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Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
July/19/1999
Abstract
Human prostaglandin (PG) E synthase (EC 5.3.99.3) is a member of a recently recognized protein superfamily consisting of membrane associated proteins involved in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism (the MAPEG family). Previous designations of the protein are PIG12 and MGST1-L1. PGE synthase was expressed in Escherichia coli, and both cytosolic and membrane fractions were prepared. Western blot analysis specifically detected a 15- to 16-kDa protein in the membrane fraction. Both fractions were incubated with prostaglandin H2 in the presence or absence of reduced glutathione. The membrane but not the cytosolic fraction was found to possess high glutathione-dependent PGE synthase activity (0.25 micromol/min/mg). The human tissue distribution was analyzed by Northern blot analysis. High expression of PGE synthase mRNA was detected in A549 and HeLa cancer cell lines. Intermediate level of expression was demonstrated in placenta, prostate, testis, mammary gland, and bladder whereas low mRNA expression was observed in several other tissues. A549 cells have been used as a model system to study cyclooxygenase-2 induction by IL-1beta. If A549 cells were grown in the presence of IL-1beta, a significant induction of the PGE synthase was observed by Western blot analysis. Also, Western blot analysis specifically detected a 16-kDa protein in sheep seminal vesicles. In summary, we have identified a human membrane bound PGE synthase. The enzyme activity is glutathione-dependent, and the protein expression is induced by the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta. PGE synthase is a potential novel target for drug development.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
November/24/1998
Abstract
The enzymes cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-1 and COX-2) catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin (PG) H2, the precursor of PGs and thromboxane. These lipid mediators play important roles in inflammation and pain and in normal physiological functions. While there are abundant data indicating that the inducible isoform, COX-2, is important in inflammation and pain, the constitutively expressed isoform, COX-1, has also been suggested to play a role in inflammatory processes. To address the latter question pharmacologically, we used a highly selective COX-1 inhibitor, SC-560 (COX-1 IC50 = 0.009 microM; COX-2 IC50 = 6.3 microM). SC-560 inhibited COX-1-derived platelet thromboxane B2, gastric PGE2, and dermal PGE2 production, indicating that it was orally active, but did not inhibit COX-2-derived PGs in the lipopolysaccharide-induced rat air pouch. Therapeutic or prophylactic administration of SC-560 in the rat carrageenan footpad model did not affect acute inflammation or hyperalgesia at doses that markedly inhibited in vivo COX-1 activity. By contrast, celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, was anti-inflammatory and analgesic in this model. Paradoxically, both SC-560 and celecoxib reduced paw PGs to equivalent levels. Increased levels of PGs were found in the cerebrospinal fluid after carrageenan injection and were markedly reduced by celecoxib, but were not affected by SC-560. These results suggest that, in addition to the role of peripherally produced PGs, there is a critical, centrally mediated neurological component to inflammatory pain that is mediated at least in part by COX-2.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
September/17/1985
Abstract
SQ 29,548, [1S-[1 alpha,2 beta (5Z),3 beta,4 alpha]-7-[3-[[2-[(phenylamino) carbonyl]hydrazino]methyl]-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1] hept-2-yl]-5-heptenoic acid, and the racemic modification, +/- SQ 29,548, were identified as active inhibitors of human platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, epinephrine (2 degrees phase) and the thromboxane A2 mimics, 9,11-azo prostaglandin (PG) H2 and 11,9-epoxymethano PGH2. SQ 29,548 did not inhibit aggregation induced by ADP, and it did not prevent PGD2 from inhibiting ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Inhibition of platelet function by +/- SQ 29,548 was not associated with inhibition of cyclooxygenase or thromboxane synthetase or with changes in platelet cyclic AMP. In guinea-pig trachea and rat aorta, +/- SQ 29,548 competitively antagonized the activity of 9,11-azo PGH2 with pA2 values of 7.8 and 8.4, respectively. The chiral compound, SQ 29,548 competitively antagonized contractions of guinea-pig tracheal spirals caused by 11,9-epoxymethano PGH2 with a pA2 value of 9.1. The +/- SQ 29,548 competitively antagonized tracheal responses to 11,9-epoxymethano PGH2 and PGD2 with pA2 values of 8.2 and 8.3, respectively, indicating that PGD2 and the thromboxane A2 mimic probably act at the same receptor in guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle. Contractions of guinea-pig tracheal spirals induced by PGE2 were not antagonized, and those caused by PGF2 alpha were only partially antagonized by +/- SQ 29,548. The +/- SQ 29,548 also significantly inhibited the aorta contracting activity of 11,9-epoxymethano PGH2 (pA2 = 9.1) and thromboxane A2 released from perfused guinea-pig lungs upon arachidonic acid challenge.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Publication
Journal: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators
July/10/2003
Abstract
Prostaglandin E synthase (PGES), which converts cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostaglandin (PG)H2 to PGE2, occurs in multiple forms with distinct enzymatic properties, modes of expression, cellular and subcellular localizations and intracellular functions. Cytosolic PGES (cPGES) is a cytosolic protein that is constitutively expressed in a wide variety of cells and tissues and is associated with heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). Membrane-associated PGES (mPGES), the expression of which is stimulus-inducible and is downregulated by anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids, is a perinuclear protein belonging to the microsomal glutathione S-transferase (GST) family. These two PGESs display distinct functional coupling with upstream COXs in cells; cPGES is predominantly coupled with the constitutive COX-1, whereas mPGES is preferentially linked with the inducible COX-2. Several cytosolic GSTs also have the capacity to convert PGH2 to PGE2 in vitro. Accumulating evidence has suggested that mPGES participates in various pathophysiological states in which COX-2 is involved, implying that mPGES represents a potential novel target for drug development.
