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Publication
Journal: Journal of the American Chemical Society
November/29/2009
Abstract
We present a two-dimensional solution NMR spectrum of an integral membrane protein (IMP) in a nanodisc. Solution NMR relies on rapid isotropic tumbling of the analyte with correlation times in the nanosecond range. IMPs in a cellular membrane do not satisfy this condition. Previous liquid-state NMR studies on IMPs were conducted in organic solvent or artificial membrane mimicking particles like detergent micelles. Nanodiscs are relatively small (150 kDa), detergent-free model membranes that are suitable for functional reconstitution of IMPs. Nanodiscs allow solubilization of integral membrane proteins in a nearly native lipid bilayer environment. The 70 residue polypeptide CD4mut was incorporated into nanodiscs. CD4mut features one transmembrane helix. The aliphatic (1)H-(13)C HSQC spectrum of nanodiscs with inserted, ((13)C, (15)N)-labeled CD4mut exhibits reasonably dispersed protein and lipid NMR signals. Our results demonstrate that IMPs in nanodiscs are amenable to liquid-state NMR methodology.
Publication
Journal: European journal of immunology
June/2/1998
Abstract
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) that bind to the immunoglobulin CDR3-like region in the D1 domain of the CD4 molecule can inhibit the HIV-1 life cycle in CD4-positive T cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines at the stage of transcription. This antiviral effect requires the integrity of the cytoplasmic tail of CD4 which is known to act as a signal transduction region through its association with the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) p56lck. In this study, we investigated the putative role of this PTK in transducing inhibitory signals that act on HIV-1 replication after triggering by anti-CDR3-like region antibody treatment of infected T cell lines. CEM (CD4+/p56lck + inducible), MT2 (CD4+/p56lck - repressed), HSB-2 (CD4-/p56lck + constitutively), HSB-2 WTCD4 (CD4+/p56lck + constitutively), HSB-2 CD4.402 (CD4+ truncated form which lacks the cytoplasmic domain/p56lck + constitutively), and HSB-2 CD4mut (CD4+ unable to bind lck/p56lck + constitutively) were exposed to HIV-1 and cultured in medium supplemented with an anti-CDR3-like region-specific antibody or a control anti-CD4 mAb which does not inhibit HIV-1 transcription. We found that CDR3-loop-mediated inhibitory signals are efficiently transduced in CD4-positive cells which demonstrate a constitutive activation of p56lck or in CD4-positive cells lacking p56lck expression. Moreover, inhibitory signals were transduced in HSB-2 CD4mut cells expressing a cell surface CD4 with a double cysteine mutation in its cytoplasmic tail that renders the molecule unable to bind p56lck, but not HSB-2 CD4.402 cells expressing a truncated form of CD4 which lacks the cytoplasmic domain. These results indicate that the p56lck plays no direct role in this process and suggests the existence of another signaling partner for CD4.
Publication
Journal: Biochimica et biophysica acta
April/5/2010
Abstract
The human cluster determinant 4 (CD4) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein involved in T-cell signalling. It is expressed primarily on the surface of T helper cells but also on subsets of memory and regulatory T lymphocytes (CD4(+) cells). It serves as a coreceptor in T-cell receptor recognition of MHC II antigen complexes. Besides its cellular functions, CD4 serves as the main receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1). During T-cell infection, the CD4 extracellular domain is bound by HIV-1 gp120, the viral surface glycoprotein, which triggers a number of conformational changes ultimately resulting in virion entry of the cell. Subsequently, CD4 is downregulated in infected cells by multiple strategies that involve direct interactions of the HIV-1 proteins VpU and Nef with the cytoplasmic part of CD4. In the present work, we describe the NOE-based solution structure of the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the cystein-free variant of CD4 (CD4mut) in dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles. Furthermore, we have characterized micelle-inserted CD4mut by paramagentic relaxation enhancement (PRE) agents and (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear NOE data. CD4mut features a stable and well-defined transmembrane helix from M372 to V395 buried in the micellar core and a cytoplasmic helix ranging from A404 to L413. Experimental data suggest the amphipathic cytoplasmic helix to be in close contact with the micellar surface. The role of the amphipathic helix and its interaction with the micellar surface is discussed with respect to the biological function of the full-length CD4 protein.
