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Publication
Journal: Blood
June/10/2002
Abstract
CD2(+) T lymphocytes obtained from either the donor of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) or a third party were cultured in mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLRs) with either allogeneic dendritic cells (DCs) or peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). When autologous or allogeneic BMSCs were added back to T cells stimulated by DCs or PBLs, a significant and dose-dependent reduction of T-cell proliferation, ranging from 60% +/- 5% to 98% +/- 1%, was evident. Similarly, addition of BMSCs to T cells stimulated by polyclonal activators resulted in a 65% +/- 5% (P =.0001) suppression of proliferation. BMSC- induced T-cell suppression was still evident when BMSCs were added in culture as late as 5 days after starting of MLRs. BMSC-inhibited T lymphocytes were not apoptotic and efficiently proliferated on restimulation. BMSCs significantly suppressed both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells (65% +/- 5%, [P =.0005] and 75% +/- 15% [P =.0005], respectively). Transwell experiments, in which cell-cell contact between BMSCs and effector cells was prevented, resulted in a significant inhibition of T-lymphocyte proliferation, suggesting that soluble factors were involved in this phenomenon. By using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, transforming growth factor beta1 and hepatocyte growth factor were identified as the mediators of BMSC effects. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that (1) autologous or allogeneic BMSCs strongly suppress T-lymphocyte proliferation, (2) this phenomenon that is triggered by both cellular as well as nonspecific mitogenic stimuli has no immunologic restriction, and (3) T-cell inhibition is not due to induction of apoptosis and is likely due to the production of soluble factors.
Publication
Journal: Nature
August/18/1997
Abstract
Metal ions are essential cofactors for a wealth of biological processes, including oxidative phosphorylation, gene regulation and free-radical homeostasis. Failure to maintain appropriate levels of metal ions in humans is a feature of hereditary haemochromatosis, disorders of metal-ion deficiency, and certain neurodegenerative diseases. Despite their pivotal physiological roles, however, there is no molecular information on how metal ions are actively absorbed by mammalian cells. We have now identified a new metal-ion transporter in the rat, DCT1, which has an unusually broad substrate range that includes Fe2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Pb2+. DCT1 mediates active transport that is proton-coupled and depends on the cell membrane potential. It is a 561-amino-acid protein with 12 putative membrane-spanning domains and is ubiquitously expressed, most notably in the proximal duodenum. DCT1 is upregulated by dietary iron deficiency, and may represent a key mediator of intestinal iron absorption. DCT1 is a member of the 'natural-resistance-associated macrophage protein' (Nramp) family and thus its properties provide insight into how these proteins confer resistance to pathogens.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Immunology
September/26/1996
Abstract
In this study, we investigate whether human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease) is associated with altered lymphokine secretion profiles, as recently found in various animal models of chronic intestinal inflammation. In initial studies, we determined the proliferative responses of purified lamina propria (LP) CD4+ T cells from patients with IBD under defined conditions of T cell stimulation. We found that IBD LP CD4+ T cells in comparison with control LP CD4+ T cells have diminished TCR/CD3 pathway proliferative responses, whereas <em>CD2</em>/<em>CD2</em>8 accessory pathway proliferative responses are relatively preserved. In further studies centering on lymphokine production, we showed that LP T cells from inflamed Crohn's disease mucosa manifest increased IFN-gamma secretion compared with control LP T cells, particularly when stimulated via the <em>CD2</em>/<em>CD2</em>8 pathway. Subsequent ELISPOT analysis indicated that this was due to an increased number of IFN-gamma-secreting CD4+ T cells. In contrast, IL-4 and IL-5 production by Crohn's disease LP T cells was decreased compared with that of control LP T cells. Of interest, IL-2 production by Crohn's disease LP T cells was also reduced, as was IL-2 production by peripheral blood T cells. In parallel studies, LP T cells from inflamed ulcerative colitis mucosa stimulated via either the TCR/CD3/<em>CD2</em>8 or <em>CD2</em>/<em>CD2</em>8 produced increased amounts of IL-5, again when measured either as secreted IL-5 or by ELISPOT analysis. Such increased IL-5 production was not associated with increased IL-4 secretion and, in contrast to Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis LP T cell production of IL-2 and IFN-gamma was normal. Taken together, these studies provide strong evidence that the immunopathologic process characteristic of the two major forms of IBD is associated with very different cytokine secretion patterns. These different patterns may determine the type of inflammatory process present.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Physiology
May/12/1988
Abstract
