Citations
All
Search in:AllTitleAbstractAuthor name
Publications
(843)
Patents
Grants
Pathways
Clinical trials
Publication
Journal: Nature Genetics
April/25/1995
Abstract
The hereditary macular dystrophies are progressive degenerations of the central retina and contribute significantly to irreversible visual loss in developed countries. Among these disorders, Sorsby's fundus dystrophy (SFD), an autosomal dominant condition, provides an excellent mendelian model for the study of the genetically complex age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common maculopathy in the elderly. Recently, we mapped the SFD locus to 22q13-qter. This same region contains the gene for tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP3), which is known to play a pivotal role in extracellular matrix remodeling. We have now identified point mutations in the TIMP3 gene in affected members of two SFD pedigrees. These mutations are predicted to disrupt the tertiary structure and thus the functional properties of the mature protein.
Publication
Journal: FASEB Journal
July/20/2010
Abstract
Obesity is well characterized as a systemic inflammatory condition, and is also associated with cognitive disruption, suggesting a link between the two. We assessed whether peripheral inflammation in maternal obesity may be transferred to the offspring brain, in particular, the hippocampus, and thereby result in cognitive dysfunction. Rat dams were fed a high-saturated-fat diet (SFD), a high-trans-fat diet (TFD), or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 4 wk prior to mating, and remained on the diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. SFD/TFD exposure significantly increased body weight in both dams and pups compared to controls. Microglial activation markers were increased in the hippocampus of SFD/TFD pups at birth. At weaning and in adulthood, proinflammatory cytokine expression was strikingly increased in the periphery and hippocampus following a bacterial challenge [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] in the SFD/TFD groups compared to controls. Microglial activation within the hippocampus was also increased basally in SFD rats, suggesting a chronic priming of the cells. Finally, there were marked changes in anxiety and spatial learning in SFD/TFD groups. These effects were all observed in adulthood, even after the pups were placed on standard chow at weaning, suggesting these outcomes were programmed early in life.
Publication
Journal: American Journal of Sports Medicine
February/23/1999
Abstract
The conscious neurosensory characteristics of the internal components of the human knee were documented by instrumented arthroscopic palpation without intraarticular anesthesia. With only local anesthesia injected at the portal sites, the first author (SFD) had both knees inspected arthroscopically. Subjectively, he graded the sensation from no sensation (0) to severe pain (4), with a modifier of either accurate spatial localization (A) or poor spatial localization (B). The nature of the intraarticular sensation was variable, ranging from 0 on the patellar articular cartilage to 4A on the anterior synovium, fat pad, and joint capsule. The sensation arising from the cruciate ligaments ranged from 1 to 2B in the midportion, and from 3 to 4B at the insertion sites. The sensation from the meniscal cartilages ranged from 1B on the inner rim to 3B near the capsular margin. Innervation of most intraarticular components of the knee is probably crucial for tissue homeostasis. Failure of current intraarticular soft tissue reconstructions of the knee may be due, in part, to the lack of neurosensory restoration. Research studies of the knee designed to delineate factors that restore neurosensory characteristics of the musculoskeletal system may lead to techniques that result in true restoration of joint homeostasis and function.
Publication
Journal: Cancer Research
November/25/2007
Abstract
Stage-specific differentiation markers were used to evaluate the cellular composition and the origin of nonimmortalized (PrEC) and immortalized (PZ-HPV7, CA-HPV10, RWPE-1, and 957E/hTERT) human prostate cell lines. These studies documented that immortalized and nonimmortalized prostate epithelial cells established and maintained in low (i.e., <300 micromol/L) Ca(2+) serum-free defined (SFD) medium were all derived from normal nonmalignant prostate tissues and contain CD133(+)/ABCG2(+)/alpha(2)beta(1)(Hi)/p63(-)/PSCA(-)/AR(-)/PSA(-) prostate stem cells. In these cultures, prostate stem cells are able to self-renew and generate two distinct cell lineages: the minor proliferatively quiescent neuroendocrine lineage and the major transit-amplifying cell lineage. Subsequently, CD133(-)/ABCG2(-)/alpha(2)beta(1)(Hi)/p63(+)/PSCA(-)/AR(-)/PSA(-) transit-amplifying cells proliferate frequently and eventually mature into proliferatively quiescent CD133(-)/ABCG2(-)/alpha(2)beta(1)(Lo)/p63(-)/PSCA(+)/AR(-)/PSA(-) intermediate cells. Such proliferatively quiescent intermediate cells, however, do not complete their full maturation into CD133(-)/ABCG2(-)/alpha(2)beta(1)(Lo)/p63(-)/PSCA(-)/AR(+)/PSA(+) luminal-secretory cells in low Ca(2+) SFD medium. Addition of universal type I IFN and synthetic androgen (R1881) to culture medium resulted in up-regulation of androgen receptor protein expression. However, it failed to induce full differentiation of intermediate cells into AR(+)/PSA(+) luminal-secretory cells. Our results indicate that such inability of prostate epithelial cells to complete their differentiation is due to continuous expression of Notch-1 receptor and its downstream effector, Hey-1 protein, which actively suppresses differentiation via its ability to transcriptionally repress a series of genes, including the GATA family of transcription factors.
