Maraviroc
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Publication
Journal: The Lancet. Haematology
March/2/2019
Abstract
Prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) without malignant relapse is the overall goal of allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We aimed to evaluate regimens using either maraviroc, bortezomib, or post-transplantation cyclophosphamide for GvHD prophylaxis compared with controls receiving the combination of tacrolimus and methotrexate using a novel composite primary endpoint to identify the most promising intervention to be further tested in a phase 3 trial.

METHODS
In this prospective multicentre phase 2 trial, adult patients aged 18-75 years who received reduced-intensity conditioning HCT were randomly assigned (1:1:1) by random block sizes to tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg on days 3 and 4, followed by tacrolimus starting on day 5 and mycophenolate mofetil starting on day 5 at 15 mg/kg three times daily not to exceed 1 g from day 5 to day 35); tacrolimus, methotrexate, and bortezomib (bortezomib 1·3 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1, 4, and 7 after HCT); or tacrolimus, methotrexate, and maraviroc (maraviroc 300 mg orally twice daily from day -3 to day 30 after HCT). Methotrexate was administered as a 15 mg/m2 intravenous bolus on day 1 and 10 mg/m2 intravenous bolus on days 3, 6, and 11 after HCT; tacrolimus was given intravenously at a dose of 0·05 mg/kg twice daily (or oral equivalent) starting on day -3 (except the post-transplantation cyclophosphamide, as indicated), with a target level of 5-15 ng/mL. Tacrolimus was continued at least until day 90 and was tapered off by day 180. Each study group was compared separately to a contemporary non-randomised prospective cohort of patients (control group) who fulfilled the same eligibility criteria as the trial, but who were treated with tacrolimus and methotrexate at centres not participating in the trial. The primary endpoint (GvHD-free, relapse-free survival [GRFS]) was defined as the time from HCT to onset of grade 3-4 acute GvHD, chronic GvHD requiring systemic immunosuppression, disease relapse, or death. The study was analysed by modified intention to treat. The study is closed to accrual and this is the planned analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02208037.

Between Nov 17, 2014, and May 18, 2016, 273 patients from 31 US centres were randomly assigned to the three study arms: 89 to tacrolimus, methotrexate, and bortezomib; 92 to tacrolimus, methotrexate, and maraviroc; 92 to tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide; and six were excluded. Between Aug 1, 2014, and Sept 14, 2016, 224 controls received tacrolimus and methotrexate. Controls were generally well matched except for more frequent comorbidities than the intervention groups and a different distribution of types of conditioning regimens used. Compared with controls, the hazard ratio for GRFS was 0·72 (90% CI 0·54-0·94; p=0·044) for tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide, 0·98 (0·76-1·27; p=0·92) for tacrolimus, methotrexate, and bortezomib, and 1·10 (0·86-1·41; p=0·49) for tacrolimus, methotrexate, and maraviroc. 238 patients experienced grade 3 or 4 toxicities: 12 (13%) had grade 3 and 67 (73%) grade 4 events with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide; ten (11%) had grade 3 and 68 (76%) had grade 4 events with tacrolimus, methotrexate, and bortezomib; and 18 (20%) had grade 3 and 63 (68%) had grade 4 events with tacrolimus, methotrexate, and maraviroc. The most common toxicities were haematological (77 [84%] for tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide; 73 [82%] for tacrolimus, methotrexate, and bortezomib; and 78 [85%] for tacrolimus, methotrexate, and maraviroc) and cardiac (43 [47%], 44 [49%], and 43 [47%], respectively).Tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide was the most promising intervention, yielding the best GRFS; this regimen is thus being prospectively compared with tacrolimus and methotrexate in a phase 3 randomised trial.US National Health, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Cancer Institute; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease; and Millennium Pharmaceuticals.