1. Calcium currents in cultured dorsal root ganglion (d.r.g.) cells were studied with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Using experimental conditions that suppressed Na+ and K+ currents, and 3-10 mM-external Ca2+ or Ba2+, we distinguished three distinct types of calcium currents (L, T and N) on the basis of voltage-dependent kinetics and pharmacology. 2. Component L activates at relatively positive test potentials (t.p. greater than -10 mV) and shows little inactivation during a 200 ms depolarization. It is completely reprimed at a holding potential (h.p.) of -60 mV, and can be isolated by using a more depolarized h.p. (-40 mV) to inactivate the other two types of calcium currents. 3. Component T can be seen in isolation with weak test pulses. It begins activating at potentials more positive than -70 mV and inactivates quickly and completely during a maintained depolarization (time constant, tau approximately 20-50 ms). The current amplitude and the rate of decay increase with stronger depolarizations until both reach a maximum at approximately -40 mV. Inactivation is complete at h.p. greater than -60 mV and is progressively removed between -60 and -95 mV. 4. Component N activates at relatively strong depolarizations (t.p. greater than -20 mV) and decays with time constants ranging from 50 to 110 ms. Inactivation is removed over a very broad range of holding potentials (h.p. between -40 and -110 mV). 5. With 10 mM-EGTA in the pipette solution, substitution of Ba2+ for Ca2+ as the charge carrier does not alter the rates of activation or relaxation of any component. However, T-type channels are approximately equally permeable to Ca2+ and Ba2+, while L-type and N-type channels are both much more permeable to Ba2+. 6. Component N cannot be explained by current-dependent inactivation of L current resulting from recruitment of extra L-type channels at negative holding potentials: raising the external Ba2+ concentration to 110 mM greatly increases the amplitude of L current evoked from h.p. = -30 mV but produces little inactivation. 7. Cadmium ions (20-50 microM) virtually eliminate both N and L currents (greater than 90% block) but leave T relatively unaffected (less than 50% block). 200 microM-Cd2+ blocks all three components. 8. Nickel ions (100 microM) strongly reduce T current but leave N and L current little changed. 9. The dihydropyridine antagonist nifedipine (10 microM) inhibits L current (approximately 60% block) at a holding potential that inactivates half the L-type channels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
August/24/1988
Abstract
The Cre protein encoded by the coliphage P1 is a 38-kDa protein that efficiently promotes both intra- and intermolecular synapsis and recombination of DNA both in Escherichia coli and in vitro. Recombination occurs at a specific site, called lox, and does not require any other protein factors. The Cre protein is shown here also to be able to cause synapsis of DNA and site-specific recombination in a mammalian cell line. A stable mouse cell line was established that expresses the Cre protein under the control of the Cd2+-inducible metallothionein I gene promoter. DNA recombination was monitored with DNA substrates containing two directly repeated lox sites. One such substrate is a circular plasmid with two directly repeated lox sites (lox2) flanking a marker gene and was introduced into cells by Ca3(PO4)2 transformation. As a second substrate we used a pseudorabies virus (a herpesvirus) containing a lox2 insertion designed to provide a sensitive detection system for recombination. In both cases, site-specific recombination in vivo is dependent on the presence of the Cre protein and occurs specifically at the 34-base-pair lox sites. These results demonstrate the controlled site-specific synapsis of DNA and recombination by a prokaryotic protein in mammalian cells and suggest that Cre-mediated site-specific recombination may be a useful tool for understanding and modulating genome rearrangements in eukaryotes.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
June/18/1987
Abstract
A cDNA encoding the CD2 antigen has been isolated by a highly efficient technique based on transient expression in COS cells and adherence of cells expressing surface antigen to antibody-coated dishes. COS cells expressing a CD2 cDNA isolated by this method readily formed rosettes with sheep as well as human and other mammalian erythrocytes. Pretreatment of transfected COS cells with anti-CD2 antibody, or pretreatment of human erythrocytes with anti-LFA-3 antibody, abolished rosette formation.
Publication
Journal: Cell
August/5/2005
Abstract
Membrane subdomains have been implicated in T cell signaling, although their properties and mechanisms of formation remain controversial. Here, we have used single-molecule and scanning confocal imaging to characterize the behavior of GFP-tagged signaling proteins in Jurkat T cells. We show that the coreceptor CD2, the adaptor protein LAT, and tyrosine kinase Lck cocluster in discrete microdomains in the plasma membrane of signaling T cells. These microdomains require protein-protein interactions mediated through phosphorylation of LAT and are not maintained by interactions with actin or lipid rafts. Using a two color imaging approach that allows tracking of single molecules relative to the CD2/LAT/Lck clusters, we demonstrate that these microdomains exclude and limit the free diffusion of molecules in the membrane but also can trap and immobilize specific proteins. Our data suggest that diffusional trapping through protein-protein interactions creates microdomains that concentrate or exclude cell surface proteins to facilitate T cell signaling.