Publication
Journal: Free Radical Biology and Medicine
September/20/1994
Abstract
Several studies have shown impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxations as well as increased release of vasoconstrictor prostanoids in arteries from diabetic animals and humans. This impairment is restored towards normal by prostaglandin (PG) H2/thromboxane A2 receptor blockade or superoxide dismutase, indicating that the PGH2 and/or superoxide anion (O2-.) generated contributes to the abnormality. Of particular note is that PGH2 impairs endothelium-dependent relaxations and causes contractions by a mechanism that involves generation of O2-. in the endothelium. The effects of elevated glucose are exacerbated by increased aldose reductase activity leading to depletion of NADPH and generation of reactive oxidants. Because NADPH is required for generation of nitric oxide from L-arginine, the depletion of NADPH leads to reduced nitric oxide formation. In a manner similar to that observed with elevated glucose, oxygen-derived free radicals or activation of protein kinase C also cause impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxations, smooth muscle contractions, and release constrictor prostanoids, indicating that a common mechanism for the impairment of endothelial cell function may be operative in diabetes. In this review the cumulative effects of oxidative stress on diabetic endothelial cell dysfunction, together with the complex interrelationship of cyclooxygenase catalysis, protein kinase C activity, and flux through the polyol pathway, are considered.
Publication
Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology
February/3/2006
Abstract
In the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and aging Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), acetylcholine releases an endothelium-derived contracting factor (EDCF) produced by endothelial cyclooxygenase-1, which stimulates thromboxane A2 receptors (TP receptors) on vascular smooth muscle. The purpose of the present study was to identify this EDCF by measuring changes in isometric tension and the release of various prostaglandins by acetylcholine. In isolated aortic rings of SHR, U 46619, prostaglandin (PG) H2, PGF2alpha, PGE2, PGD2, prostacyclin (PGI2) and 8-isoprostane, all activate TP receptors of the vascular smooth muscle to produce a contraction (U 46619>)8-isoprostane=PGF2alpha=PGH2)PGE2=PGD2>PGI2). The contractions produced by PGH2 and PGI2 were fast and transient, mimicking endothelium-dependent contractions. PGI2 did not relax isolated aortic rings of WKY and SHR. Acetylcholine evoked the endothelium-dependent release of thromboxane A2, PGF2alpha, PGE2, PGI2 and most likely PGH2 (PGI2>)PGF2alpha>or=PGE2>TXA2>8-isoprostane, PGD2). Dazoxiben abolished the production of thromboxane A2, but did not influence the endothelium-dependent contractions to acetylcholine. The release of PGI2 was significantly larger in the aorta of SHR than in WKY, and the former was more sensitive to the contractile effect of PGI2 than the latter. The inhibition of PGI-synthase was associated with an increase in PGH2 spillover and the enhancement of acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent contractions. Thus, in the aorta of SHR and aging WKY, the endothelium-dependent contractions elicited by acetylcholine most likely involve the release of PGI2 with a concomitant contribution of PGH2.