Publication
Journal: Journal of virology
August/26/2018
Abstract
Current approaches do not eliminate all human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) maternal-to-infant transmissions (MTIT); new prevention paradigms might help avert new infections. We administered maraviroc (MVC) to rhesus macaques (RMs) to block CCR5-mediated entry, followed by repeated oral exposure of a CCR5-dependent clone of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac251 (SIVmac766). MVC significantly blocked the CCR5 coreceptor in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tissue cells. All control animals and 60% of MVC-treated infant RMs became infected by the 6th challenge, with no significant difference between the number of exposures (P = 0.15). At the time of viral exposures, MVC plasma and tissue (including tonsil) concentrations were within the range seen in humans receiving MVC as a therapeutic. Both treated and control RMs were infected with only a single transmitted/founder variant, consistent with the dose of virus typical of HIV-1 infection. The uninfected RMs expressed the lowest levels of CCR5 on the CD4+ T cells. Ramp-up viremia was significantly delayed (P = 0.05) in the MVC-treated RMs, yet peak and postpeak viral loads were similar in treated and control RMs. In conclusion, in spite of apparent effective CCR5 blockade in infant RMs, MVC had a marginal impact on acquisition and only a minimal impact on the postinfection delay of viremia following oral SIV infection. Newly developed, more effective CCR5 blockers may have a more dramatic impact on oral SIV transmission than MVC.IMPORTANCE We have previously suggested that the very low levels of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) maternal-to-infant transmissions (MTIT) in African nonhuman primates that are natural hosts of SIVs are due to a low availability of target cells (CCR5+ CD4+ T cells) in the oral mucosa of the infants, rather than maternal and milk factors. To confirm this new MTIT paradigm, we performed a proof-of-concept study in which we therapeutically blocked CCR5 with maraviroc (MVC) and orally exposed MVC-treated and naive infant rhesus macaques to SIV. MVC had only a marginal effect on oral SIV transmission. However, the observation that the infant RMs that remained uninfected at the completion of the study, after 6 repeated viral challenges, had the lowest CCR5 expression on the CD4+ T cells prior to the MVC treatment appears to confirm our hypothesis, also suggesting that the partial effect of MVC is due to a limited efficacy of the drug. New, more effective CCR5 inhibitors may have a better effect in preventing SIV and HIV transmission.
Publication
Journal: PloS one
May/9/2016
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
The immunomodulatory effects of the CCR5-antagonist maraviroc might be beneficial in patients with a suboptimal immunological response, but results of different cART (combination antiretroviral therapy) intensification studies are conflicting. Therefore, we performed a 48-week placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of maraviroc intensification on CD4+ T-cell counts and immune activation in these patients.
METHODS
Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.
METHODS
Major inclusion criteria were 1. CD4+ T-cell count <350 cells/μL while at least two years on cART or CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/μL while at least one year on cART, and 2. viral suppression for at least the previous 6 months. HIV-infected patients were randomized to add maraviroc (41 patients) or placebo (44 patients) to their cART regimen for 48 weeks. Changes in CD4+ T-cell counts (primary endpoint) and other immunological parameters were modeled using linear mixed effects models.
RESULTS
No significant differences for the modelled increase in CD4+ T-cell count (placebo 15.3 CD4+ T cells/μL (95% confidence interval (CI) [1.0, 29.5] versus maraviroc arm 22.9 CD4+ T cells/μL (95% CI [7.4, 38.5] p = 0.51) or alterations in the expression of markers for T-cell activation, proliferation and microbial translocation were found between the arms. However, maraviroc intensification did increase the percentage of CCR5 expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and the plasma levels of the CCR5 ligand MIP-1β. In contrast, the percentage of ex-vivo apoptotic CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells decreased in the maraviroc arm.
CONCLUSIONS
Maraviroc intensification of cART did not increase CD4+ T-cell restoration or decrease immune activation as compared to placebo. However, ex-vivo T-cell apoptosis was decreased in the maraviroc arm.
BACKGROUND
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00875368.
Publication
Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
March/20/2019
Abstract
Malignant phyllodes tumor (PT) is a fast-progression neoplasm derived from periductal stromal cells of the breast, which currently still lack effective treatment strategies. Our previous studies showed that the high density of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) plays an important role in the malignant progression of PTs. TAMs secreted large amount of CCL18 to promote myofibroblast differentiation and invasion via binding to its receptor PIPTNM3 on myofibroblasts. Herein, we investigate the mechanism of how TAMs are recruited and repolarized by PTs to drive the malignant progression.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
The cytokines secreted by PTs were identified by the cytokine array. The clinical and pathologic correlations of the cytokine with PTs were estimated with IHC. The mechanisms of the cytokine that recruited and polarized the macrophage were explored with a coculture model of primary PT cells and macrophages in vitro and in vivo. The patient-derived xenografts (PDX) of malignant PTs were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of CCR5 inhibitor.

RESULTS
A high level of malignant PT-secreted CCL5 correlated with poor outcome of PTs and could be an independent prognostic factor of PTs. CCL5 bound to its receptor, CCR5, on macrophages thus activated AKT signaling to recruit and repolarize TAMs. Subsequently, the TAMs released CCL18 to further promote the aggressive phenotype of malignant PTs by enhancing and maintaining the myofibroblast differentiation and invasion in vitro and in vivo. In a murine PDX model of human malignant PTs, the CCL5-CCR5 axis blocked by maraviroc, an FDA-proved CCR5 inhibitor, prevented recruitment of monocytes to the tumor and dramatically suppressed tumor growth.

Our findings indicate that malignant PTs recruit and repolarize TAMs through a CCL5-CCR5-driven signaling cascade. Thus, a positive feedback loop of CCL5-CCR5 and CCL18-PIPTNM3 between myofibroblast and TAMs is constituted to drive the malignant progression of PTs. Furthermore, targeting CCR5 with maraviroc represents a potential clinically available strategy to treat malignant PTs.
