CACNB2 nucleic acid mutations as indicators of shorter than normal QT interval and ST segment elevation associated with sudden cardiac death
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Publication
Journal: Nature
July/19/2009
Abstract
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are childhood neurodevelopmental disorders with complex genetic origins. Previous studies focusing on candidate genes or genomic regions have identified several copy number variations (CNVs) that are associated with an increased risk of ASDs. Here we present the results from a whole-genome CNV study on a cohort of 859 ASD cases and 1,409 healthy children of European ancestry who were genotyped with approximately 550,000 single nucleotide polymorphism markers, in an attempt to comprehensively identify CNVs conferring susceptibility to ASDs. Positive findings were evaluated in an independent cohort of 1,336 ASD cases and 1,110 controls of European ancestry. Besides previously reported ASD candidate genes, such as NRXN1 (ref. 10) and CNTN4 (refs 11, 12), several new susceptibility genes encoding neuronal cell-adhesion molecules, including NLGN1 and ASTN2, were enriched with CNVs in ASD cases compared to controls (P = 9.5 x 10(-3)). Furthermore, CNVs within or surrounding genes involved in the ubiquitin pathways, including UBE3A, PARK2, RFWD2 and FBXO40, were affected by CNVs not observed in controls (P = 3.3 x 10(-3)). We also identified duplications 55 kilobases upstream of complementary DNA AK123120 (P = 3.6 x 10(-6)). Although these variants may be individually rare, they target genes involved in neuronal cell-adhesion or ubiquitin degradation, indicating that these two important gene networks expressed within the central nervous system may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of ASD.
Publication
Journal: Nature
July/19/2009
Abstract
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) represent a group of childhood neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by deficits in verbal communication, impairment of social interaction, and restricted and repetitive patterns of interests and behaviour. To identify common genetic risk factors underlying ASDs, here we present the results of genome-wide association studies on a cohort of 780 families (3,101 subjects) with affected children, and a second cohort of 1,204 affected subjects and 6,491 control subjects, all of whom were of European ancestry. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms between cadherin 10 (CDH10) and cadherin 9 (CDH9)-two genes encoding neuronal cell-adhesion molecules-revealed strong association signals, with the most significant SNP being rs4307059 (P = 3.4 x 10(-8), odds ratio = 1.19). These signals were replicated in two independent cohorts, with combined P values ranging from 7.4 x 10(-8) to 2.1 x 10(-10). Our results implicate neuronal cell-adhesion molecules in the pathogenesis of ASDs, and represent, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of genome-wide significant association of common variants with susceptibility to ASDs.
Publication
Journal: Science (New York, N.Y.)
March/21/2001
Abstract
Familial advanced sleep phase syndrome (FASPS) is an autosomal dominant circadian rhythm variant; affected individuals are "morning larks" with a 4-hour advance of the sleep, temperature, and melatonin rhythms. Here we report localization of the FASPS gene near the telomere of chromosome 2q. A strong candidate gene (hPer2), a human homolog of the period gene in Drosophila, maps to the same locus. Affected individuals have a serine to glycine mutation within the casein kinase Iepsilon (CKIepsilon) binding region of hPER2, which causes hypophosphorylation by CKIepsilon in vitro. Thus, a variant in human sleep behavior can be attributed to a missense mutation in a clock component, hPER2, which alters the circadian period.
Publication
Journal: JAMA
November/28/1994
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To determine whether a program incorporating smoking intervention and use of an inhaled bronchodilator can slow the rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) in smokers aged 35 to 60 years who have mild obstructive pulmonary disease.
METHODS
Randomized clinical trial. Participants randomized with equal probability to one of the following groups: (1) smoking intervention plus bronchodilator, (2) smoking intervention plus placebo, or (3) no intervention.
METHODS
Ten clinical centers in the United States and Canada.
METHODS
A total of 5887 male and female smokers, aged 35 to 60 years, with spirometric signs of early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
METHODS
Smoking intervention: intensive 12-session smoking cessation program combining behavior modification and use of nicotine gum, with continuing 5-year maintenance program to minimize relapse. Bronchodilator: ipratropium bromide prescribed three times daily (two puffs per time) from a metered-dose inhaler.
METHODS
Rate of change and cumulative change in FEV1 over a 5-year period.
