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Publication
Journal: Cancer Cell
January/15/2009
Abstract
Targeted therapy for metastatic diseases relies on the identification of functionally important metastasis genes from a large number of random genetic alterations. Here we use a computational algorithm to map minimal recurrent genomic alterations associated with poor-prognosis breast cancer. 8q22 genomic gain was identified by this approach and validated in an extensive collection of breast tumor samples. Regional gain of 8q22 elevates expression of the metastasis gene metadherin (MTDH), which is overexpressed in more than 40% of breast cancers and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Functional characterization of MTDH revealed its dual role in promoting metastatic seeding and enhancing chemoresistance. These findings establish MTDH as an important therapeutic target for simultaneously enhancing chemotherapy efficacy and reducing metastasis risk.
Publication
Journal: Nature Genetics
October/28/2010
Abstract
Migraine is a common episodic neurological disorder, typically presenting with recurrent attacks of severe headache and autonomic dysfunction. Apart from rare monogenic subtypes, no genetic or molecular markers for migraine have been convincingly established. We identified the minor allele of rs1835740 on chromosome 8q22.1 to be associated with migraine (P = 5.38 × 10⁻⁹, odds ratio = 1.23, 95% CI 1.150-1.324) in a genome-wide association study of 2,731 migraine cases ascertained from three European headache clinics and 10,747 population-matched controls. The association was replicated in 3,202 cases and 40,062 controls for an overall meta-analysis P value of 1.69 × 10⁻¹¹ (odds ratio = 1.18, 95% CI 1.127-1.244). rs1835740 is located between MTDH (astrocyte elevated gene 1, also known as AEG-1) and PGCP (encoding plasma glutamate carboxypeptidase). In an expression quantitative trait study in lymphoblastoid cell lines, transcript levels of the MTDH were found to have a significant correlation to rs1835740 (P = 3.96 × 10⁻⁵, permuted threshold for genome-wide significance 7.7 × 10⁻⁵. To our knowledge, our data establish rs1835740 as the first genetic risk factor for migraine.
Publication
Journal: Oncogene
May/16/2013
Abstract
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an initiating event in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. It has been shown to occur in resistance to a range of cancer therapies, including tamoxifen. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been associated with EMT as well as resistance to standard therapies. To investigate the role of miRNAs in the development of resistance to tamoxifen as well as accompanying EMT-like properties, we established a tamoxifen-resistant (TamR) model by continually exposing MCF-7 breast cancer cells to tamoxifen. In addition to the molecular changes known to be involved in acquired tamoxifen resistance, TamR cells displayed mesenchymal features and had increased invasiveness. Genome-wide miRNA microarray analysis revealed that miRNA-375 was among the top downregulated miRNAs in resistant cells. Re-expression of miR-375 was sufficient to sensitize TamR cells to tamoxifen and partly reversed EMT. A combination of mRNA profiling, bioinformatics analysis and experimental validation identified metadherin (MTDH) as a direct target of miR-375. Knockdown of MTDH partially phenocopied the effects of miR-375 on the sensitivity to tamoxifen and the reversal of EMT. We observed an inverse correlation between the expression of miR-375 and its target MTDH in primary breast cancer samples, implying the pathological relevance of targeting. Finally, tamoxifen-treated patients with higher expression of MTDH had a shorter disease-free survival and higher risk of relapse. As most cancer-related deaths occur because of resistance to standard therapies and metastasis, re-expression of miR-375 or targeting MTDH might serve as potential therapeutic approaches for the treatment of TamR breast cancer.