Publication
Journal: Cell death & disease
March/20/2019
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are recruited from BM to the stroma of developing tumors, where they serve as critical components of the tumor microenvironment by secreting growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines. The role of MSCs in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression was controversial. In this study, we found that C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) ligands (i.e., C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3), CCL4, and CCL5) were highly produced from MSCs using a chemokine array screening with conditioned media from the cultured human MSCs. A relatively strong CCR5 expression could be detected within the cytoplasm of several CRC cell lines. Regarding the effect of MSC, we found that the xenografts in which CCR5-overexpressing HCT116 cells were inoculated into immunocompromised mice were highly promoted in vivo by a mixture with MSCs. Notably, the CCR5 inhibitor, maraviroc, significantly abolished the MSC-induced tumor growth in vivo. In human clinical specimens (n = 89), 20 cases (29%) were high for CCR5, whereas 69 cases (71%) were low. Statistical analyses indicated that CCR5 expression in primary CRC was associated with CRC patients' prognosis. Especially, stage III/IV patients with CCR5-high CRCs exhibited a significantly poorer prognosis than those with CCR5-low CRCs. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of preoperative serum CCR5 ligands on patients' prognosis (n = 114), and found that CRC patients with high serum levels of CCL3 and CCL4 exhibited a poorer prognosis compared to those with low levels of CCL3 and CCL4, while there was no association between CCL5 and prognosis. These results suggest that the inhibition of MSC-CRC interaction by a CCR5 inhibitor could provide the possibility of a novel therapeutic strategy for CRC, and that serum levels of CCL3 and CCL4 could be predictive biomarkers for the prognosis of CRC patients.
Publication
Journal: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
July/26/2016
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To describe the pharmacokinetics of maraviroc in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women during pregnancy and post partum.
METHODS
HIV-infected pregnant women receiving maraviroc as part of clinical care had intensive steady-state 12-hour pharmacokinetic profiles performed during the third trimester and ≥2 weeks after delivery. Cord blood samples and matching maternal blood samples were taken at delivery. The data were collected in 2 studies: P1026 (United States) and PANNA (Europe). Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated.
RESULTS
Eighteen women were included in the analysis. Most women (12; 67%) received 150 mg of maraviroc twice daily with a protease inhibitor, 2 (11%) received 300 mg twice daily without a protease inhibitor, and 4 (22%) had an alternative regimen. The geometric mean ratios for third-trimester versus postpartum maraviroc were 0.72 (90% confidence interval, .60-.88) for the area under the curve over a dosing interval (AUCtau) and 0.70 (0.58-0.85) for the maximum maraviroc concentration. Only 1 patient showed a trough concentration (Ctrough) below the suggested target of 50 ng/mL, both during pregnancy and post partum. The median ratio of maraviroc cord blood to maternal blood was 0.33 (range, 0.03-0.56). The viral load close to delivery was <50 copies/mL in 13 women (76%). All children were HIV negative at testing.
CONCLUSIONS
Overall maraviroc exposure during pregnancy was decreased, with a reduction in AUCtau and maximum concentration of about 30%. Ctrough was reduced by 15% but exceeded the minimum Ctrough target concentration. Therefore, the standard adult dose seems sufficient in pregnancy.
BACKGROUND
NCT00825929 and NCT000422890.
Publication
Journal: PloS one
October/24/2019
Abstract
Effects of steady-state rifabutin on the pharmacokinetics of steady-state maraviroc were investigated in fourteen healthy adult female and male volunteers. Maraviroc 300 mg twice daily (BID) was given orally with food for fifteen days. On day six, rifabutin 300 mg once daily (QD, P.O.) was added to the regimen. Formal pharmacokinetic (PK) sampling was performed on days five and fifteen. Individual plasma drug concentration-time data for maraviroc, and rifabutin on day fifteen, were obtained using validated High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS). Rifabutin steady state exposure was comparable to data in the literature. Maraviroc area under the curve (AUC) and minimum plasma concentration (Clast or Cmin) were reduced by 17% and 30% respectively when co-administered with rifabutin. No unexpected or serious adverse eventsoccurred. Based on the reduced exposure of maraviroc observed in this study, increasing the dose of maraviroc may be studied to normalize its moderately reduced exposure following rifabutin co-administration, a moderate inducer of CYP3A4.
