion is strongly associated with a deletion polymorphism in the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltranferase (UGT) 2B17 gene.
OBJECTIVE
The objective of the study was to identify additional biomarkers to detect testosterone abuse and to elucidate alternative pathways for testosterone elimination in individuals devoid of the UGT2B17 enzyme. For this purpose a new ultraperformance liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric method for simultaneous determination of 10 different sulfo- and glucuronide-conjugated steroids was developed.
METHODS
Fifty-four healthy male volunteers with two, one, or no allele (ins/ins, ins/del, or del/del) of the UGT2B17 gene participated in the study.
METHODS
Intervention included a single im dose of 500 mg testosterone enanthate.
METHODS
Urinary sulfo- and glucuronide-conjugated steroids were measured.
RESULTS
Testosterone sulfate levels decreased in all individuals after the dose. The individual differences in the excretion of all sulfated metabolites were large. Thus, these metabolites will not serve as appropriate biomarkers for testosterone abuse. However, androsterone glucuronide excretion increased in all of our study subjects after the testosterone dose. Etiocholanolone sulfate was excreted at significantly higher levels in UGT2B17 del/del individuals.
CONCLUSIONS
We propose that the androsterone glucuronide to epitestosterone glucuronide ratio may serve as a complementary biomarker to reveal testosterone abuse.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Dermatological Science
September/28/2004
Abstract
BACKGROUND
It is well known that male-pattern baldness (MPB) is not started from occipital, but frontal or scalp of head. We can assume that distribution of androgenic steroids is different for each region of the head.
OBJECTIVE
We hypothesize that the levels of androgenic steroids are different not only between vertex hair with MPB and controls but also between occipital hair with MPB and controls. Moreover, we want to search for the biochemical indicator in plasma and hair sample (baldness: 22, non-baldness: 13) obtained from dermatology of medical center. After then, we desire to present fundamental data regarding diagnosis, medical cure, and prevention for premature MPB.
METHODS
After hair and plasma were hydrolyzed, and then extracted with organic solvent. To assess androgenic steroids levels, we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system in selected ion monitoring mode.
RESULTS
The level of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio) in vertex hair from premature baldness subjects were higher than in the sample of non-baldness subjects (P<0.001, 0.001), whereas the levels of androgens in occipital hair from the same baldness group were not different. In addition, we discovered the levels of DHT, testosterone, and DHT/T ratio in plasma from premature MPB were higher than in those of control subjects (P<0.001, 0.001, 0.005).
CONCLUSIONS
We verified that the distribution of androgenic steroids is unlike in various regions of individual subjects. Moreover, the increased DHT/T ratio in balding plasma indirectly confirms the high activity of 5alpha-reductase type II.
Publication
Journal: Endocrinology
November/28/1986
Abstract
A new synthetic biotinylated N-terminal analog of CRF was used to study its binding, endocytosis, and route of processing. The new analog was fully bioactive compared to rat(r) CRF in an ACTH bioassay and pituitary membrane receptor assay. In 1- to 4-day cultured pituitary cell monolayers, CRF receptors were labeled for 1-biotinylated rCRF (1-bio-CRF) and demonstrated with avidin-fluorescein (Ar-Fl) in living cells or with avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) in fixed cells. The percentages of fluorescein-labeled cells were comparable to those stained with the ABC technique. The specificity of binding by 1-bio-CRF was shown by the ability of unlabeled CRF to inhibit staining, whereas 100 nM arginine vasopressin, angiotensin II, or somatostatin was without effect. Treatment of the cells with 100 nM glucocorticoids for 1 or 24 h before the 3-min stimulation with 1-bio-CRF caused a 50-60% reduction in the percentage of cells stained with either ABC or Av-Fl. Pretreatment with vehicle, a lower dose of corticosterone (10 nM), or other steroids (dihydrotestosterone or epitestosterone) did not decrease the percentage of cells stained with the ABC technique. The lower dose of glucocorticoids decreased the stain with Av-Fl by 50% after 1 h of pretreatment. Electron microscopic analysis of binding and endocytosis of 1-bio-CRF stained with the ABC technique showed patches of stain on coated pits and microvilli during the first 3 min of exposure. Internalization in vesicles and receptosomes was also seen during the first 3 min. Some stain was found on secretion granules as early as 1 min after exposure. Five minutes after exposure, the stain was in receptosomes, Golgi cisternae, condensing vesicles in the transreticular Golgi region, and 23% of the granules in the cytoplasm. During the later exposure periods (15-30 min), stain was also seen in multivesicular bodies. The correlative light and electron microscopic studies showed that 1-bio-CRF is rapidly internalized after patching on the surface and is ultimately found in multivesicular bodies or granules. We postulate that these structures are involved in processing or degradation of the ligand.
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