RESULTS
Participants in the two smoking intervention groups showed significantly smaller declines in FEV1 than did those in the control group. Most of this difference occurred during the first year following entry into the study and was attributable to smoking cessation, with those who achieved sustained smoking cessation experiencing the largest benefit. The small noncumulative benefit associated with use of the active bronchodilator vanished after the bronchodilator was discontinued at the end of the study.
CONCLUSIONS
An aggressive smoking intervention program significantly reduces the age-related decline in FEV1 in middle-aged smokers with mild airways obstruction. Use of an inhaled anticholinergic bronchodilator results in a relatively small improvement in FEV1 that appears to be reversed after the drug is discontinued. Use of the bronchodilator did not influence the long-term decline of FEV1.
Publication
Journal: Cell
May/16/1999
Abstract
A novel potassium channel gene has been cloned, characterized, and associated with cardiac arrhythmia. The gene encodes MinK-related peptide 1 (MiRP1), a small integral membrane subunit that assembles with HERG, a pore-forming protein, to alter its function. Unlike channels formed only with HERG, mixed complexes resemble native cardiac IKr channels in their gating, unitary conductance, regulation by potassium, and distinctive biphasic inhibition by the class III antiarrhythmic E-4031. Three missense mutations associated with long QT syndrome and ventricular fibrillation are identified in the gene for MiRP1. Mutants form channels that open slowly and close rapidly, thereby diminishing potassium currents. One variant, associated with clarithromycin-induced arrhythmia, increases channel blockade by the antibiotic. A mechanism for acquired arrhythmia is revealed: genetically based reduction in potassium currents that remains clinically silent until combined with additional stressors.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
April/6/2006
Abstract
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in industrialized nations, affecting 30-50 million people worldwide. The earliest clinical hallmark of AMD is the presence of drusen, extracellular deposits that accumulate beneath the retinal pigmented epithelium. Although drusen nearly always precede and increase the risk of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), the late vision-threatening stage of AMD, it is unknown whether drusen contribute to the development of CNV. Both in patients with AMD and in a recently described mouse model of AMD, early subretinal pigmented epithelium deposition of complement components C3 and C5 occurs, suggesting a contributing role for these inflammatory proteins in the development of AMD. Here we provide evidence that bioactive fragments of these complement components (C3a and C5a) are present in drusen of patients with AMD, and that C3a and C5a induce VEGF expression in vitro and in vivo. Further, we demonstrate that C3a and C5a are generated early in the course of laser-induced CNV, an accelerated model of neovascular AMD driven by VEGF and recruitment of leukocytes into the choroid. We also show that genetic ablation of receptors for C3a or C5a reduces VEGF expression, leukocyte recruitment, and CNV formation after laser injury, and that antibody-mediated neutralization of C3a or C5a or pharmacological blockade of their receptors also reduces CNV. Collectively, these findings establish a mechanistic basis for the clinical observation that drusen predispose to CNV, revealing a role for immunological phenomena in angiogenesis and providing therapeutic targets for AMD.
Publication
Journal: Science (New York, N.Y.)
July/10/1990
Abstract
X-linked Alport syndrome is a hereditary glomerulonephritis in which progressive loss of kidney function is often accompanied by progressive loss of hearing. Ultrastructural defects in glomerular basement membranes (GBM) of Alport syndrome patients implicate an altered structural protein as the cause of nephritis. The product of COL4A5, the alpha 5(IV) collagen chain, is a specific component of GBM within the kidney, and the gene maps to the same X chromosomal region as does Alport syndrome. Three structural aberrations were found in COL4A5, in intragenic deletion, a Pst I site variant, and an uncharacterized abnormality, which appear to cause nephritis and deafness, with allele-specific severity, in three Alport syndrome kindreds in Utah.
Publication
Journal: JAMA
September/19/2012
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Extreme obesity is associated with health and cardiovascular disease risks. Although gastric bypass surgery induces rapid weight loss and ameliorates many of these risks in the short term, long-term outcomes are uncertain.
OBJECTIVE
To examine the association of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery with weight loss, diabetes mellitus, and other health risks 6 years after surgery.
METHODS
A prospective Utah-based study conducted between July 2000 and June 2011 of 1156 severely obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 35) participants aged 18 to 72 years (82% women; mean BMI, 45.9; 95% CI, 31.2-60.6) who sought and received RYGB surgery (n = 418), sought but did not have surgery (n = 417; control group 1), or who were randomly selected from a population-based sample not seeking weight loss surgery (n = 321; control group 2).