Publication
Journal: Carcinogenesis
January/27/2011
Abstract
The role of miR-26a in carcinogenesis appears to be a complicated one, in the sense that both oncogenic and tumor suppressive effects were reported in cancers such as glioblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma, respectively. Here, we report for the first time that miR-26a is downregulated in breast cancer specimens and cell lines and its transient transfection initiates apoptosis of breast cancer cell line MCF7 cells. Furthermore, retrovirus-delivered miR-26a impairs the in vitro colony forming and in vivo tumor-loading ability of MCF7 cells. Subsequently, MTDH and EZH2 are identified as two direct targets of miR-26a and they are significantly upregulated in breast cancer. MCF7 xenografts with exogenous miR-26a show that a decrease in expression of both MTDH and EZH2 is accompanied by an increase in apoptosis. Moreover, knockdown of MTDH causes apoptosis while reexpression of MTDH partially reverses the proapoptotic effect of miR-26a in MCF7 cells. Our findings suggest that miR-26a functionally antagonizes human breast carcinogenesis by targeting MTDH and EZH2.
Publication
Journal: Clinical Cancer Research
April/27/2012
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To investigate the expression of metadherin (MTDH) for its prognostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its role in promoting HCC metastasis.
METHODS
This study employed a tissue microarray containing samples from 323 HCC patients to examine the expression of MTDH and its correlation with other clinicopathologic characteristics. The role of MTDH in the regulation of HCC metastasis was investigated both in vitro and in vivo using short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated downregulation of MTDH in HCC cell lines with various metastatic potentials.
RESULTS
The expression of MTDH was markedly higher in HCC tumors than in normal liver tissue. Particularly high MTDH expression was observed in tumors with microvascular invasion, pathologic satellites, poor differentiation, or tumor-node-metastasis stages II to III. Furthermore, the clinical outcome was consistently poorer for the MTDH(high) group than for the MTDH(low) group in the 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates and in the 1-, 3-, 5-year cumulative recurrence rates. In a nude mice model, the shRNA-mediated downregulation of MTDH resulted in a reduced migratory capacity in HCC cell lines, as well as a reduction in pulmonary and abdominal metastasis. Furthermore, we found that the expression level of MTDH correlated with four epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. Knockdown of MTDH expression in HCC cell lines resulted in downregulation of N-cadherin and snail, upregulation of E-cadherin, and translocation of β-catenin.
CONCLUSIONS
MTDH may promote HCC metastasis through the induction of EMT process and may be a candidate biomarker for prognosis as well as a target for therapy.
Publication
Journal: Oncogene
August/7/2014
Abstract
Accumulating data have shown the involvement of microRNAs in cancerous processes as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Here, we established miR-30a as a tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer development and metastasis. Ectopic expression of miR-30a in breast cancer cell lines resulted in the suppression of cell growth and metastasis in vitro. Consistently, the xenograft mouse model also unveiled the suppressive effects of miR-30a on tumor growth and distal pulmonary metastasis. With dual luciferase reporter assay, we revealed that miR-30a could bind to the 3'-untranslated region of metadherin (MTDH) gene, thus exerting inhibitory effect on MTDH. Furthermore, we demonstrated that silence of MTDH could recapitulate the effects of miR-30a overexpression, while overexpression of MTDH could partially abrogate miR-30a-mediated suppression. Of significance, expression level of miR-30a was found to be significantly lower in primary breast cancer tissues than in the paired normal tissues. Further evaluation verified that miR-30a was negatively correlated with the extent of lymph node and lung metastasis in patients with breast cancer. Taken together, our findings indicated miR-30a inhibits breast cancer proliferation and metastasis by directly targeting MTDH, and miR-30a can serve as a prognostic marker for breast cancer. Manipulation of miR-30a may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for breast cancer treatment.
Authors
Publication
Journal: Cancer Letters
May/12/2011
Abstract
In this study, we explored miR-203's role in the chemoresistance of colon cancer. We found that overexpression of miR-203 significantly decreased cell proliferation and survival, and induced cell apoptosis in the p53-mutated colon cancer cells. Importantly, miR-203 overexpression increased the cytotoxic role of paclitaxel in the p53-mutated colon cancer cells, but not in the p53 wild-type cells. We further demonstrated that the tumor suppressive role of miR-203 was mediated by negatively regulating Akt2 protein expression through mRNA degradation. The inhibition of Akt2 activity downregulated the protein expression of its downstream molecules involved in chemoresistance, such as MTDH and HSP90 genes. Also, overexpression of miR-203 decreased anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-xL expression and increased apoptotic proteins Bax and active caspase-3 levels. Our study is the first to identify the tumor suppressive role of overexpressed miR-203, describe its associated signaling pathways, and highlight the role of miR-203 in chemoresistance.