Publication
Journal: Arthritis research & therapy
February/18/2005
Abstract
Prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) including isoenzymes of membrane-associated PGES (mPGES)-1, mPGES-2, and cytosolic PGES (cPGES) is the recently identified terminal enzyme of the arachidonic acid cascade. PGES converts prostaglandin (PG)H2 to PGE2 downstream of cyclooxygenase (COX). We investigated the expression of PGES isoenzyme in articular chondrocytes from patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Chondrocytes were treated with various cytokines and the expression of PGES isoenzyme mRNA was analyzed by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Northern blotting, whereas Western blotting was performed for protein expression. The subcellular localization of mPGES-1 was determined by immunofluorescent microscopy. Conversion of arachidonic acid or PGH2 to PGE2 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Finally, the expression of mPGES-1 protein in OA articular cartilage was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Expression of mPGES-1 mRNA in chondrocytes was significantly induced by interleukin (IL)-1beta or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, whereas other cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and interferon-gamma, had no effect. COX-2 was also induced under the same conditions, although its pattern of expression was different. Expression of cPGES, mPGES-2, and COX-1 mRNA was not affected by IL-1beta or TNF-alpha. The subcellular localization of mPGES-1 and COX-2 almost overlapped in the perinuclear region. In comparison with 6-keto-PGF1alpha and thromboxane B2, the production of PGE2 was greater after chondrocytes were stimulated by IL-1beta or TNF-alpha. Conversion of PGH2 to PGE2 (PGES activity) was significantly increased in the lysate from IL-1beta-stimulated chondrocytes and it was inhibited by MK-886, which has an inhibitory effect on mPGES-1 activity. Chondrocytes in articular cartilage from patients with OA showed positive immunostaining for mPGES-1. These results suggest that mPGES-1 might be important in the pathogenesis of OA. It might also be a potential new target for therapeutic strategies that specifically modulate PGE2 synthesis in patients with OA.
Publication
Journal: Clinical Cancer Research
October/4/2001
Abstract
An inducible microsomal form of human prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES) was recently identified. This enzyme converts the cyclooxygenase (COX) product, prostaglandin (PG) H2, to PGE2, a prostanoid that has been implicated in carcinogenesis. Increased amounts of PGE2 are detected in many types of cancer, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Hence, we compared amounts of mPGES in 19 paired samples (tumor and adjacent normal tissue) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). By immunoblot analysis, mPGES was overexpressed in about 80% of NSCLCs. Immunohistochemistry localized the expression of mPGES to neoplastic epithelial cells. COX-2 was also commonly up-regulated in these tumors; marked differences in the extent of up-regulation of mPGES and COX-2 were observed in individual tumors. Cell culture was used to define the underlying mechanism(s) that accounts for up-regulation of mPGES in NSCLC. As reported previously for COX-2, levels of mPGES mRNA and protein were increased in NSCLC cell lines containing mutant Ras as compared with a nontumorigenic bronchial epithelial cell line. Nuclear run-offs revealed increased rates of mPGES transcription in the transformed cell lines. Overexpression of Ras caused a severalfold increase in mPGES promoter activity in nontransformed cells. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced mPGES and COX-2 in NSCLC cell lines but had no effect on the expression of either enzyme in a nontumorigenic bronchial epithelial cell line. Consistent with prior observations for COX-2, these data suggest that both cellular transformation and cytokines contribute to the up-regulation of mPGES in NSCLC.
Publication
Journal: Preventive Medicine
May/19/2005
Abstract
Vitamin B(12) deficiency is a common problem in elderly subjects. If a serum cobalamin level of about 150 pmol/L (200 pg/mL) is considered normal, 10-15% of the elderly are deficient. Today, however, a threshold of 220-258 pmol/L (300-350 pg/mL) is recognized as desirable in the elderly, or else sensitive markers like the blood concentration of homocysteine or methylmalonic acid (MMA) are used. Then the prevalence of cobalamin deficiency rises to up to 43%. In the elderly, this high prevalence of poor cobalamin status is predominantly caused by atrophic gastritis type B. Atrophic gastritis results in declining gastric acid and pepsinogen secretion, and hence decreasing intestinal absorption of the cobalamin protein complexes from food. About 20-50% of the elderly are affected. Furthermore, the reduced acid secretion leads to an alkalinization of the small intestine, which may result in bacterial overgrowth and thus to a further decrease of the bioavailability of the vitamin. In addition, some drugs such as proton pump inhibitors or H2 receptor antagonists inhibit the intestinal absorption of vitamin B(12). An already moderately reduced vitamin B(12) level is associated with vascular disease and neurocognitive disorders such as depression and impaired cognitive performance. Furthermore, a poor vitamin B(12) status is assumed to be involved in the development and progression of dementia (e.g., Alzheimer's dementia). This is especially observable if the folic acid status is reduced as well. Due to the insecure supply, the cobalamin status of elderly persons >>/=60 years) should be regularly controlled and a general supplementation with vitamin B(12) (>50 microg/day) should be considered.