Publication
Journal: Annual Review of Immunology
July/24/1987
Publication
Journal: Journal of Clinical Investigation
June/17/2004
Abstract
While Crohn disease (CD) has been clearly identified as a Th1 inflammation, the immunopathogenesis of its counterpart inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis (UC), remains enigmatic. Here we show that lamina propria T (LPT) cells from UC patients produce significantly greater amounts of IL-13 (and IL-5) than control cells and little IFN-gamma, whereas comparable cells from CD patients produce large amounts of IFN-gamma and small amounts of IL-13. We then show that stimulation of UC LPT cells bearing an NK marker (CD161) with anti-<em>CD2</em>/anti-<em>CD2</em>8 or with B cells expressing transfected CD1d induces substantial IL-13 production. While this provided firm evidence that the IL-13-producing cell is an NK T (NKT) cell, it became clear that this cell does not express invariant NKT cell receptors characteristic of most NKT cells since there was no increase in cells binding alpha-galactosylceramide-loaded tetramers, and alpha-galactosylceramide did not induce IL-13 secretion. Finally, we show that both human NKT cell lines as well as UC CD161(+) LPT cells are cytotoxic for HT-29 epithelial cells and that this cytotoxicity is augmented by IL-13. These studies show that UC is associated with an atypical Th2 response mediated by nonclassical NKT cells producing IL-13 and having cytotoxic potential for epithelial cells.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Immunology
July/7/1986
Abstract
We examined the antigenic and functional characteristics of human peripheral blood lymphocytes that differentially express the CD16 (Leu-11) and Leu-19 (NKH-1) antigens. Leu-19 is a approximately 220,000 daltons protein expressed on approximately 15% of freshly isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes. Within the Leu-19+ subset, three distinct populations were identified: CD3-,CD16+,Leu-19+ cells; CD3+,CD16-,Leu-19+ cells; and CD3-,CD16-,Leu-19bright+ cells. Both the CD3+,CD16-,Leu-19+ and CD3-,CD16+,Leu-19+ populations mediated non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxicity against the NK-sensitive tumor cell K562 and were large granular lymphocytes. CD3-,CD16+,Leu-19+ NK cells were the most abundant (comprising approximately 10% of peripheral blood lymphocytes) and the most efficient cytotoxic effectors. The finding that CD3+,Leu 19+ lymphocytes mediated cytotoxicity against K562 unequivocally demonstrates that a unique subset of non-MHC-restricted cytotoxic CD3+ T lymphocytes are present in the peripheral blood of unprimed, normal individuals. However, CD3+,CD16-,Leu-19+ cells comprised less than 5% of peripheral blood lymphocytes, and the cytotoxic activity of this subset was significantly less than CD3-,CD16+,Leu-19+ NK cells. Most CD3+,Leu-19+ T cells co-expressed the CD2, CD8, and CD5 differentiation antigens. The antigenic and functional phenotype of peripheral blood CD3+,Leu-19+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes corresponds to the interleukin 2-dependent CD3+ cell lines that mediate non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity against NK-sensitive tumor cell targets. A small population of Leu-19bright+ lymphocytes lacking both CD3 and CD16 was also observed. This population (comprising less than 2% of peripheral blood lymphocytes) contained both large agranular lymphocytes and large granular lymphocytes. CD3-,CD16-,Leu-19bright+ lymphocytes also mediate non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity. The relationship of these CD3-CD16-,Leu-19bright+ lymphocytes to CD3+ T cells or CD16+ NK cells is unknown.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Physiology
November/29/1993
Abstract
1. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of membrane currents and fura-2 measurements of free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) were used to study the biophysical properties of a calcium current activated by depletion of intracellular calcium stores in rat peritoneal mast cells. 2. Calcium influx through an inward calcium release-activated calcium current (ICRAC) was induced by three independent mechanisms that result in store depletion: intracellular infusion of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) or extracellular application of ionomycin (active depletion), and intracellular infusion of calcium chelators (ethylene glycol bis-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) or 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA)) to prevent reuptake of leaked-out calcium into the stores (passive depletion). 3. The activation of ICRAC induced by active store depletion has a short delay (4-14 s) following intracellular infusion of InsP3 or extracellular application of ionomycin. It has a monoexponential time course with a time constant of 20-30 s and, depending on the complementary Ca2+ buffer, a mean normalized amplitude (at 0 mV) of 0.6 pA pF-1 (with EGTA) and 1.1 pA pF-1 (with BAPTA). 