METHODS
Weight loss, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and health-related quality of life were compared between participants having RYGB surgery and control participants using propensity score adjustment.
RESULTS
Six years after surgery, patients who received RYGB surgery (with 92.6% follow-up) lost 27.7% (95% CI, 26.6%-28.9%) of their initial body weight compared with 0.2% (95% CI, -1.1% to 1.4%) gain in control group 1 and 0% (95% CI, -1.2% to 1.2%) in control group 2. Weight loss maintenance was superior in patients who received RYGB surgery, with 94% (95% CI, 92%-96%) and 76% (95% CI, 72%-81%) of patients receiving RYGB surgery maintaining at least 20% weight loss 2 and 6 years after surgery, respectively. Diabetes remission rates 6 years after surgery were 62% (95% CI, 49%-75%) in the RYGB surgery group, 8% (95% CI, 0%-16%) in control group 1, and 6% (95% CI, 0%-13%) in control group 2, with remission odds ratios (ORs) of 16.5 (95% CI, 4.7-57.6; P < .001) vs control group 1 and 21.5 (95% CI, 5.4-85.6; P < .001) vs control group 2. The incidence of diabetes throughout the course of the study was reduced after RYGB surgery (2%; 95% CI, 0%-4%; vs 17%; 95% CI, 10%-24%; OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.04-0.34 compared with control group 1 and 15%; 95% CI, 9%-21%; OR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.06-0.67 compared with control group 2; both P < .001). The numbers of participants with bariatric surgery-related hospitalizations were 33 (7.9%), 13 (3.9%), and 6 (2.0%) for the RYGB surgery group and 2 control groups, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
Among severely obese patients, compared with nonsurgical control patients, the use of RYGB surgery was associated with higher rates of diabetes remission and lower risk of cardiovascular and other health outcomes over 6 years.
Publication
Journal: American journal of human genetics
April/8/2009
Abstract
Previous genome-wide association (GWA) studies typically focus on single-locus analysis, which may not have the power to detect the majority of genuinely associated loci. Here, we applied pathway analysis using Affymetrix SNP genotype data from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) and uncovered significant association between Crohn Disease (CD) and the IL12/IL23 pathway, harboring 20 genes (p = 8 x 10(-5)). Interestingly, the pathway contains multiple genes (IL12B and JAK2) or homologs of genes (STAT3 and CCR6) that were recently identified as genuine susceptibility genes only through meta-analysis of several GWA studies. In addition, the pathway contains other susceptibility genes for CD, including IL18R1, JUN, IL12RB1, and TYK2, which do not reach genome-wide significance by single-marker association tests. The observed pathway-specific association signal was subsequently replicated in three additional GWA studies of European and African American ancestry generated on the Illumina HumanHap550 platform. Our study suggests that examination beyond individual SNP hits, by focusing on genetic networks and pathways, is important to unleashing the true power of GWA studies.
Publication
Journal: Nature medicine
September/23/1999
Abstract
Biological circadian clocks oscillate with an approximately 24-hour period, are ubiquitous, and presumably confer a selective advantage by anticipating the transitions between day and night. The circadian rhythms of sleep, melatonin secretion and body core temperature are thought to be generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, the anatomic locus of the mammalian circadian clock. Autosomal semi-dominant mutations in rodents with fast or slow biological clocks (that is, short or long endogenous period lengths; tau) are associated with phase-advanced or delayed sleep-wake rhythms, respectively. These models predict the existence of familial human circadian rhythm variants but none of the human circadian rhythm disorders are known to have a familial tendency. Although a slight 'morning lark' tendency is common, individuals with a large and disabling sleep phase-advance are rare. This disorder, advanced sleep-phase syndrome, is characterized by very early sleep onset and offset; only two cases are reported in young adults. Here we describe three kindreds with a profound phase advance of the sleep-wake, melatonin and temperature rhythms associated with a very short tau. The trait segregates as an autosomal dominant with high penetrance. These kindreds represent a well-characterized familial circadian rhythm variant in humans and provide a unique opportunity for genetic analysis of human circadian physiology.