Publication
Journal: Gastroenterology
March/20/1997
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
The mechanisms causing progression of fundic gastritis and changes in argyrophil cell morphology in patients undergoing long-term treatment with proton pump inhibitors are unknown. The hypothesis of this study was that Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for both gastritis and argyrophil cell hyperplasia.
METHODS
Forty-two patients with peptic disorders resistant to H2-blockers were treated with 30-90 mg lansoprazole daily for up to 5 years. Serum gastrin levels, antral gastrin cells, fundic argyrophil cells, parameters of gastritis, and H. pylori infection were evaluated regularly.
RESULTS
In nonantrectomized patients, serum gastrin levels increased from a median of 76 pg/mL to 163 pg/mL within 3 months. Antral gastrin cell density increased from 175 to 267 cells/mm2 (P < 0.001), and fundic argyrophil cell density increased from 83 to 149 cells/mm2 (P < 0.001). Chronic inflammation, activity, and atrophy of the oxyntic mucosa worsened exclusively in patients with H. pylori infection. Linear and/or micronodular argyrophil cell hyperplasia was diagnosed in 2.6% of patients before lansoprazole and in 29.2% after 5 years treatment. These changes were significantly related to serum gastrin levels, H. pylori infection, chronic inflammation, and atrophy of the oxyntic mucosa.
CONCLUSIONS
H. pylori represents an important factor for the progression of fundic gastritis and the development of argyrophil cell hyperplasia during long-term treatment with lansoprazole.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Clinical Investigation
April/24/1981
Abstract
An analysis of prostaglandin-stimulated adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) accumulation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells showed prostacyclin (PGI2) to be the most potent agonist followed by prostaglandin (PG)H2, which was more potent than PGE2, while PGD2 was essentially inactive. The endothelial cells studied apparently have a high rate of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity because significant PGI2-mediated increases in cyclic AMP could not be shown in the presence of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine (MIX). Endoperoxide PGH2-stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation was inhibited 75--80% by the prostacyclin synthetase inhibitors 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid or 9,11-azoprosta-5,13-dienoic acid. These data indicate that the PGH2-stimulation is due primarily to conversion to PGI2. The beta-adrenergic agonist L-isoproterenol stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in the endothelial cells. This accumulation was completely blocked by propranolol. However, stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation by the beta-adrenergic agent did not equal that induced by PGI2. Furthermore, the PGI2 response could not be blocked by propranolol. Thrombin-stimulated PGI2 biosynthesis was attenuated by PGE1 or isoproterenol in the presence of MIX. MIX alone was less effective than a combination of PGE1 or isoproterenol plus MIX. These data suggest two potential effects of PGI2 biosynthesis by endothelial cells: first, the PGI2 can elevate cyclic AMP in platelets, and second, endothelial cell cyclic AMP can be elevated as well, so that subsequent PGI2 synthesis will be attenuated.
Publication
Journal: The American review of respiratory disease
February/14/1983
Abstract
The present investigation was designed to study the histamine release and pharmacologic characteristics of dispersed human lung mast cells, particularly in comparison with parenchymal tissue fragments. Dispersed human lung mast cells were prepared by enzymatic treatment (yield, 0.5 to 2 x 10(6) mast cells/g tissue). Purity was 1 to 8% (mean, 3.6% +/- 0.7%), and histamine content varied from 2 to 6 pg/cell (mean, 3.6 +/- 0.5 pg/cell). Release, studied using anti-IgE as the stimulus, was relatively rapid, being essentially complete within 15 min when high concentrations of anti-IgE (greater than or equal to 0.3 microgram/ml) were used and was not enhanced by phosphatidyl serine. The concentration of drug required to inhibit histamine release by 50% in dispersed cells for a series of pharmacologic agents, including the beta-adrenergic agent fenoterol, the prostaglandin E2, and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine, were 0.1 to 1 microM, 50 microM, and 0.5 mM, respectively; similar results were obtained in simultaneous experiments performed using tissue fragments. Adenosine enhanced release (19 +/- 3.4%) at low concentrations (10 microM) and inhibited release (61 +/- 5.1%) at high concentrations (1mM). The H2 agonist, dimaprit (at 10(-5) to 10(-7) M) and prostaglandin D2 (at 10(-4) to 10(-6) M) had no effect on histamine release, whereas deuterium oxide potentiated histamine release. This study serves to quantitate the pharmacologic effects of several agents on anti-IgE-mediated histamine release from dispersed human lung mast cells and has further suggested that the dispersed cell system is similar to the standard chopped lung system in dose-response relationships, kinetics, and pharmacologic modulation. It also indicates that the enzymatic treatment of the cells does not affect the release characteristics or functional capacity of several different receptors, and that this preparation, therefore, appears suitable as an in vitro human model of mediator release that can be used for the evaluation of pharmacologic agents and for further mast cell purification.