Publication
Journal: PLoS ONE
February/17/2011
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Flow diversion is a new approach to the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms which uses a high density mesh stent to induce sac thrombosis. These devices have been designed for the treatment of complex shaped and large size aneurysms. So far published safety and efficacy data on this approach is sparse.
METHODS
Over 8 months, standardized clinical and angiographic data were collected on 70 patients treated with a flow diverter device (SILK flow diverter (SFD)) in 18 centres worldwide. Treatment and early follow up details were audited centrally. SFDs were deployed alone in 57 (81%) or with endosaccular coils in 10 (14%) aneurysms, which included: 44 (63%) saccular, 26 (37%) fusiform shapes and 18 (26%) small, 37 (53%) large, 15 (21%) giant sizes. Treatment outcome data up to 30 days were reported for all patients, with clinical (50 patients) and imaging (49 patients) follow up (median 119 days) data available.
RESULTS
Difficulties in SFD deployment were reported in 15 (21%) and parent artery thrombosis in 8 (11%) procedures. Procedural complications caused stroke in 1 and serious extracranial bleeding in 3 patients; 2 of whom developed fatal pneumonias. Delayed worsening of symptoms occurred in 5 patients (3 transient, 1 permanent neurological deficit, and 1 death) and fatal aneurysm bleeding in 1 patient. Overall permanent morbidity rates were 2 (4%) and mortality 4 (8%). Statistical analysis revealed no significant association between complications and variables related to treated aneurysm morphology or rupture status.
CONCLUSIONS
This series is the largest reporting outcome of the new treatment approach and provides data for future study design. Procedural difficulties in SFD deployment were frequent and anti-thrombosis prophylaxis appears to reduce the resulting clinical sequelae, but at the cost of morbidity due to extracranial bleeding. Delayed morbidity appears to be a consequence of the new approach and warrants care in selecting patients for treatment and future larger studies.
Publication
Journal: Endocrinology
November/1/2005
Abstract
Development of vasculature and mRNA expression of 17 pro- or antiangiogenic factors were studied during adipose tissue development in nutritionally induced or genetically determined murine obesity models. Subcutaneous (SC) and gonadal (GON) fat pads were harvested from male C57Bl/6 mice kept on standard chow [standard fat diet (SFD)] or on high-fat diet for 0-15 wk and from male ob/ob mice kept on SFD. Ob/ob mice and C57Bl/6 mice on high-fat diet had significantly larger SC and GON fat pads, accompanied by significantly higher blood content, increased total blood vessel volume, and higher number of proliferating cells. mRNA and protein levels of angiopoietin (Ang)-1 were down-regulated, whereas those of thrombospondin-1 were up-regulated in developing adipose tissue in both obesity models. Ang-1 mRNA levels correlated negatively with adipose tissue weight in the early phase of nutritionally induced obesity as well as in genetically determined obesity. Placental growth factor and Ang-2 expression were increased in SC adipose tissue of ob/ob mice, and thrombospondin-2 was increased in both their SC and GON fat pads. mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A isoforms VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF receptor-1, -2, and -3, and neuropilin-1 were not markedly modulated by obesity. This modulation of angiogenic factors during development of adipose tissue supports their important functional role in obesity.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Biological Chemistry
August/16/2004
Abstract
Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) is a matrix-bound inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases. Mutations in the Timp-3 gene cause Sorsby fundus dystrophy (SFD), a hereditary macular degenerative disease. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for the disease phenotype are unknown. In an in vivo quest for binding partners of the TIMP-3 protein in the subretina, we identified epidermal growth factor-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1, also known as fibulin 3) as a strong interacting protein. The COOH-terminal end of TIMP-3 was involved in the interaction. Interestingly, a missense mutation in EFEMP1 is responsible for another hereditary macular degenerative disease, Malattia Leventinese (ML). Both SFD and ML have strong similarities to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a major cause of blindness in the elderly population of the Western hemisphere. Our results were supported by significant accumulation and expression overlap of both TIMP-3 and EFEMP1 between the retinal pigment epithelia and Bruch membrane in the eyes of ML and AMD patients. These results provide the first link between two different macular degenerative disease genes and imply the possibility of a common pathogenic mechanism behind different forms of macular degeneration.