Publication
Journal: The New England journal of medicine
August/1/2001
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Psoriatic plaques are characterized by infiltration with CD4+ CD45RO+ and CD8+ CD45RO+ memory effector T lymphocytes. The recombinant protein alefacept binds to CD2 on memory effector T lymphocytes, inhibiting their activation.
METHODS
In a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, we evaluated alefacept as a treatment for psoriasis. Two hundred twenty-nine patients with chronic psoriasis received intravenous alefacept (0.025, 0.075, or 0.150 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo weekly for 12 weeks, with follow-up for 12 additional weeks. Before treatment, the median scores on the psoriasis area-and-severity index were between 14 and 20 in all groups (0 denotes no psoriasis and 72 the most severe disease possible).
RESULTS
Alefacept was well tolerated and nonimmunogenic. The mean reduction in the score on the psoriasis area-and-severity index two weeks after treatment was greater in the alefacept groups (38, 53, and 53 percent in the groups receiving 0.025, 0.075, and 0.150 mg per kilogram, respectively) than in the placebo group (21 percent, P<0.001). Twelve weeks after treatment, 28 patients who had received alefacept alone were clear or almost clear of psoriasis. Three patients in the placebo group were clear or almost clear; all three had received additional systemic therapy for psoriasis. Alefacept reduced peripheral-blood memory effector T-lymphocyte (CD45RO+) counts, and the reduction in the number of memory-effector T lymphocytes was correlated with the improvement in psoriasis.
CONCLUSIONS
Treatment with alefacept for 12 weeks is associated with improvement in chronic plaque psoriasis; some patients have a sustained clinical response after the cessation of treatment. Alefacept selectively targets CD45RO+ memory effector T lymphocytes, suggesting that they have a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.
Publication
Journal: The New England journal of medicine
July/31/2006
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants is associated with prolonged hospitalization, as well as abnormal pulmonary and neurodevelopmental outcome. In animal models, inhaled nitric oxide improves both gas exchange and lung structural development, but the use of this therapy in infants at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia is controversial.
METHODS
We conducted a randomized, stratified, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of inhaled nitric oxide at 21 centers involving infants with a birth weight of 1250 g or less who required ventilatory support between 7 and 21 days of age. Treated infants received decreasing concentrations of nitric oxide, beginning at 20 ppm, for a minimum of 24 days. The primary outcome was survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age.
RESULTS
Among 294 infants receiving nitric oxide and 288 receiving placebo birth weight (766 g and 759 g, respectively), gestational age (26 weeks in both groups), and other characteristics were similar. The rate of survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age was 43.9 percent in the group receiving nitric oxide and 36.8 percent in the placebo group (P=0.042). The infants who received inhaled nitric oxide were discharged sooner (P=0.04) and received supplemental oxygen therapy for a shorter time (P=0.006). There were no short-term safety concerns.
CONCLUSIONS
Inhaled nitric oxide therapy improves the pulmonary outcome for premature infants who are at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia when it is started between 7 and 21 days of age and has no apparent short-term adverse effects. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000548 [ClinicalTrials.gov] .).
Publication
Journal: Molecular psychiatry
February/28/2006
Abstract
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting early in childhood. Some symptoms of autism are alleviated by treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which are known to interact with the serotonin transporter. Moreover, variation in the gene that encodes the transporter (SLC6A4), especially the HTTLPR locus, is known to modulate its expression. It is natural, therefore, to evaluate whether this variation plays a role in liability to autism. We investigated the impact of alleles at HTTLPR and three other loci in SLC6A4 by using a large, independent family-based sample (390 families, 1528 individuals) from the NIH Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism (CPEA) network. Allele transmissions to individuals diagnosed with autism were biased only for HTTLPR, both for the narrow diagnosis of autism (P=0.035) and for the broader diagnosis of autism spectrum (P=0.007). The short allele of HTTLPR was significantly overtransmitted. Investigation of haplotype transmissions suggested that, in our data, biased transmission was only due to HTTLPR. With respect to this locus, there are now seven of 12 studies reporting significant transmission bias of HTTLPR alleles, a noteworthy result in itself. However, the studies with significant findings are almost equally divided between overtransmission of short and overtransmission of long alleles. We place our results within this extremely heterogeneous field of studies. Determining the factors influencing the relationship between autism phenotypes and HTTLPR variation, as well as other loci in SLC6A4, could be an important advance in our understanding of this complex disorder.
