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Publication
Journal: Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
May/27/2015
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Modulation of immunologic interactions in cancer tissue is a promising therapeutic strategy. To investigate the immunogenicity of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive and triple-negative (TN) breast cancers (BCs), we evaluated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and immunologically relevant genes in the neoadjuvant GeparSixto trial.
METHODS
GeparSixto investigated the effect of adding carboplatin (Cb) to an anthracycline-plus-taxane combination (PM) on pathologic complete response (pCR). A total of 580 tumors were evaluated before random assignment for stromal TILs and lymphocyte-predominant BC (LPBC). mRNA expression of immune-activating (CXCL9, CCL5, CD8A, CD80, CXCL13, IGKC, CD21) as well as immunosuppressive factors (IDO1, PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA4, FOXP3) was measured in 481 tumors.
RESULTS
Increased levels of stromal TILs predicted pCR in univariable (P < .001) and multivariable analyses (P < .001). pCR rate was 59.9% in LPBC and 33.8% for non-LPBC (P < .001). pCR rates ≥ 75% were observed in patients with LPBC tumors treated with PMCb, with a significant test for interaction with therapy in the complete (P = .002) and HER2-positive (P = .006), but not the TNBC, cohorts. Hierarchic clustering of mRNA markers revealed three immune subtypes with different pCR rates (P < .001). All 12 immune mRNA markers were predictive for increased pCR. The highest odds ratios (ORs) were observed for PD-L1 (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.34 to 1.86; P < .001) and CCL5 (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.62; P < .001).
CONCLUSIONS
Immunologic factors were highly significant predictors of therapy response in the GeparSixto trial, particularly in patients treated with Cb. After further standardization, they could be included in histopathologic assessment of BC.
Publication
Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
August/29/2012
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Although the central role of the immune system for tumor prognosis is generally accepted, a single robust marker is not yet available.
METHODS
On the basis of receiver operating characteristic analyses, robust markers were identified from a 60-gene B cell-derived metagene and analyzed in gene expression profiles of 1,810 breast cancer; 1,056 non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC); 513 colorectal; and 426 ovarian cancer patients. Protein and RNA levels were examined in paraffin-embedded tissue of 330 breast cancer patients. The cell types were identified with immunohistochemical costaining and confocal fluorescence microscopy.
RESULTS
We identified immunoglobulin κ C (IGKC) which as a single marker is similarly predictive and prognostic as the entire B-cell metagene. IGKC was consistently associated with metastasis-free survival across different molecular subtypes in node-negative breast cancer (n = 965) and predicted response to anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n = 845; P < 0.001). In addition, IGKC gene expression was prognostic in NSCLC and colorectal cancer. No association was observed in ovarian cancer. IGKC protein expression was significantly associated with survival in paraffin-embedded tissues of 330 breast cancer patients. Tumor-infiltrating plasma cells were identified as the source of IGKC expression.
CONCLUSIONS
Our findings provide IGKC as a novel diagnostic marker for risk stratification in human cancer and support concepts to exploit the humoral immune response for anticancer therapy. It could be validated in several independent cohorts and carried out similarly well in RNA from fresh frozen as well as from paraffin tissue and on protein level by immunostaining.
Publication
Journal: Frontiers in oncology
June/4/2013
Abstract
Recent technical improvements in evaluations of immune cells in situ and immune monitoring of patients with cancer have provided a wealth of new data confirming that immune cells play a key role in human cancer progression. This, in turn, has revived the expectation that immune endpoints might serve as reliable biomarkers of outcome or response to therapy in cancer. The recent successes in linking the T-cell signature in human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) with prognosis have provided a strong motive for searching for additional immune biomarkers that could serve as intermediate endpoints of response to therapy and outcome in human cancers. A number of potentially promising immune biomarkers have emerged, but most remain to be validated. Among them, the B-cell signature, as exemplified by expression of the immunoglobulin G kappa chain (IGKC) in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), has been validated as a biomarker of response to adjuvant therapy and better survival in patients with breast carcinoma and several other types of human solid tumors. Additional immune endpoints are being currently tested as potentially promising biomarkers in cancer. In view of currently growing use of immune cancer therapies, the search for immune biomarkers of prognosis are critically important for identifying patients who would benefit the most from adjuvant immunotherapy.
Publication
Journal: Cancer letters
June/27/2013
Abstract
A prognostic impact of immunoglobulin kappa C (IGKC) expression has been described in cancer. We analysed the influence of B-cell and plasma cell markers, as well as IGKC expression, in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) using immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray. IGKC protein expression was independently associated with longer survival, with particular impact in the adenocarcinoma subgroup. Moreover, a correlation was seen with CD138+ cells, but not with CD20. CD138 expression revealed a comparable association with survival. In conclusion, IGKC expression in stroma-infiltrating plasma cells is a prognostic marker in NSCLC, supporting emerging treatment concepts that exploit the humoral immune response.
Publication
Journal: Molecular vision
February/7/2011
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To identify proteins differentially expressed between the tear film of keratoconus (KC) patients and control subjects using two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry-based techniques.
METHODS
Twenty two patients (44 eyes) diagnosed with bilateral KC and 22 control subjects (44 eyes) were studied in a prospective case-control study. Keratoconus screening programs and Orbscan II topographies were performed on all participants. Tear samples were collected by the Schirmer I method using filter paper. Proteins were extracted from the Schirmer strips and separated by 2-DE. Comparison of protein patterns was performed using PDQuest Software and protein differences were identified by mass spectrometry. Finally, results were validated by western-blot.
RESULTS
Four spots were identified to be differentially expressed between KC patients and control subjects. Three of them were more expressed in healthy subjects and they were identified as zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), lactoferrin, and IGKC (immunoglobulin kappa chain). The other spot was more expressed in KC patients and it was identified as ZAG. Differences in ZAG seem controversial in two different spots because different posttranslational modifications, however, analysis of both spots revealed that globally, ZAG is overexpressed in healthy subjects. Founded differences in ZAG, lactoferrin, and IGKC expression were subsequently validated by western blot.
CONCLUSIONS
IGKC protein, ZAG, and lactoferrin are under-expressed in the tears of patients diagnosed with bilateral KC compared with healthy subjects. These differences could contribute to the knowledge of the pathophysiology of this disease.