Criteria to indicate testosterone administration.
A detection method for testosterone administration was developed using radioimmunoassay to measure the urinary ratios of testosterone (T) to epitestosterone (E) and to luteinizing hormone (LH). A comparative study of the effect on these ratios of a single intramuscular injection of testosterone heptanoate followed by stimulation with human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) in three normal men was undertaken. To allow immediate investigation, a commercially supplied epitestosterone antiserum was used. This study showed that both T/E and T/LH ratios could be used to detect testosterone administration, the latter also being an indicator of HCG use due to cross-reactivity with the LH antiserum. Subsequently, an epitestosterone antiserum of superior specificity was raised and used in a study to demonstrate the insignificant effect of exercise on these ratios. Finally, an intramuscular injection of a combined preparation of testosterone/epitestosterone heptanoates resulted in raised ratios of T/LH but not of T/E. This demonstrated the importance of the T/LH ratio in circumstances where the T/E ratio can be easily circumvented.
Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.1M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.
These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
- Brooks RV, Jeremiah G, Webb WA, Wheeler M. Detection of anabolic steroid administration to athletes. J Steroid Biochem. 1979 Jul;11(1C):913–917. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- KORENMAN SG, WILSON H, LIPSETT MB. ISOLATION OF 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYANDROST-4-EN-3-ONE (EPITESTOSTERONE) FROM HUMAN URINE. J Biol Chem. 1964 Apr;239:1004–1006. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- ERLANGER BF, BOREK F, BEISER SM, LIEBERMAN S. Steroid-protein conjugates. I. Preparation and characterization of conjugates of bovine serum albumin with testosterone and with cortisone. J Biol Chem. 1957 Oct;228(2):713–727. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- GREENWOOD FC, HUNTER WM, GLOVER JS. THE PREPARATION OF I-131-LABELLED HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE OF HIGH SPECIFIC RADIOACTIVITY. Biochem J. 1963 Oct;89:114–123.[PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Brooks RV, Firth RG, Sumner NA. Detection of anabolic steroids by radioimmunoassay. Br J Sports Med. 1975 Jul;9(2):89–92.[PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- BROOKS RV. A method for the quantitative fractionation of urinary 17-oxo steroids with some observations on steroid excretion during administration of ACTH and in the adrenogenital syndrome. Biochem J. 1958 Jan;68(1):50–57.[PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Keenan BS, Eberle AJ, Sparrow JT, Greger NG, Panko WB. Dihydrotestosterone heptanoate: synthesis, pharmacokinetics, and effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular function. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987 Mar;64(3):557–562. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Mortimer D, Lenton EA. Distribution of sperm counts in suspected infertile men. J Reprod Fertil. 1983 May;68(1):91–96. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Kelch RP, Jenner MR, Weinstein R, Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM. Estradiol and testosterone secretion by human, simian, and canine testes, in males with hypogonadism and in male pseudohermaphrodites with the feminizing testes syndrome. J Clin Invest. 1972 Apr;51(4):824–830.[PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- MacDonald PC, Madden JD, Brenner PF, Wilson JD, Siiteri PK. Origin of estrogen in normal men and in women with testicular feminization. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1979 Dec;49(6):905–916. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Jones TM, Fang VS, Landau RL, Rosenfield R. Direct inhibition of Leydig cell function by estradiol. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1978 Dec;47(6):1368–1373. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Forest MG, Lecoq A, Saez JM. Kinetics of human chorionic gonadotropin-induced steroidogenic response of the human testis. II. Plasma 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, delta4-androstenedione, estrone, and 17 beta-estradiol: evidence for the action of human chorionic gonadotropin on intermediate enzymes implicated in steroid biosynthesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1979 Aug;49(2):284–291. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Martikainen H, Huhtaniemi I, Vihko R. Response of peripheral serum sex steroids and some of their precursors to a single injection of hCG in adult men. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1980 Aug;13(2):157–166. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Saez JM, Forest MG. Kinetics of human chorionic gonadotropin-induced steroidogenic response of the human testis. I. Plasma testosterone: implications for human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation test. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1979 Aug;49(2):278–283. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Plymate SR, Leonard JM, Paulsen CA, Fariss BL, Karpas AE. Sex hormone-binding globulin changes with androgen replacement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983 Sep;57(3):645–648. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Ruokonen A, Alén M, Bolton N, Vihko R. Response of serum testosterone and its precursor steroids, SHBG and CBG to anabolic steroid and testosterone self-administration in man. J Steroid Biochem. 1985 Jul;23(1):33–38. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Ruiz E, Ortega E, Sanchez-Cantalejo E, Osorio C. Effects of depot testosterone administration on serum levels of testosterone, FSH, LH and prolactin. J Endocrinol Invest. 1980 Oct-Dec;3(4):385–388. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Casper RF, Yen SS. Simultaneous pulsatile release of prolactin and luteinizing hormone induced by luteinizing hormone-releasing factor agonist. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1981 May;52(5):934–936. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Wilson H, Lipsett MB. Metabolism of epitestosterone in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1966 Aug;26(8):902–914. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- MacConnie SE, Barkan A, Lampman RM, Schork MA, Beitins IZ. Decreased hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion in male marathon runners. N Engl J Med. 1986 Aug 14;315(7):411–417. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Kuoppasalmi K, Näveri H, Härkönen M, Adlercreutz H. Plasma cortisol, androstenedione, testosterone and luteinizing hormone in running exercise of different intensities. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1980 Sep;40(5):403–409. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]