Publication
Journal: Genomics
December/12/1996
Abstract
The voltage-gated cardiac sodium channel, SCN5A, is responsible for the initial upstroke of the action potential. Mutations in the human SCN5A gene cause susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death in the long QT syndrome (LQT). In this report we characterize the genomic structure of SCN5A. SCN5A consists of 28 exons spanning approximately 80 kb on chromosome 3p21. We describe the sequences of all intron/exon boundaries and a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism in intron 16. Oligonucleotide primers based on exon-flanking sequences amplify all SCN5A exons by PCR. This work establishes the complete genomic organization of SCN5A and will enable high-resolution analyses of this locus for mutations associated with LQT and other phenotypes for which SCN5A may be a candidate gene.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
May/7/1997
Abstract
We have examined differences in diversity at 60 microsatellite loci among human population samples from three major continental groups to evaluate the hypothesis of greater African diversity in this rapidly evolving class of loci. Application of a statistical test that assumes equal mutation rates at all loci fails to demonstrate differences in microsatellite diversity, while a randomization test that does not make this assumption finds that Africans have significantly greater microsatellite diversity (P < 10(-8)) than do Asians and Europeans. Greater African diversity is most apparent at loci with smaller overall variance in allele size, suggesting that the record of population history has been erased at repeat loci with higher mutation rates. A power analysis shows that only 35-40 microsatellites are needed to establish this difference statistically, demonstrating the considerable evolutionary information contained in these systems. On average, African populations have approximately 20% greater microsatellite diversity than do Asian and European populations. A comparison of continental diversity differences in microsatellites and mtDNA sequences suggests earlier demographic expansion of the ancestors of Africans.
Publication
Journal: American journal of human genetics
September/22/2005
Abstract
Evidence of the existence of major prostate cancer (PC)-susceptibility genes has been provided by multiple segregation analyses. Although genomewide screens have been performed in over a dozen independent studies, few chromosomal regions have been consistently identified as regions of interest. One of the major difficulties is genetic heterogeneity, possibly due to multiple, incompletely penetrant PC-susceptibility genes. In this study, we explored two approaches to overcome this difficulty, in an analysis of a large number of families with PC in the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG). One approach was to combine linkage data from a total of 1,233 families to increase the statistical power for detecting linkage. Using parametric (dominant and recessive) and nonparametric analyses, we identified five regions with "suggestive" linkage (LOD score >1.86): 5q12, 8p21, 15q11, 17q21, and 22q12. The second approach was to focus on subsets of families that are more likely to segregate highly penetrant mutations, including families with large numbers of affected individuals or early age at diagnosis. Stronger evidence of linkage in several regions was identified, including a "significant" linkage at 22q12, with a LOD score of 3.57, and five suggestive linkages (1q25, 8q13, 13q14, 16p13, and 17q21) in 269 families with at least five affected members. In addition, four additional suggestive linkages (3p24, 5q35, 11q22, and Xq12) were found in 606 families with mean age at diagnosis of < or = 65 years. Although it is difficult to determine the true statistical significance of these findings, a conservative interpretation of these results would be that if major PC-susceptibility genes do exist, they are most likely located in the regions generating suggestive or significant linkage signals in this large study.
Publication
Journal: Chest
July/6/2009
Abstract
BACKGROUND
The Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised (CFQ-R) is a validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) containing both generic scales and scales specific to cystic fibrosis (CF). The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) score for a PRO corresponds to the smallest clinically relevant change a patient can detect. MCID scores for the CFQ-R respiratory symptom (CFQ-R-Respiratory) scale were determined using data from two 28 day, open-label, tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS) studies in patients with CF and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infection. At study enrollment, patients in the study 1-exacerbation had symptoms indicative of pulmonary exacerbation (n = 84; < 14 years of age, 31 patients; > or = 14 years of age, 53 patients); patients in study 2-stable had stable respiratory symptoms (n = 140; < 14 years of age, 14 patients; > or = 14 years, 126 patients).
METHODS
The anchor-based method utilized a global rating-of-change questionnaire (GRCQ) that assessed patients' perceptions of change in their respiratory symptoms after TIS treatment. The mean change from baseline CFQ-R-Respiratory scores were mapped onto the GRCQ to estimate the MCID. The two distribution-based methods were as follows: (1) 0.5 SD of mean change in CFQ-R-Respiratory scores (baseline to end of TIS treatment); and (2) 1 SEM for baseline CFQ-R-Respiratory scores. Triangulation of these three estimates defined the MCIDs.