Publication
Journal: BioMed Research International
January/4/2015
Abstract
Staphylococcal food-borne disease (SFD) is one of the most common food-borne diseases worldwide resulting from the contamination of food by preformed S. aureus enterotoxins. It is one of the most common causes of reported food-borne diseases in the United States. Although several Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) have been identified, SEA, a highly heat-stable SE, is the most common cause of SFD worldwide. Outbreak investigations have found that improper food handling practices in the retail industry account for the majority of SFD outbreaks. However, several studies have documented prevalence of S. aureus in many food products including raw retail meat indicating that consumers are at potential risk of S. aureus colonization and subsequent infection. Presence of pathogens in food products imposes potential hazard for consumers and causes grave economic loss and loss in human productivity via food-borne disease. Symptoms of SFD include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps with or without diarrhea. Preventive measures include safe food handling and processing practice, maintaining cold chain, adequate cleaning and disinfection of equipment, prevention of cross-contamination in home and kitchen, and prevention of contamination from farm to fork. This paper provides a brief overview of SFD, contributing factors, risk that it imposes to the consumers, current research gaps, and preventive measures.
Publication
Journal: British journal of industrial medicine
January/18/1993
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Characterisation of the airborne concentration of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at various workplaces in a graphite electrode and a coke production plant. Validation of the urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (hydroxypyrene) as a biological marker of exposure to PAH.
METHODS
Cross sectional study of workers exposed to PAHs (106 in the graphite electrode producing plant and 16 in the coke works).
METHODS
Personal air sampling during at least six hours per workshift using a glass fibre filter and a Chromosorb 102 solid sorbent tube and analysis of PAHs by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrofluorometric detection (SFD). Collection of spot urine samples before and after the shift and analysis of 1-hydroxypyrene by HPLC and SFD.
RESULTS
The workers most exposed to PAHs were those occupied at the topside area of the coke oven plant and those working in the blending and impregnation areas of the graphite electrode producing plant (mean airborne concentration of total PAHs: 199 and 223 micrograms/m3 respectively). Except for naphthalene and perylene, the relative proportion of the different PAHs did not differ between the plants. Pyrene concentration in air was highly correlated with the total airborne PAH concentration (r = 0.83, p < 0.0001) and the correlation coefficients between hydroxypyrene concentration in postshift urine samples and pyrene or total PAHs in air were 0.67 (p < 0.0001) and 0.72 (p < 0.0001) respectively. Excretion of hydroxypyrene doubled when the exposure to pyrene in air increased 10-fold. The half life for the urinary excretion of hydroxypyrene was around 18 hours (95% confidence interval 16.1-19.8). Smoking habits only explained 2.3% of the variance in hydroxypyrene excretion compared with 45% for the pyrene concentration in air.
CONCLUSIONS
The determination of the urinary excretion of hydroxypyrene in postshift urine samples can be used as a suitable biomarker to assess individual exposure to PAHs in coke ovens and in graphite electrode manufacturing plants.
Publication
Journal: Nature Genetics
November/19/1995
Abstract
Sorsby's fundus dystrophy (SFD) is an autosomal dominant retinal degeneration caused by mutations in the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP3) gene. Mechanisms of the visual loss in SFD, however, remain unknown. In a SFD family with a novel TIMP3 point mutation, we tested a hypothesis that their night blindness is due to a chronic deprivation of vitamin A at the level of the photoreceptors caused by a thickened membrane barrier between the photoreceptor layer and its blood supply. Vitamin A at 50,000 IU/d was administered orally. Within a week, the night blindness disappeared in patients at early stages of disease. Nutritional night blindness is thus part of the pathophysiology of this genetic disease and vitamin A supplementation can lead to dramatic restoration of photoreceptor function.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
October/25/2010
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Longitudinal wall motion of the right ventricle (RV), generally quantified as tricuspid annular systolic excursion (TAPSE), has been well studied in pulmonary hypertension (PH). In contrast, transverse wall motion has been examined less. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate regional RV transverse wall motion in PH, and its relation to global RV pump function, quantified as RV ejection fraction (RVEF).
METHODS
In 101 PH patients and 29 control subjects cardiovascular magnetic resonance was performed. From four-chamber cine imaging, RV transverse motion was quantified as the change of the septum-free-wall (SF) distance between end-diastole and end-systole at seven levels along an apex-to-base axis. For each level, regional absolute and fractional transverse distance change (SFD and fractional-SFD) were computed and related to RVEF. Longitudinal measures, including TAPSE and fractional tricuspid-annulus-apex distance change (fractional-TAAD) were evaluated for comparison.