Publication
Journal: FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
April/29/2019
Abstract
C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) plays an essential role in HIV pathogenesis as the major coreceptor on CD4+ T cells used by HIV, yet the function of CCR5 on CD8 T cells is not well understood. Furthermore, the immunologic effects of the CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc (MVC), despite approval for clinical use, have not yet been well evaluated for their potential effects on cytotoxic T-cell responses. In this study, we characterized the development and function of CCR5+CD8+ T cells in rhesus macaques with or without Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. We also investigated the effects of the CCR5 antagonist MVC on functional CCR5+CD8+ T-cell responses in vitro. The data show that CCR5+CD8+ T cells have an effector memory phenotype and increase with age in systemic and mucosal lymphoid tissues as a heterogeneous population of polyfunctional CD8 T cells. In addition, CCR5 is highly expressed on SIV gag-specific (CM9+) CD8+ T cells in SIV-infected macaques, yet CCR5+CD8+ T cells are significantly reduced in mucosal lymphoid tissues with disease progression. Furthermore, in vitro MVC treatment reduced activation and cytokine secretion of CD8+ T cells via a CCR5-independent pathway. These findings suggest that surface CCR5 protein plays an important role in differentiation and activation of CD8+ T cells. Although MVC may be helpful in reducing chronic inflammation and activation, it may also inhibit virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses. Thus optimal use of CCR5 antagonists either alone or in combination with other drugs should be defined by further investigation.-Wang, X., Russell-Lodrigue, K. E., Ratterree, M. S., Veazey, R. S., Xu, H. Chemokine receptor CCR5 correlates with functional CD8+ T cells in SIV-infected macaques and the potential effects of maraviroc on T-cell activation.
Publication
Journal: The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
May/29/2019
Abstract
This retrospective study evaluates the effect of maraviroc, the first CCR5 receptor antagonist, on non-AIDS-related comorbidity incidence and its impact on inflammatory and lipid parameters.Seventy-four HIV patients on maraviroc treatment were compared with 312 patients never exposed to maraviroc (matched for sex, age and CD4 nadir).At baseline (T0), maraviroc patients presented a longer duration of HIV infection, a higher prevalence of comorbidities and a greater frequency of polypharmacy. Non-AIDS-defining disease incidence was lower in the maraviroc group than in the non-maraviroc group (without achieving statistical significance). Except triglycerides (TGL), which dropped only in the maraviroc group, inflammatory and immunological parameters did not significantly change in either group by the end of the study period (T3). At T3, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and high-density lipoprotein were inversely correlated in both groups (Spearman's rho: maraviroc -0.30, P = 0.05; non-maraviroc -0.23, P = 0.0003). Only in the non-maraviroc group was the positive correlation between hsCRP and lipids observed both at T0 (hsCRP/low-density lipoprotein (LDL) +0.17, P = 0.004; hsCRP/total cholesterol +0.20, P = 0.0007; hsCRP/TGL +0.12, P = 0.04) and T3 (hsCRP/LDL +0.26, P < 0.0001; hsCRP/total cholesterol +0.24, P = 0.0001; hsCRP/TGL +0.15, P = 0.02). These correlations were not found in the maraviroc group. A significant positive correlation was found at T0 and at T3 between hsCRP and D-dimer in both groups (maraviroc: T0 +0.46, P = 0.0007; T3 +0.41, P = 0.006; non-maraviroc: T0 +0.17, P = 0.02; T3: +0.17, P = 0.017).These data suggest a possible protective role of maraviroc in the incidence of non-AIDS-related comorbidities in a population with longer-lasting infection and allow us to hypothesize its role in the modulation of lipid-dependent inflammation.
Publication
Journal: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
May/2/2019
Abstract
Parkinson disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder in humans. Despite intense investigation, no effective therapy is available to stop the progression of this disease. It is becoming clear that both innate and adaptive immune responses are active in PD. Accordingly, we have reported a marked increase in RANTES and eotaxin, chemokines that are involved in T cell trafficking, in vivo in the substantia nigra (SN) and the serum of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-intoxicated hemiparkinsonian monkeys. Because RANTES and eotaxin share a common receptor, CCR5, we examined the efficacy of maraviroc, an inhibitor of CCR5 and a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug against HIV infection, in hemiparkinsonian rhesus monkeys. First, we found glial limitans injury, loss of GFAP immunostaining, and infiltration of T cells across the endothelial monolayer in SN of hemiparkinsonian monkeys. However, oral administration of a low dose of maraviroc protected glia limitans partially, maintained the integrity of endothelial monolayer, reduced the infiltration of T cells, attenuated neuroinflammation, and decreased α-synucleinopathy in the SN. Accordingly, maraviroc treatment also protected both the nigrostriatal axis and neurotransmitters and improved motor functions in hemiparkinsonian monkeys. These results suggest that low-dose maraviroc and other CCR5 antagonists may be helpful for PD patients.