RESULTS
MCID scores were larger for patients in study 1-exacerbation (8.5 points) than for those in study 2-stable (4.0 points), likely reflecting differences in patient disease status (exacerbation/stable) between these studies.
CONCLUSIONS
Patient benefit from new and current CF therapies can be evaluated using changes in CFQ-R-Respiratory scores. Using the MCID provides a systematic way to interpret these changes, and facilitates the identification of CF treatments that improve both symptoms and physiologic variables, potentially leading to better treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. Trial registration (study 1-exacerbation): Australian-New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: ACTRN 12605000602628 Trial registration (study 2-stable): ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00104520.
Publication
Journal: Genomics
September/13/1998
Abstract
Long QT syndrome (LQT) is a cardiac disorder causing syncope and sudden death from arrhythmias. LQT is characterized by prolongation of the QT interval on electrocardiogram, an indicationof abnormal cardiac repolarization. Mutations in KVLQT1, HERG, SCN5A, and KCNE1, genes encoding cardiac ion channels, cause LQT. Here, we define thecomplete genomic structure of three LQT genesand use this information to identify disease-associated mutations. KVLQT1 is composed of 16 exonsand encompasses approximately 400 kb. HERG consists of 16 exons and spans 55 kb. Three exons make up KCNE1. Each intron of these genes contains the invariant GT and AG at the donor and acceptor splice sites, respectively. Intron sequences were used to design primer pairs for the amplification of all exons. Familial and sporadic cases affected bymutations in KVLQT1, HERG, and KCNE1 can nowbe genetically screened to identify individuals at risk of developing this disorder. This work has clinical implications for presymptomatic diagnosis and therapy.
Publication
Journal: Neurology
February/23/2004
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Mutations in KCNJ2, the gene encoding the inward-rectifying K+ channel Kir2.1, cause the cardiac, skeletal muscle, and developmental phenotypes of Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS; also known as Andersen syndrome). Although pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed for select mutations, a common mechanism has not been identified.
METHODS
Seventeen probands presenting with symptoms characteristic of ATS were evaluated clinically and screened for mutations in KCNJ2. The results of mutation analysis were combined with those from previously studied subjects to assess the frequency with which KCNJ2 mutations cause ATS.
RESULTS
Mutations in KCNJ2 were discovered in nine probands. These included six novel mutations (D71N, T75R, G146D, R189I, G300D, and R312C) as well as previously reported mutations R67W and R218W. Six probands possessed mutations of residues implicated in binding membrane-associated phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). In total, mutations in PIP(2)-related residues accounted for disease in 18 of 29 (62%) reported KCNJ2 -based probands with ATS. Also reported is that mutation R67W causes the full clinical triad in two unrelated males.
CONCLUSIONS
The novel mutations corresponding to residues involved in Kir2.1 channel-PIP2 interactions presented here as well as the overall frequency of mutations occurring in these residues indicate that defects in PIP2 binding constitute a major pathogenic mechanism of ATS. Furthermore, screening KCNJ2 in patients with the complex phenotypes of ATS was found to be invaluable in establishing or confirming a disease diagnosis as mutations in this gene can be identified in the majority of patients.
Publication
Journal: Nature genetics
June/28/1999
Publication
Journal: American journal of human genetics
August/14/1995
Abstract
Williams syndrome (WS) is generally characterized by mental deficiency, gregarious personality, dysmorphic facies, supravalvular aortic stenosis, and idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia. Patients with WS show allelic loss of elastin (ELN), exhibiting a submicroscopic deletion, at 7q11.23, detectable by FISH. Hemizygosity is likely the cause of vascular abnormalities in WS patients. A series of 235 patients was studied, and molecular cytogenetic deletions were seen in 96% of patients with classic WS. Patients included 195 solicited through the Williams Syndrome Association (WSA), plus 40 clinical cytogenetics cases referred by primary-care physicians. Photographs and medical records of most WSA subjects were reviewed, and patients were identified as "classic" (n = 114) or "uncertain" (n = 39). An additional 42 WSA patients were evaluated without clinical information. FISH was performed with biotinylated ELN cosmids on metaphase cells from immortalized lymphoblastoid lines from WSA patients and after high-resolution banding analysis on clinical referral patients. An alpha-satellite probe for chromosome 7 was included in hybridizations, as an internal control. Ninety-six percent of the patients with classic WS showed a deletion in one ELN allele; four of these did not show a deletion. Of the uncertain WS patients, only 3 of 39 showed a deletion. Of the 42 who were not classified phenotypically, because of lack of clinical information, 25 patients (60%) showed a deletion. Thirty-eight percent (15/40) of clinical cytogenetics cases showed an ELN deletion and no cytogenetic deletion by banded analysis. These results support the usefulness of FISH for the detection of elastin deletions as an initial diagnostic assay for WS.