4. After full activation of ICRAC by InsP3 in the presence of EGTA (10 mM), hyperpolarizing pulses to -100 mV induced an instantaneous inward current that decayed by 64% within 50 ms. This inactivation is probably mediated by [Ca2+]i, since the decrease of inward current in the presence of the fast Ca2+ buffer BAPTA (10 mM) was only 30%. 5. The amplitude of ICRAC was dependent on the extracellular Ca2+ concentration with an apparent dissociation constant (KD) of 3.3 mM. Inward currents were nonsaturating up to -200 mV. 6. The selectivity of ICRAC for Ca2+ was assessed by using fura-2 as the dominant intracellular buffer (at a concentration of 2 mM) and relating the absolute changes in the calcium-sensitive fluorescence (390 nm excitation) with the calcium current integral. This relationship was almost identical to the one determined for Ca2+ influx through voltage-activated calcium currents in chromaffin cells, suggesting a similar selectivity. Replacing Na+ and K+ by N-methyl-D-glucamine (with Ca2+ ions as exclusive charge carriers) reduced the amplitude of ICRAC by only 9% further suggesting a high specificity for Ca2+ ions. 7. The current amplitude was not greatly affected by variations of external Mg2+ in the range of 0-12 mM. Even at 12 mM Mg2+ the current amplitude was reduced by only 23%. 8. ICRAC was dose-dependently inhibited by Cd2+.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Publication
Journal: Cell
January/13/1998
Abstract
Ikaros proteins are required for normal T, B, and NK cell development and are postulated to activate lymphocyte-specific gene expression. Here we examined Ikaros distribution in the nucleus of B lymphocytes using confocal microscopy and a novel immunofluorescence in situ hybridization (immuno-FISH) approach. Unexpectedly, Ikaros localized to discrete heterochromatin-containing foci in interphase nuclei, which comprise clusters of centromeric DNA as defined by gamma-satellite sequences and the abundance of heterochromatin protein-1 (HP-1). Using locus-specific probes for CD2, CD4, CD8alpha, CD19, CD45, and lambda5 genes, we show that transcriptionally inactive but not transcriptionally active genes associate with Ikaros-heterochromatin foci. These findings support a model of organization of the nucleus in which repressed genes are selectively recruited into centromeric domains.
Publication
Journal: Blood
March/24/2005
Abstract
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease with recognized variability in clinical outcome, genetic features, and cells of origin. To date, transcriptional profiling has been used to highlight similarities between DLBCL tumor cells and normal B-cell subtypes and associate genes and pathways with unfavorable outcome. To identify robust and highly reproducible DL-BCL subtypes with comprehensive transcriptional signatures, we used a large series of newly diagnosed DLBCLs, whole genome arrays, and multiple clustering methods. Tumors were also analyzed for known common genetic abnormalities in DLBCL. There were 3 discrete subsets of DLBCL-"oxidative phosphorylation," "B-cell receptor/proliferation," and "host response" (HR)-identified characterized using gene set enrichment analysis and confirmed in an independent series. HR tumors had increased expression of T/natural killer cell receptor and activation pathway components, complement cascade members, macrophage/dendritic cell markers, and inflammatory mediators. HR DLB-CLs also contained significantly higher numbers of morphologically distinct CD2+/CD3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and interdigitating S100+/gamma interferon-induced lysosomal transferase-positive (GILT+) CD1a-/CD123- dendritic cells. The HR cluster shared features of histologically defined T-cell/histiocyte-rich B-cell lymphoma, including fewer genetic abnormalities, younger age at presentation, and frequent splenic and bone marrow involvement. These studies identify tumor microenvironment and host inflammatory response as defining features in DLBCL and suggest rational treatment targets in specific DLBCL subsets.
Publication
Journal: Neuron
October/2/1997
Abstract
Voltage-activated K+ channels are integral membrane proteins that open or close a K(+)-selective pore in response to changes in transmembrane voltage. Although the S4 region of these channels has been implicated as the voltage sensor, little is known about how opening and closing of the pore is accomplished. We explored the gating process by introducing cysteines at various positions thought to lie in or near the pore of the Shaker K+ channel, and by testing their ability to be chemically modified. We found a series of positions in the S6 transmembrane region that react rapidly with water-soluble thiol reagents in the open state but not the closed state. An open-channel blocker can protect several of these cysteines, showing that they lie in the ion-conducting pore. At two of these sites, Cd2+ ions bind to the cysteines without affecting the energetics of gating; at a third site, Cd2+ binding holds the channel open. The results suggest that these channels open and close by the movement of an intracellular gate, distinct from the selectivity filter, that regulates access to the pore.