Publication
Journal: The American journal of physiology
March/22/1991
Abstract
The goal of this study was to determine the mechanism of impaired responses of cerebral arterioles during diabetes mellitus. To induce diabetes, rats were injected with streptozotocin. Rats were characterized as diabetic by a blood glucose of greater than 300 mg/dl. Diameter of pial arterioles was measured with intravital microscopy in nondiabetic and diabetic rats during superfusion with acetylcholine (ACh), ADP, the thromboxane (Tx) analogue U-46619, and nitroglycerin. ACh increased pial arteriolar diameter in nondiabetic rats and did not alter diameter in diameter in diabetic rats. ADP increased pial arteriolar diameter in nondiabetic rats and produced minimal changes in diameter of arterioles in diabetic rats. Tx analogue U-46619 produced similar constriction of cerebral arterioles in nondiabetic and diabetic rats. In addition, nitroglycerin produced similar dilatation of cerebral arterioles in nondiabetic and diabetic rats, suggesting that impaired dilatation of cerebral arterioles in diabetic rats was not related to nonspecific impairment of vasodilatation. Next, we examined the possibility that impaired responses of cerebral arterioles in diabetic rats in response to ACh and ADP may be related to production of a cyclooxygenase constrictor substance. Indomethacin and the TxA2-prostaglandin (PG) H2 receptor antagonist SQ 29548 restored dilator responses to ACh and ADP in diabetic rats toward that observed in nondiabetic rats. Indomethacin and SQ 29548 did not alter responses in nondiabetic rats. Thus diabetes mellitus impairs endothelium-dependent responses of cerebral arterioles. The mechanism of impaired responses of cerebral arterioles during diabetes mellitus appears to be related to the production of a cyclooxygenase constrictor substance and presumably related to stimulation of the TxA2-PGH2 receptor.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Cellular Physiology
October/23/2015
Abstract
Previously we have shown that homocysteine (Hcy) caused oxidative stress and altered mitochondrial function. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has potent anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic effects. Therefore, in the present study we examined whether H2S ameliorates Hcy-induced mitochondrial toxicity which led to endothelial dysfunction in part, by epigenetic alterations in mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3). The bEnd3 cells were exposed to 100 μM Hcy treatment in the presence or absence of 30 μM NaHS (donor of H2S) for 24 h. Hcy-activate NMDA receptor and induced mitochondrial toxicity by increased levels of Ca(2+), NADPH-oxidase-4 (NOX-4) expression, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and decreased the level of nitrate, superoxide dismutase (SOD-2) expression, mitochondria membrane potentials, ATP production. To confirm the role of epigenetic, 5'-azacitidine (an epigenetic modulator) treatment was given to the cells. Pretreatment with NaHS (30 μM) attenuated the Hcy-induced increased expression of DNMT1, DNMT3a, Ca(2+), and decreased expression of DNMT3b in bEND3 cells. Furthermore, NaHS treatment also mitigated mitochondrial oxidative stress (NOX4, ROS, and NO) and restored ATP that indicates its protective effects against mitochondrial toxicity. Additional, NaHS significantly alleviated Hcy-induced LC3-I/II, CSE, Atg3/7, and low p62 expression which confirm its effect on mitophagy. Likewise, NaHS also restored level of eNOS, CD31, VE-cadherin and ET-1 and maintains endothelial function in Hcy treated cells. Molecular inhibition of NMDA receptor by using small interfering RNA showed protective effect whereas inhibition of H2S production by propargylglycine (PG) (inhibitor of enzyme CSE) showed mitotoxic effect. Taken together, results demonstrate that, administration of H2S protected the cells from HHcy-induced mitochondrial toxicity and endothelial dysfunction.