RESULTS
Transverse wall motion was significantly reduced at all levels compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). For all levels, fractional-SFD and SFD were related to RVEF, with the strongest relation at mid RV (R(2) = 0.70, p < 0.001 and R(2) = 0.62, p < 0.001). For TAPSE and fractional-TAAD, weaker relations with RVEF were found (R(2) = 0.21, p < 0.001 and R(2) = 0.27, p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
Regional transverse wall movements provide important information of RV function in PH. Compared to longitudinal motion, transverse motion at mid RV reveals a significantly stronger relationship with RVEF and thereby might be a better predictor for RV function.
Publication
Journal: Pharmaceutical Research
May/25/1999
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To develop a new technique, spray freeze drying, for preparing protein aerosol powders. Also, to compare the spray freeze-dried powders with spray-dried powders in terms of physical properties and aerosol performance.
METHODS
Protein powders were characterized using particle size analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffractometry, and specific surface area measurement. Aerosol performance of the powders was evaluated after blending with lactose carriers using a multi-stage liquid impinger or an Anderson cascade impactor. Two recombinant therapeutic proteins currently used for treating respiratory tract-related diseases, deoxyribonuclase (rhDNase) and anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (anti-IgE MAb), were employed and formulated with different carbohydrate excipients.
RESULTS
Through the same atomization but the different drying process, spray drying (SD) produced small (approximately 3 microns), dense particles, but SFD resulted in large (approximately 8-10 microns), porous particles. The fine particle fraction (FPF) of the spray freeze-dried powder was significantly better than that of the spray-dried powder, attributed to better aerodynamic properties. Powders collected from different stages of the cascade impactor were characterized, which confirmed the concept of aerodynamic particle size. Protein formulation played a major role in affecting the powder's aerosol performance, especially for the carbohydrate excipient of a high crystallization tendency.
CONCLUSIONS
Spray freeze drying, as opposed to spray drying, produced protein particles with light and porous characteristics, which offered powders with superior aerosol performance due to favorable aerodynamic properties.
Publication
Journal: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association
February/21/1984
Abstract
To determine the current epidemiologic characteristics of staphylococcal food-borne disease (SFD), we reviewed 131 outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, from 1977 through 1981. Staphylococcal food-borne disease was the second most common cause of reported food-borne illness, affecting more than 7,000 persons during the five-year period; 10% of these patients visited or were admitted to hospitals for their illnesses. The proportion of outbreaks attributable to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins A through E has changed, with enterotoxin A being the only toxin incriminated during the last three years of this review. Milk--the most common source of enterotoxin C- and D-producing strains--and commercially packed foods are less common causes of SFD outbreaks now than they were before 1960. However, previously cooked, proteinaceous foods remain preeminent in causing SFD. The presence or absence of fever in infected persons, skin lesions in food handlers, or large numbers of staphylococci in food were unreliable as diagnostic criteria. Thorough epidemiologic investigation remains crucial to identifying SFD and its sources.
Publication
Journal: Cancer Research
December/18/2005
Abstract
A panel of expression markers was validated and used to document that, when radical prostatectomy specimens are cultured in low (i.e., <260 micromol/L)-calcium (Ca2+)-serum-free, growth factor-defined (SFD) medium, what grows out are not prostatic cancer cells but basally derived normal transit-amplifying prostatic epithelial cells. The selective outgrowth of the normal transit-amplifying versus prostatic cancer cells is due to the differential effect of low-Ca2+ medium on the structure of Notch-1 and E-cadherin signaling molecules. In low-Ca2+ medium, Notch-1 receptor is conformationally in a constitutively active, cell autonomous form not requiring reciprocal cell-cell (i.e., ligand) interaction for signaling. Such signaling is required for survival of transit-amplifying cells as shown by the death of transit-amplifying cells induced by treatment with a series of chemically distinct gamma-secretase inhibitors to prevent Notch-1 signaling. Conversely, in low-Ca2+ medium, E-cadherin is conformationally inactive preventing cell-cell homotypic interaction, but low cell density nonaggregated transit-amplifying cells still survived because Notch-1 is able to signal cell autonomously. In contrast, when medium Ca2+ is raised to >400 micromol/L, Notch-1 conformationally is no longer constitutively active but requires cell-cell contact for reciprocal binding of Jagged-1 ligands and Notch-1 receptors between adjacent transit-amplifying cells to activate their survival signaling. Such cell-cell contact is enhanced by the elevated Ca2+ inducing an E-cadherin conformation allowing homotypic interaction between transit-amplifying cells. Such Ca(2+)-dependent, E-cadherin-mediated interaction, however, results in cell aggregation, stratification, and inhibition of proliferation of transit-amplifying cells via contact inhibition-induced up-regulation of p27/kip1 protein. In addition, transit-amplifying cells not contacting other cells undergo squamous differentiation into cornified (i.e., 1% SDS insoluble) envelopes and death in the elevated Ca2+ medium. Stratification and contact inhibition induced by elevated Ca2+ are dependent on E-cadherin-mediated homotypic interaction between transit-amplifying cells as shown by their prevention in the presence of a cell-impermanent, E-cadherin neutralizing antibody. In contrast to growth inhibition of normal transit-amplifying cells, supplementation of low-Ca(2+)-SFD medium with 10% FCS and raising the Ca2+ to >600 micromol/L stimulates the growth of all prostate cancer cell lines tested. Additional results document that, at physiologic levels of Ca2+ (i.e., >600 micromol/L), prostatic cancer cells are not contact inhibited by E-cadherin interactions and Notch-1 signaling is no longer required for survival but instead becomes one of multiple signaling pathways for proliferation of prostatic cancer cells. These characteristic changes are consistent with prostate cancer cells' ability to metastasize to bone, a site of high-Ca2+ levels.