Publication
Journal: Hepatology
January/16/2014
Abstract
Cancer is a genetic disease with frequent somatic DNA alterations. Studying recurrent copy number aberrations (CNAs) in human cancers would enable the elucidation of disease mechanisms and the prioritization of candidate oncogenic drivers with causal roles in oncogenesis. We have comprehensively and systematically characterized CNAs and the accompanying gene expression changes in tumors and matched nontumor liver tissues from 286 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Our analysis identified 29 recurrently amplified and 22 recurrently deleted regions with a high level of copy number changes. These regions harbor established oncogenes and tumor suppressors, including CCND1 (cyclin D1), MET (hepatocyte growth factor receptor), CDKN2A (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) and CDKN2B (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B), as well as many other genes not previously reported to be involved in liver carcinogenesis. Pathway analysis of cis-acting genes in the amplification and deletion peaks implicates alterations of core cancer pathways, including cell-cycle, p53 signaling, phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, Wnt signaling, and transforming growth factor beta signaling, in a large proportion of HCC patients. We further credentialed two candidate driver genes (BCL9 and MTDH) from the recurrent focal amplification peaks and showed that they play a significant role in HCC growth and survival.
CONCLUSIONS
We have demonstrated that characterizing the CNA landscape in HCC will facilitate the understanding of disease mechanisms and the identification of oncogenic drivers that may serve as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this devastating disease.
Publication
Journal: Pharmacology and Therapeutics
June/7/2011
Abstract
Since its initial identification and cloning in 2002, Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 (AEG-1), also known as metadherin (MTDH), 3D3 and LYsine-RIch CEACAM1 co-isolated (LYRIC), has emerged as an important oncogene that is overexpressed in all cancers analyzed so far. Examination of a large cohort of patient samples representing diverse cancer indications has revealed progressive increase in AEG-1 expression with stages and grades of the disease and an inverse relationship between AEG-1 expression level and patient prognosis. AEG-1 functions as a bona fide oncogene by promoting transformation. In addition, it plays a significant role in invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and chemoresistance, all important hallmarks of an aggressive cancer. AEG-1 is also implicated in diverse physiological and pathological processes, such as development, inflammation, neurodegeneration, migraine and Huntington's disease. AEG-1 is a highly basic protein with a transmembrane domain and multiple nuclear localization signals and it is present in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, nucleolus and endoplasmic reticulum. In each location, AEG-1 interacts with specific proteins thereby modulating diverse intracellular processes the combination of which contributes to its pleiotrophic properties. The present review provides a snapshot of the current literature along with future perspectives on this unique molecule.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Biological Chemistry
August/1/2011
Abstract
Metastasis is the deadliest and most poorly understood feature of malignant diseases. Recent work has shown that Metadherin (MTDH) is overexpressed in over 40% of breast cancer patients and promotes metastasis and chemoresistance in experimental models of breast cancer progression. Here we applied mass spectrometry-based screen to identify staphylococcal nuclease domain-containing 1 (SND1) as a candidate MTDH-interacting protein. After confirming the interaction between SND1 and MTDH, we tested the role of SND1 in breast cancer and found that it strongly promotes lung metastasis. SND1 was further shown to promote resistance to apoptosis and to regulate the expression of genes associated with metastasis and chemoresistance. Analyses of breast cancer clinical microarray data indicated that high expression of SND1 in primary tumors is strongly associated with reduced metastasis-free survival in multiple large scale data sets. Thus, we have uncovered SND1 as a novel MTDH-interacting protein and shown that it is a functionally and clinically significant mediator of metastasis.