Publication
Journal: Surgery for obesity and related diseases : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
June/8/2009
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Few weight loss surgery trials have evaluated the changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) relative to obese individuals not participating in weight loss interventions. In a prospective study at a bariatric surgery practice, we evaluated the 2-year changes in HRQOL in gastric bypass patients compared with 2 severely obese groups who did not undergo surgical weight loss.
METHODS
A total of 308 gastric bypass patients were compared with 253 individuals who sought but did not undergo gastric bypass and 272 population-based obese individuals using the weight-related (Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite) and general (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey) HRQOL questionnaires at baseline and 2 years of follow-up.
RESULTS
The percentage of weight loss was 34.2% for the gastric bypass and 1.4% for the no gastric bypass groups, with a .5% gain for population-based obese group. Both measures of HRQOL showed greater improvements for the gastric bypass group, even after controlling for baseline differences. Effect sizes for changes in physical and weight-related HRQOL were very large for gastric bypass, but small to medium for the 2 comparison groups. Effect sizes for changes in the psychosocial aspects of HRQOL were moderate to very large for gastric bypass, but small for the 2 comparison groups. Of the gastric bypass patients, 97% had meaningful improvements in the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite total score compared with 43% of the no gastric bypass group and 30% of the population-based obese group.
CONCLUSIONS
Dramatic improvements had occurred in weight-related and physical HRQOL for gastric bypass patients at 2 years after surgery compared with 2 severely obese groups who had not undergone surgery. These results support the effectiveness of gastric bypass surgery in improving patients' HRQOL.
Publication
Journal: Biological psychiatry
January/22/2009
Abstract
BACKGROUND
The search for susceptibility genes in autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been hindered by the possible small effects of individual genes and by genetic (locus) heterogeneity. To overcome these obstacles, one method is to use autism-related subphenotypes instead of the categorical diagnosis of autism since they may be more directly related to the underlying susceptibility loci. Another strategy is to analyze subsets of families that meet certain clinical criteria to reduce genetic heterogeneity.
METHODS
In this study, using 976 multiplex families from the Autism Genome Project consortium, we performed genome-wide linkage analyses on two quantitative subphenotypes, the total scores of the reciprocal social interaction domain and the restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior domain from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. We also selected subsets of ASD families based on four binary subphenotypes, delayed onset of first words, delayed onset of first phrases, verbal status, and IQ > or = 70.
RESULTS
When the ASD families with IQ > or = 70 were used, a logarithm of odds (LOD) score of 4.01 was obtained on chromosome 15q13.3-q14, which was previously linked to schizophrenia. We also obtained a LOD score of 3.40 on chromosome 11p15.4-p15.3 using the ASD families with delayed onset of first phrases. No significant evidence for linkage was obtained for the two quantitative traits.
CONCLUSIONS
This study demonstrates that selection of informative subphenotypes to define a homogeneous set of ASD families could be very important in detecting the susceptibility loci in autism.
Publication
Journal: The Journal of clinical investigation
April/20/1994
Abstract
Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is an inherited vascular disease that can cause heart failure and death. SVAS can be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait or as part of a developmental disorder, Williams syndrome (WS). In recent studies we presented evidence suggesting that a translocation disrupting the elastin gene caused SVAS in one family while deletions involving the entire elastin locus caused WS. In this study, pulsed-field, PCR, and Southern analyses showed that a 100-kb deletion of the 3' end of the elastin gene cosegregated with the disease in another SVAS family. DNA sequence analysis localized the breakpoint between elastin exons 27 and 28, the same region disrupted by the SVAS-associated translocation. These data indicate that mutations in the elastin gene cause SVAS and suggest that elastin exons 28-36 may encode critical domains for vascular development.
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