Publication
Journal: Developmental Biology
June/8/2009
Abstract
Pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from the early blastocyst can differentiate in vitro into a variety of somatic cell types including lineages from all three embryonic germ layers. Protocols for ES cell neural differentiation typically involve induction by retinoic acid (RA), or by exposure to growth factors or medium conditioned by other cell types. A serum-free differentiation (SFD) medium completely lacking exogenous retinoids was devised that allows for efficient conversion of aggregated mouse ESCs into neural precursors and immature neurons. Neural cells produced in this medium express neuronal ion channels, establish polarity, and form functional excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Brief exposure to RA during the period of cell aggregation speeds neuronal maturation and suppresses cell proliferation. Differentiation without RA yields neurons and neural progenitors with apparent telencephalic identity, whereas cells differentiated with exposure to RA express markers of hindbrain and spinal cord. Transcriptional profiling indicates a substantial representation of transit amplifying neuroblasts in SFD cultures not exposed to RA.
Publication
Journal: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
July/6/1997
Abstract
The family of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) presently numbers four distinct gene products that are specific inhibitors of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The local balance between MMPs and TIMPs is believed to play a major role in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling during development and in diseases such as cancer and arthritis. Unlike the other TIMPs, which are soluble. TIMP-3 is unique in being a component of ECM. Mutations in the human TIMP-3 gene cause a dominantly inherited, adult-onset blindness (Sorsby's fundus dystrophy or SFD). In this article, we summarize what is currently known about TIMP-3, discuss possible mechanisms leading up to SFD, and investigate the effect of TIMP-3 on tumor growth. Breast carcinoma and malignant melanoma cell lines were transfected with TIMP-3 expression plasmids and injected subcutaneously into nude mice. Growth curves of the resulting tumors over a period of 6 to 8 weeks demonstrated that increased expression of TIMP-3 resulted in a statistically significant suppression of tumor growth. Deposition of TIMP-3 in the surrounding ECM by tumor cells may inhibit tumor growth by preventing local expansion of tumor, retarding the release of growth factors sequestered in ECM, or inhibiting angiogenesis. TIMP-3 over-expression had no effect on the growth of the two tumor cell lines in vitro. Because recombinant TIMP-3 inhibits endothelial cell migration and tube formation in response to angiogenic factors, we believe that the effect of TIMP-3 on tumor growth seen in this study may be a consequence of its angiostatic action.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience
September/5/2011
Abstract
The ultimate treatment goal for intracranial aneurysms is to reconstruct the vessel wall and correct the hemodynamic disturbance. A flow diverter is a stent placed in the parent artery to reduce blood flow in the aneurysm sac to the point of stagnation, gradual thrombosis, and neointimal remodeling to maintain outflow in the side branches and perforators. Here, we review the two commercially available flow diverters, the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) and the SILK flow diverter (SFD). The rates of severe hemorrhagic complications have been reported to be 2% for the PED and 0.8% for the SFD. The results of studies completed thus far show that endovascular reconstruction with flow diverters is an effective treatment of wide-necked, fusiform, large, and giant unruptured intracranial aneurysms, with 5% to 10% of patients experiencing permanent major morbidity and mortality. The results of ongoing studies may resolve whether flow diverters can replace coil embolization for the treatment of all, or selected, intracranial aneurysms.
Publication