Publication
Journal: Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals
November/6/2018
Abstract
Maraviroc (MVC) is a CCR5 coreceptor antagonist indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of CCR5-tropic human immunodefinciency virus-1 infection. In this study, the metabolism of MVC was investigated in human liver microsomes to delineate the relative roles of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. MVC is metabolized to five hydroxylated metabolites, all of which were biosynthesized and identified using mass and NMR spectroscopy. The sites of metabolism were the 2- and 3-positions of the 4,4-difluorocyclohexyl moiety and the methyl of the triazole moiety. Absolute configurations were ultimately ascertained by comparison to authentic standards. The biosynthesized metabolites were used for quantitative in vitro experiments in liver microsomes using cyp3cide, a selective inactivator of CYP3A4. (1S,2S)-2-OH-MVC was the main metabolite representing approximately half of the total metabolism, and CYP3A5 contributed approximately 40% to that pathway in microsomes from CYP3A5*1/*1 donors. The other four metabolites were almost exclusively metabolized by CYP3A4. (1S,2S)-2-hydroxylation also correlated to T-5 N-oxidation, a CYP3A5-specific activity. These data are consistent with clinical pharmacokinetic data wherein CYP3A5 extensive metabolizer subjects showed a modestly lower exposure to MVC.
Publication
Journal: Drugs in context
February/28/2019
Abstract
The rise in non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs) is emerging as a leading cause of death for HIV and cancer patients. To address this, current literature and guidelines suggest the continuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) with oral oncolytic agents to prevent adverse complications associated with HIV disease progression. However, such an approach has the potential for drug-drug interactions and adverse events for patients on such therapy. Further, recommendations on how to adjust these medications, when used concomitantly, are limited. As such, our purpose is to evaluate existing literature through such means as drug databases (e.g. Micromedex, Lexi-Comp, etc.) and package inserts along with PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases to develop a reference tool for providers to utilize when there is a decision to treat a patient with ART and oral oncolytic agents concurrently. Our findings suggest that there are many drug interactions that should be taken into consideration with dual therapy. Metabolism is a key determinant of dose adjustment, and many oncolytic agents and ART agents must have their dose adjusted as such. Most notably, several tyrosine kinase inhibitors require dose increases when used with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) but must be decreased when used concomitantly with protease inhibitors (PIs) and cobicistat. Further findings suggest that certain agents should not be used together, which include, but are not limited to, such combinations as bosutinib with NNRTIs, cobicistat, or PIs; idelalisib with maraviroc or PIs; neratinib with NNRTIs, cobicistat, or PIs; and venetoclax with NNRTIs. Overall, the most prominent oncolytic drug interactions were discovered when such agents were used concomitantly with PIs, cobicistat-boosted elvitegravir, or NNRTIs. Future studies are necessary to further evaluate the use of these agents together in disease therapy to generate absolute evidence of such findings. However, from the studies evaluated, much evidence exists to suggest that concomitant therapy is not without drug interactions. As such, clinical decisions regarding concomitant therapy should be evaluated in which the risk and benefit of dual therapy are assessed. Dose adjustments must be made accordingly and in consultation with both HIV and oncology clinicians and pharmacists to reduce the risk for adverse outcomes and disease progression for those with cancer and HIV/AIDS.
Publication
Journal: American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
February/12/2019
Publication
Journal: Journal of chemical information and modeling
January/28/2019
Abstract
In this work, we combined accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) and conventional molecular dynamics (cMD) simulations coupled with the potential of mean force (PMF), correlation analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and protein structure network (PSN) to study the effects of dimerization and the mutations of I52V and V150A on the CCR5 homodimer, in order to elucidate the mechanism regarding cooperativity of the ligand binding between two protomers and to address the controversy about the mutation-induced dimer-separation. The results reveal that the dimer with interface involved in TM1, TM2, TM3, and TM4 is stable for the CCR5 homodimer. The dimerization induces an asymmetric impact on the overall structure and the ligand-binding pocket. As a result, the two protomers exhibit an asymmetric binding to the maraviroc (one anti-HIV drug). The binding of one protomer to the drug is enhanced while the other is weakened. The PSN result further reveals the allosteric pathway of the ligand-binding pocket between the two protomers. Six important residues in the pathway were identified, including two residues unreported. The results from PMF, PCA, and the correlation analysis clearly indicate that the two mutations induce strong anticorrelation motions in the interface, finally leading to its separation. The observations from the work could advance our understanding of the structure of the G protein-coupled receptor dimers and implications for their functions.