Publication
Journal: Circulation
December/28/1995
Abstract
BACKGROUND
The conjoint trait hypothesis proposes that combined low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and high triglyceride (TG) levels represent a single, inherited phenotype that adiposity may influence in an unspecified manner. We conducted formal statistical genetic tests of the conjoint trait hypothesis and the relation of the conjoint trait to adiposity using data for 569 subjects in 25 pedigrees from the San Antonio Family Heart Study.
RESULTS
We conducted multivariate genetic analyses to detect the effects of genes and environmental factors on variation in plasma concentrations of HDL-C and TG, fat mass (as percent body weight [FM%], determined by bioelectric impedance), and body mass index (BMI). We used maximum-likelihood methods to simultaneously estimate the phenotypic means and SDs, heritabilities (h2), effects of sex, age-by-sex, eight dietary and medical covariates, and genetic and environmental correlations. Likelihood ratio tests disclosed significant heritabilities (P < .001) for all traits (h2HDL-C = 0.55, h2TG = 0.53, h2FM% = 0.37, h2BMI = 0.44) but significant genetic correlations (P < .001), indicating pleiotropy, between two trait pairs only: HDL-C and TG (PG = -0.52) and fat mass and BMI (PG = 0.86). We obtained significant environmental correlations between all trait pairs except HDL-C and BMI (P>> .05).
CONCLUSIONS
Both shared genes (pleiotropy) and shared environmental factors contribute to the commonly observed inverse phenotypic association between plasma levels of HDL-C and TG. Rather than low HDL-C and high TG being a single, genetically transmissible entity, it is the inverse relation between these two phenotypes throughout their normal ranges of variation as well as at the extremes that is influenced by shared genes and shared environments. However, common environmental factors, not shared genes, account for reported associations of plasma HDL-C and TG levels with measures of adiposity.
Publication
Journal: Anesthesiology
October/24/1981
Abstract
High doses of morphine can produce significant cardiovascular effects generally attributed to histamine release. The authors examined the possibility that H1 and H2 histamine antagonists might prove beneficial in preventing these responses. In a randomized double-blind study, four groups of 10 patients each received 1 mg/kg morphine and either a placebo, diphenhydramine (H1), cimetidine (H2), or both of the histamine antagonists. The morphine-placebo group demonstrated a marked elevation in plasma histamine levels (880 +/- 163 to 7437 +/- 2684 pg/ml), a decrease in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) (15.5 to 9.0 l torr/(l . min-1) and diastolic BP (71 +/- 3 to 45 +/- 4 torr) and an increase in cardiac index (CI) (2.4 +/- 0.2 to 3.0 +/- 0.21 . min-1 . m-2). The administration of either cimetidine or diphenhydramine with morphine provided minimal protection. Those patients who received morphine and both antagonists demonstrated significant attenuation of these responses (CI 2.5 +/- 0.2 to 2.5 +/- 0.1 l . min-1 . m-2; SVR 17.4 to 14.6 torr/(l . min-1) although plasma histamine levels showed a comparable increase (1059 +/- 222 to 7653 +/- 4242 pg/ml). These data demonstrate directly that many of the hemodynamic effects of morphine can be attributed to histamine release. They further demonstrate that significant hemodynamic protection can be obtained by the use of histamine antagonists and the combination of H1 and H2 antagonists is superior to either given alone.