Publication
Journal: Science
October/26/1999
Abstract
CD2-associated protein (CD2AP) is an 80-kilodalton protein that is critical for stabilizing contacts between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. In CD2AP-deficient mice, immune function was compromised, but the mice died at 6 to 7 weeks of age from renal failure. In the kidney, CD2AP was expressed primarily in glomerular epithelial cells. Knockout mice exhibited defects in epithelial cell foot processes, accompanied by mesangial cell hyperplasia and extracellular matrix deposition. Supporting a role for CD2AP in the specialized cell junction known as the slit diaphragm, CD2AP associated with nephrin, the primary component of the slit diaphragm.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Physiology
August/15/1984
Abstract
The ionic requirements for electro-responsiveness in thalamic neurones were studied using in vitro slice preparations of the guinea-pig diencephalon. Analysis of the current-voltage relationship in these neurones revealed delayed and anomalous rectification. Substitution of Na+ with choline in the bath or addition of tetrodotoxin (TTX) abolished the fast spikes and the plateau potentials, described in the accompanying paper. Ca2+ conductance blockage with Co2+, Cd2+ or Mn2+, or replacement of Ca2+ by Mg2+ abolished the low-threshold spikes (l.t.s.). Substitution with Ba2+ did not significantly increase the duration of the l.t.s., suggesting that under normal conditions the falling phase of this response is brought about by inactivation of the Ca2+ conductance. The after-hyperpolarization (a.h.p.) following fast spikes was markedly reduced in amplitude and duration by bath application of Cd2+, Co2+ or Mn2+, indicating that a large component of this response is generated by a Ca2+-dependent K+ conductance (gK[Ca]). Following hyperpolarizing current pulses, the membrane potential showed a delayed return to base line. This delay is produced by a transient K+ conductance as it can be modified by changing the drive force for K+. Presumptive intra-dendritic recording demonstrated high-threshold Ca2+ spikes (h.t.s.s.) which activate a gK[Ca]. Such h.t.s.s. were also seen at the somatic level when K+ conductance was blocked with 4-aminopyridine. It is proposed that the intrinsic biophysical properties of thalamic neurones allow them to serve as relay systems and as single cell oscillators at two distinct frequencies, 9-10 and 5-6 Hz. These frequencies coincide with the alpha and theta rhythms of the e.e.g. and, in the latter case, with the frequency of Parkinson's tremor.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Immunology
April/20/1988
Abstract
Studies of cell-surface molecules involved in human T cell interaction reveal that differential expression of each of three adhesion molecules (LFA-3, CD2, and LFA-1) subdivides human peripheral blood T cells into major subpopulations. Systematic analysis of the relationship between expression of these and other markers of T cell subsets demonstrates a single major subset of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes distinguished by enhanced expression of LFA-3, CD2, LFA-1, and three other markers (CDw29 [4B4], UCHL1, and Pgp-1). Large differences in relative expression are observed for UCHL1 (29-fold) and LFA-3 (greater than 8-fold), and smaller differences (2- to 4-fold) are seen for CDw29, CD2, LFA-1, and Pgp-1. Bimodal distribution of LFA-3 is found on both CD4+ cells and on CD8+ cells as well as on B lymphocytes (CD19+). Neonatal T cells (CD3+) are comprised almost exclusively of the subset expressing low LFA-3, CD2, LFA-1, CDw29, and UCHL1. Activation of cord peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes with PHA leads to uniform enhanced expression of each of these molecules on CD3+ cells. Functional analyses of these T cell subsets were performed after sorting of adult T cells based on differential LFA-3 expression. Only the LFA-3+ subset proliferated in response to the Ag tetanus toxoid, even though the LFA-3- subset proliferated more strongly to PHA. Furthermore, the LFA-3+ subset made greater than fivefold more IFN-gamma than the LFA-3- subset in response to PHA, despite the fact that both subsets made equivalent amounts of IL-2. This phenotypic and functional analysis of resting and activated newborn and adult T cells indicates that human memory T cells express enhanced levels of LFA-3, CD2, LFA-1, UCHL1, CDw29, and Pgp-1; we speculate that the increase in expression of T cell adhesion molecules LFA-3, CD2, and LFA-1 on memory cells is functionally important in their enhanced responsiveness.