Publication
Journal: Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
December/30/2018
Abstract
Assessment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptor usage is required prior to treatment with the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc to exclude the presence of CXCR4-using (X4) strains. Genotype-based interpretation systems are mostly designed on subtype B and have been reported to be less accurate for subtype A/CRF02_AG.To evaluate the performance of the widely used Geno2Pheno[coreceptor] (G2P[c]) algorithm for prediction of coreceptor usage with subtype A/CRF02_AG vs. subtype B.Co-receptor tropism of 24 subtype A/CRF02_AG and 24 subtype B viruses was measured phenotypically by a homebrew single-cycle assay and genotypically by using G2P[c]. Samples with discrepant genotype-phenotype results were analyzed by next generation sequencing (NGS) and interpreted by the NGS Geno2Pheno algorithm (G2P[454]).At 10% false positive rate (FPR), the G2P[c]/phenotype discordance rate was 12.5% (n = 3) for subtype A/CRF02_AG and 8.3% (n = 2) for subtype B. Minority X4 species escaping detection by bulk sequencing but documented by NGS explained the two subtype B and possibly one subtype A/CRF02_AG discordant case. The other two subtype A/CRF02_AG miscalled by G2P[c] could be explained by X4 overcalling at borderline FPR and/or by algorithm failure.Our study did not demonstrate relevantly higher G2P[c] inaccuracy with subtype A/CRF02_AG with respect to subtype B. Genotype/phenotype discordances can be due to different reasons, including but not limited to, algorithm inaccuracy. Very large genotype/phenotype correlation panels are required to detect and explain the reason for any consistent difference in genotypic tropism prediction for subtype A/CRF02_AG vs. subtype B.
Publication
Journal: Southern African journal of HIV medicine
July/16/2019
Abstract
Zimbabwe, like other resource limited countries, manages HIV infection using the public health approach with standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens for first, second and third-line treatment. Third-line ART is the last available treatment option and is based on dolutegravir and darunavir use after HIV drug resistance testing.We report here a 17-year-old patient on dolutegravir (DTG) and Darunavir based third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) previously exposed to raltegravir who develops multidrug resistance HIV to the four ART classes available in Zimbabwe.A trophism assay revealed that patient has CXCR4 trophic virus and hence will not benefit from Maraviroc. Patient is currently stable and receiving a holding regimen of abacavir, lamivudine and lamivudine.This is the first documented case of multiclass resistance to the four available ART classes in Zimbabwe. The development and transmission of multiclass HIV drug resistance in resource limited settings has potential to undo the gains of national ART programs. There is need to ensure optimum adherence to ART even in the era of DTG.
Publication
Journal: Scientific reports
March/19/2019
Abstract
CCR5 is a member of the G-protein coupled receptor family that serves as an essential co-receptor for cellular entry of R5-tropic HIV-1, and is a validated target for therapeutics against HIV-1 infections. In the present study, we designed and synthesized a series of novel small CCR5 inhibitors and evaluated their antiviral activity. GRL-117C inhibited the replication of wild-type R5-HIV-1 with a sub-nanomolar IC50 value. These derivatives retained activity against vicriviroc-resistant HIV-1s, but did not show activity against maraviroc (MVC)-resistant HIV-1. Structural modeling indicated that the binding of compounds to CCR5 occurs in the hydrophobic cavity of CCR5 under the second extracellular loop, and amino acids critical for their binding were almost similar with those of MVC, which explains viral cross-resistance with MVC. On the other hand, one derivative, GRL-10018C, less potent against HIV-1, but more potent in inhibiting CC-chemokine binding, occupied the upper region of the binding cavity with its bis-THF moiety, presumably causing greater steric hindrance with CC-chemokines. Recent studies have shown additional unique features of certain CCR5 inhibitors such as immunomodulating properties and HIV-1 latency reversal properties, and thus, continuous efforts in developing new CCR5 inhibitors with unique binding profiles is necessary.
Publication
Journal: PloS one
December/26/2018
Abstract
Detailed clonal phenotypic/genotypic analyses explored viral-escape mechanisms during maraviroc-based therapy in highly treatment-experienced participants from the MOTIVATE trials. To allow real-time assessment of samples while maintaining a blind trial, the first 267 enrolled participants were selected for evaluation. At failure, plasma samples from 20/50 participants (16/20 maraviroc-treated) with CXCR4-using virus and all 38 (13 maraviroc-treated) with CCR5-tropic virus were evaluated. Of those maraviroc-treated participants with CXCR4-using virus at failure, genotypic and phenotypic clonal tropism determinations showed >90% correspondence in 14/16 at Day 1 and 14/16 at failure. Phylogenetic analysis of clonal sequences detected pre-treatment progenitor CXCR4-using virus, or on-treatment virus highly divergent from the Day 1 R5 virus, excluding possible co-receptor switch through maraviroc-mediated evolution. Re-analysis of pre-treatment samples using the enhanced-sensitivity Trofile® assay detected CXCR4-using virus pre-treatment in 16/20 participants failing with CXCR4-using virus. Post-maraviroc reversion of CXCR4-use to CCR5-tropic occurred in 7/8 participants with follow-up, suggesting selective maraviroc inhibition of CCR5-tropic variants in a mixed-tropic viral population, not emergence of de novo mutations in CCR5-tropic virus, as the main virologic escape mechanism. Maraviroc-resistant CCR5-tropic virus was observed in plasma from 5 treated participants with virus displaying reduced maximal percent inhibition (MPI) but no evidence of IC50 change. Env clones with reduced MPI showed 1-5 amino acid changes specific to each V3-loop region of env relative to Day 1. However, transferring on-treatment resistance-associated changes using site-directed mutagenesis did not always establish resistance in Day 1 virus, and key 'signature' mutation patterns associated with reduced susceptibility to maraviroc were not identified. Evolutionary divergence of the CXCR4-using viruses is confirmed, emphasizing natural selection not influenced directly by maraviroc; maraviroc simply unmasks pre-existing lineages by inhibiting the R5 virus. For R5-viral failure, resistance development through drug selection pressure was uncommon and manifested through reduced MPI and with virus strain-specific mutational patterns.