Publication
Journal: Hypertension
August/12/1996
Abstract
Evidence in support of prostaglandin (PG) H2 as the endothelium-derived contracting factor released in response to acetylcholine in vessels from adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) is to a large degree indirect. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a prostaglandin or prostaglandins other than PGH2 may serve as the endothelium-derived contracting factor that mediates acetylcholine-induced contraction in these vessels. Acetylcholine-induced contraction of endothelium-intact aorta from 7- to 12-month-old SHR and WKY in the presence of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N omega-nitro-L-arginine was abolished by indomethacin and only partially decreased by the thromboxane (Tx) A2/PGH2 receptor antagonist SQ29548. Contraction induced by the TxA2/ PGH2 receptor agonist U46619 was abolished by SQ29548. These findings suggest that in endothelium-intact aorta from SHR and WKY, acetylcholine causes the release of a cyclooxygenase product other than PGH2 that induces contraction independently of TxA2/PGH2 receptor activation. To investigate which prostaglandin or prostaglandins could be responsible for the TxA2/PGH2 receptor-independent component, we challenged endothelium-denuded aorta from SHR and WKY with various prostaglandins in the presence of SQ29548. In SQ29548-treated aorta from 7- to 12-month-old rats, maximal contractions to PGF2 alpha, PGE2, and carbacyclin (a PGI2 analogue) were greater than the magnitude of acetylcholine-induced contraction. These findings suggest that PGF2 alpha, PGE2, and/or PGI2 could serve as mediators of the TxA2 receptor-independent component of the acetylcholine-induced contraction. However, in studies with SQ29548-treated aorta from 4- to 6-week-old SHR and WKY (an age at which acetylcholine-induced contraction is known to be absent), maximal contraction to PGF2 alpha and PGE2 was also greater or equivalent to that of SQ29548-treated aorta from 7- to 12-month-old rats, whereas carbacyclin induced negligible contraction. Thus, unlike PGE2 and PGF2 alpha, the age-dependent pattern of contraction induced by carbacyclin closely resembles the pattern induced by acetylcholine. We also measured the levels of PGI2 released in response to acetylcholine and found that they are sufficient to account for the TxA2 receptor-independent component of the acetylcholine-induced contraction. Thus, we propose that PGI2 released in response to acetylcholine may serve as the endothelium-derived contracting factor that elicits the TxA2/PGH2 receptor-independent and dependent components of the acetylcholine-induced contraction.
Publication
Journal: Annual Review of Medicine
July/28/1995
Abstract
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is caused by gastrin-secreting tumors called gastrinomas. Patients commonly present with peptic ulcer disease and may have recurrent, multiple, and atypically located ulcers, e.g. in the jejunum. Alternatively, severe diarrhea may be the only presenting symptom. Patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia Type I (MEN-I) and ZES become symptomatic at an earlier age than patients with sporadic ZES. Patients with ZES have elevated fasting serum gastrin concentrations >> 100 pg/ml) and basal gastric acid hypersecretion >> 15 mEq/h). The secretin stimulation test is the best test to distinguish ZES from other conditions resulting in elevated gastrin levels. Gastric acid hypersecretion can be controlled in virtually all patients with H2-receptor antagonists or omeprazole, thus rendering total gastrectomy unnecessary. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radionuclide octreotide scanning, endoscopic ultrasound, and the selective arterial secretin injection test are the recommended imaging studies for localization of gastrinoma; nevertheless, 50% of gastrinomas are not evident on preoperative imaging studies. All patients with sporadic gastrinoma who do not have unresectable metastatic disease should undergo exploratory laparotomy for potential curative resection. With increased awareness of duodenal tumors, gastrinoma can be found in 80-90% of patients. Surgery may be the most effective treatment for metastatic gastrinoma if most or all of the tumor can be resected. The management of patients with MEN-I and ZES remains controversial. Some clinicians advocate an aggressive surgical approach, whereas others have had little success in rendering patients eugastrinemic.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Pathology
September/23/2002
Abstract
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in tumour angiogenesis, an important process for the growth and metastatic potential of solid tumours. Numerous studies have demonstrated up-regulation of VEGF at both mRNA and protein level in various tumours and a correlation with advanced stage and prognosis has been demonstrated in some cases. Limited information exists about its role in lymphoid malignancies and in particular, Hodgkin's disease. The present study examined the immunohistochemical expression of VEGF using the monoclonal antibody VG1 in a series of 61 cases of Hodgkin's disease, including both classical Hodgkin's disease and the nodular lymphocyte predominance variant, and correlated these results with microvessel density, using an anti-CD31 monoclonal antibody. In 41 cases (70.6%) of classical Hodgkin's disease and one of the three cases of nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's disease, the neoplastic Reed-Sternberg and Hodgkin cells expressed VEGF. The staining observed was cytoplasmic, either diffuse or with a focal paranuclear distribution. Macrophages were always positive, while reactive lymphocytes showed occasional positivity. A variable amount of strong extracellular staining was also observed in the tissue stroma and intravascular plasma staining was prominent. There was no statistically significant relationship between VEGF expression and the subtype of Hodgkin's disease or microvessel density. In vitro studies using the Reed-Sternberg cell lines L428 and KM-H2 were also performed in both normoxia and hypoxia and VEGF protein production was assessed by flow cytometry (FACS), immunoassay of cell culture supernatant, and RT-PCR. Analysis by FACS demonstrated a subset of cells in both cell lines reacting with VG1 and analysis of secreted VEGF (pg/ml per 1x10(6) cells) in cell culture supernatant confirmed the normoxic production in both cell lines and significant hypoxic induction (p<0.005). Additionally, both cell lines expressed VEGF mRNA, as demonstrated using the RT-PCR method. In conclusion, neoplastic cells express VEGF in Hodgkin's disease, as is the case in solid tumours, and this expression may be induced by hypoxia. The presence of VEGF in reactive macrophages and in the extracellular matrix might facilitate tumour progression.
Publication
Journal: Hypertension
February/20/1998
Abstract
Many eicosanoids produced in vascular and renal structures are endowed with the ability to influence vascular and renal mechanisms of blood pressure regulation. Eicosanoids subserve both prohypertensive and antihypertensive mechanisms. The development of angiotensin-dependent hypertension in rats is accompanied by increased vascular production of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and of lipoxygenase-derived products with the ability to inhibit prostacyclin synthase. As a result of these abnormalities, the activity of pressor mechanisms mediated by TXA2 and/or prostaglandin (PG) H2 is increased. The cancellation of TXA2- and/or of PGH2-mediated pressor mechanisms, after treatment with thromboxane synthase inhibitors or TXA2/PGH2 receptor blockers, lowers blood pressure in rats with angiotensin-dependent hypertension. Inhibitors of lipoxygenase also lower blood pressure in such animals, in part by decreasing the synthesis of lipoxygenase-derived inhibitors of prostacyclin synthase. Thus, the vasodepressor effect of these agents is accompanied by increased vascular formation of PGI2 and can be prevented by cyclooxygenase inhibitors. Cyclooxygenase-derived eicosanoids, PGE2 and PGI2, also subserve antihypertensive mechanisms in angiotensin-dependent models of hypertension. The level of blood pressure in such models of hypertension reflects, in part, the interplay among prohypertensive and antihypertensive functions subserved by cyclooxygenase- and lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids.
Publication
Journal: Arthritis research & therapy
January/19/2006
Abstract
Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) is an inducible enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of prostaglandin (PG)H2 to PGE2. Proinflammatory stimuli markedly increase levels of mPGES-1 expression both in vivo and in vitro. mPGES-1 knockout studies and animal models of inflammatory arthritis also provide a strong basis for the contribution of mPGES-1 in the increased local production of PGE2 observed in inflammatory arthritis. The focus of this article is to review some recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms specific to the regulation of inducible mPGES-1 in inflammatory arthritis.
Publication
Journal: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
October/12/2006
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
The goal of this work was to determine whether the blockade of histamine H2 receptors is beneficial for the pathophysiology of chronic heart failure (CHF).
BACKGROUND
Because CHF is one of the major life-threatening diseases, we need to find a novel effective therapy. Intriguingly, our previous study, which predicts the involvement of histamine in CHF, suggests that we should test this hypothesis in patients with CHF.
METHODS
We selected 159 patients who received famotidine among symptomatic CHF patients for the retrospective study. We blindly selected age- and gender-matched CHF patients receiving drugs for gastritis other than histamine H2 receptor blockers as a control group. For the prospective study, 50 symptomatic CHF patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. One group received famotidine of 30 mg/day for 6 months, and the other group received teprenone.
RESULTS
In the retrospective study, famotidine of 20 to 40 mg decreased both left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic lengths (LVDd and LVDs, respectively) and the plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels (182 +/- 21 vs. 259 +/- 25 pg/ml, p < 0.05) with unaltered fractional shortening (FS). In a randomized, open-label study, compared with teprenone, famotidine of 30 mg prospectively decreased both New York Heart Association functional class (p < 0.05) and plasma BNP levels (183 +/- 26 pg/ml vs. 285 +/- 41 pg/ml, p < 0.05); this corresponded to decreasing both LVDd (57 +/- 2 mm vs. 64 +/- 2 mm, p < 0.05) and LVDs (47 +/- 2 mm vs. 55 +/- 2 mm, p < 0.05) with unaltered FS (15 +/- 1% vs. 17 +/- 1%). The frequency of readmission because of worsening of CHF was lower in the famotidine group (4% and 24%, p < 0.05). On the other hand, teprenone had no effects on CHF.
CONCLUSIONS
Famotidine improved both cardiac symptoms and ventricular remodeling associated with CHF. Histamine H2 receptor blockers may have therapeutic benefits for CHF.
Publication