Publication
Journal: Journal of virology
May/16/2018
Abstract
Adequate information on the precise molecular and biological composition of the viral strains that establish HIV infection in the human host will provide effective means of immunization against HIV infection. In an attempt to identify the transmitted founder (TF) virus and differentiate the biological properties and infectious potential of the TF virus from those of the population of the early transmitted viruses, 250 patient-derived gp120 envelope glycoproteins were cloned in pMN-K7-Luc-IRESs-NefΔgp120 to obtain chimeric viruses. Samples were obtained from eight infants who had recently become infected with HIV through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and two adults who acquired infection through the heterosexual route and were in the chronic stage of infection. Among the 250 clones tested, 65 chimeric viruses were infectious, and all belonged to HIV-1 subtype C. The 65 clones were analyzed for molecular features of the envelope, per-infectious-particle infectivity, coreceptor tropism, drug sensitivity, and sensitivity to broadly neutralizing antibodies. Based on genotypic and phenotypic analysis of the viral clones, we identified 10 TF viruses from the eight infants. The TF viruses were characterized by shorter V1V2 regions, a reduced number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites, and a higher infectivity titer compared to the virus variants from the adults in the chronic stage of infection. CXCR6 coreceptor usage, in addition to that of the CCR5 coreceptor, which was used by all 65 chimeric viruses, was identified in 13 viruses. The sensitivity of the TF variants to maraviroc and a standard panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (VRC01, PG09, PG16, and PGT121) was found to be much lower than that of the virus variants from the adults in the chronic stage of infection.IMPORTANCE Tremendous progress has been made during the last three and half decades of HIV research, but some significant gaps continue to exist. One of the frontier areas of HIV research which has not seen a breakthrough yet is vaccine research, which is because of the enormous genetic diversity of HIV-1 and the unique infectious fitness of the virus. Among the repertoire of viral variants, the virus that establishes successful infection (transmitted founder [TF] virus) has not been well characterized yet. An insight into the salient features of the TF virus would go a long way toward helping with the design of an effective vaccine against HIV. Here we studied the biological properties of recently transmitted viruses isolated from infants who acquired infection from the mother and have come up with unique characterizations for the TF virus that establishes infection in the human host.
Publication
Journal: British journal of clinical pharmacology
December/21/2018
Abstract
The prevalence and incidence of atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF/AFL) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection have been poorly investigated. We performed a systematic review using PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and screening of references, searching for clinical studies reporting on the association between HIV-1 infection and AF/AFL. We also summarized the main interactions of antiretroviral agents with antithrombotic and antiarrhythmic drugs. We found a prevalence of AF/AFL ranging from 2.0% to 5.13% in patients with HIV-1, with an incidence rate of 3.6/1000 person-years. Low CD4+ count (<200-250 cells ml-1 ) and high viral load were predictors of AF/AFL. Regarding drugs interactions, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, integrase inhibitor and maraviroc have the lowest interactions with oral anticoagulants. Among anticoagulants, dabigatran presents the most favourable profile. Most of antiarrhythmic drugs interact with protease inhibitors, with beta blockers and diltiazem having fewer interactions. The few studies available suggest a non-negligible prevalence of AF/AFL in patients with HIV-1 infection. Awareness of potential interactions with anticoagulation and antiarrhythmic drugs is needed to offer optimal management in this population.
Publication
Journal: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
October/23/2019
Abstract
The antivirals are a large and diverse group of agents that are typically classified by the virus infections for which they are used, their chemical structure and their mode of action. Most antiviral agents have been developed in the last 20 to 25 years, many as a result of the major research efforts to develop therapies and means of prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Some of the agents developed to treat HIV infection, AIDS and its complications were found to also inhibit other viruses, and the novel approaches taken in development of antiretroviral therapy have been applied to develop therapies of other viral infections. Antiretroviral Agents for HIV Infection. The antiretroviral agents include nucleoside analogues with reverse transcriptase activity (such as tenofovir, emtricitabine, lamivudine, abacavir, stavudine, didanosine, zidovudine), the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (such as delavirdine, efavirenz, etravirine, nevirapine and rilpivirine), protease inhibitors (atazanavir, darunavir, indinavir, ritonavir, tipranavir and many others), and miscellaneous agents such as maraviroc that inhibits binding of the HIV virus its T cell receptor (CCR5 coreceptor antagonist), enfuvirtide that blocks the uptake of HIV into cells (fusion inhibitor), and integrase inhibitors (raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir) that block the integrase enzyme of HIV. Hepatitis B Agents. The agents active against hepatitis B virus (HBV) include several nucleoside analogues that are also active against and used to treat HIV infection (tenofovir, emtricitabine, lamivudine), as well as agents that are poorly if at all active against HIV (adefovir, entecavir and telbivudine). Alpha interferon and peginterferon (its long acting pegylated form) are also active against hepatitis B, but are no longer commonly used for this indication.
Publication
Journal: Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology
March/31/2019
Abstract
The progression of atherosclerosis is based on the continued recruitment of leukocytes in the vessel wall. The previously described role of CD146 in leukocyte infiltration suggests an involvement for this adhesion molecule in the inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the role of CD146 in leukocyte recruitment by using an experimental model of atherogenesis.The role of CD146 was explored in atherosclerosis by crossing CD146-/- mice with ApoE-/- mice. CD146 -/-/ApoE -/- and ApoE -/- mice were fed a Western diet for 24 weeks and were monitored for aortic wall thickness using high frequency ultrasound. The arterial wall was significantly thicker in CD146-deficient mice. After 24 weeks of Western diet, a significant increase of atheroma in both total aortic lesion and aortic sinus of CD146-null mice was observed. In addition, atherosclerotic lesions were more inflammatory since plaques from CD146-deficient mice contained more neutrophils and macrophages. This was due to up-regulation of RANTES secretion by macrophages in CD146-deficient atherosclerotic arteries. This prompted us to further address the function of CD146 in leukocyte recruitment during acute inflammation by using a second experimental model of peritonitis induced by thioglycollate. Neutrophil recruitment was significantly increased in CD146-deficient mice 12 h after peritonitis induction and associated with higher RANTES levels in the peritoneal cavity. In CD146-null macrophages, we also showed that increased RANTES production was dependent on constitutive inhibition of the p38-MAPK signaling pathway. Finally, Maraviroc, a RANTES receptor antagonist, was able to reduce atherosclerotic lesions and neutrophilia in CD146-deficient mice to the same level as that found in ApoE -/- mice.Our data indicate that CD146 deficiency is associated with the upregulation of RANTES production and increased inflammation of atheroma, which could influence the atherosclerotic plaque fate. Thus, these data identify CD146 agonists as potential new therapeutic candidates for atherosclerosis treatment.
Publication
Journal: International journal of antimicrobial agents
March/4/2019
Abstract
Since the registration of maraviroc (MVC) as an antiretroviral agent in 2008, only studies with a follow-up time of <5 years have been published. Therefore, little is known about its long-term safety and efficacy in clinical practice. In this cohort study, data on long-term follow-up of MVC treatment in routine practice were analysed. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at University Medical Centre Utrecht with a follow-up period up to almost 10 years. The efficacy and tolerability of MVC-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) was analysed in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients. The cohort consisted of 111 HIV patients who were treated for a median of 11.0 years (IQR 4.0-15.0 years) and with a median of 4 (IQR 2-6) previous ART regimens. The median time of MVC use was 49 months (IQR 21-82 months). Mean CD4+ T-cell counts continued to increase up to 9 years following initiation of MVC. Patients with a detectable viral load (≥50 copies/mL HIV-RNA) at the start of MVC-containing ART reached high proportions of viral suppression. Only three patients (2.7%) experienced treatment failure despite optimal therapy. Nine patients (8.1%) discontinued MVC owing to intolerance of their ART regimen. Severe laboratory abnormalities were deemed to be unrelated to MVC use. During the 487 person-years of follow-up, 18 patients (16.2%) died. MVC use in this heavily pre-treated cohort was generally well tolerated during long-term follow-up. Furthermore, use of MVC resulted in a good immunological and virological response in clinical practice.
Publication
Journal: Journal of neurovirology
August/30/2019
Abstract
The AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) study A5303 investigated the associations between neuropsychological performance (NP) and inflammatory biomarkers in HIV-infected participants. Fifteen NP tests were administered at baseline and week 48 to 233 ART naïve participants randomized to maraviroc- or tenofovir-containing ART. Neurocognition correlated modestly with markers of lymphocyte activation and inflammation pre-ART (percent CD38+/HLA-DR+(CD4+) (r = - 0.22, p = 0.02) and percent CD38+/HLA-DR+(CD8+) (r = - 0.25, p = 0.02)), and with some monocyte subsets during ART (r = 0.25, p = 0.02). Higher interleukin-6 and percent CD38+/HLA-DR+(CD8+) were independently associated with worse severity of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) (p = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively). More studies to identify HAND biomarkers are needed.
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