Publication
Journal: Biochimica et biophysica acta
April/13/2008
Abstract
Cluster determinant 4 (CD4) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein of 58 kDa. It consists of an extracellular domain of 370 amino acids, a short transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic domain of 40 amino acids at the C-terminal end. We investigated the structure of the 62 C-terminal residues of CD4, comprising its transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. The five cysteine residues of this region have been replaced with serine and histidine residues in the polypeptide CD4mut. Uniformly 15N and 13C labeled protein was recombinantly expressed in E. coli and purified. Functional binding activity of CD4mut to protein VpU of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was verified. Close to complete NMR resonance assignment of the 1H, 13C, and 15N spins of CD4mut was accomplished. The secondary structure of CD4mut in membrane simulating dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles was characterized based on secondary chemical shift analysis, NOE-based proton-proton distances, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. A stable transmembrane helix and a short amphipathic helix in the cytoplasmic region were identified. The fractional helicity of the cytoplasmic helix appears to be stabilized in the presence of DPC micelles, although the extension of this helix is reduced in comparison to previous studies on synthetic peptides in aqueous solution. The role of the amphipathic helix and its potentially variable length is discussed with respect to the biological functions of CD4.
Publication
Journal: Journal of immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md. : 1997)
March/16/2008
Abstract
Tumor cells that show downregulation of their tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) may be able to escape immune-mediated elimination. Therefore, efficient vaccine strategies attempt to target multiple TAAs simultaneously. This is easily achieved in dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines by introducing antigens in the form of RNA. Although insufficient message may hinder adequate expression of individual TAAs when using total-tumor RNA, high amounts of individual RNAs as pools yield DCs presenting high numbers of specific peptide-major histocompatibility complex ligands with epitopes derived from different TAAs. We used the transfer of RNAs encoding the well-defined melanoma TAAs tyrosinase, Melan-A, CDK4mut, gp100, SNRP116mut, and GPNMBmut to characterize DCs at the levels of transfected RNA, expressed protein and peptide-major histocompatibility complex ligand presentation. TAA-encoding RNA was rapidly degraded in the DCs, allowing only a single surge in protein expression shortly after transfection. We compared the functional capacity of DCs transfected with pools of 3 versus 6 RNAs. Whereas functional assays demonstrated a decrease in stimulatory capacity of DCs transfected with a pool of 3 RNAs by only 30% as compared with single RNAs, a 60% loss was seen with 6 RNAs. We conclude that larger RNA pools result in diminished presentation of individual epitopes and suggest that smaller pools of RNA be transfected into separate DC populations which are then pooled to create multiplex vaccines.
Publication
Journal: Analytical chemistry
April/21/2014
Abstract
Metalation and demetalation of human metallothionein-2A (MT) with Cd(2+) is investigated by using chemical labeling and "bottom-up" and "top-down" proteomics approaches. Both metalation and demetalation of MT-2A by Cd(2+) are shown to be domain specific and occur as two distinct processes. Metalation involves sequential addition of Cd(2+) to the α-domain resulting in formation of an intermediate, Cd4MT. Chemical labeling with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and tandem mass spectrometry experiments clearly show that the four metal ions are located in the α-domain. In the presence of excess Cd(2+), the Cd4MT intermediate reacts to add Cd(2+) to the β-domain to yield the fully metalated Cd7MT. Demetalation occurs in the reverse order, i.e., Cd(2+) is removed (by EDTA) first from the β-domain followed by Cd(2+) removal from the α-domain. Metalation of human MT-2A is shown to be metal ion specific by comparing relative metal ion binding constants for Cd(2+) and Zn(2+).
Publication
Journal: Journal of inorganic biochemistry
May/18/2017
Abstract
A number of biological functions have been ascribed to mammalian metallothioneins (MTs) including zinc and copper homeostatic regulation, redox activity and detoxification of heavy metals like cadmium and mercury. It is unclear how these small, fluxional, cysteine rich proteins manage to play each of these vital roles. Using a combination of cadmium and pH titrations of the isolated domains of human MT isoform 1a monitored by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and circular dichroism spectroscopy, we report the pH dependencies that control metal binding mechanisms of these domains. We report that the α-domain mechanism is driven by the cooperative formation of the Cd4MT cluster at slightly acidic pH (≤6.9) switching binding mechanisms over a physiologically relevant pH range, whereas the β-domain metalation mechanism is dominated by terminal coordination of cadmium in a non-cooperative manner above pH5.5. These results suggest that, in some acidic sub-cellular compartments, cadmium could be sequestered in the α-domain, leaving zinc or copper bound in the β-domain and available for donation to other metalloproteins. We propose that these results can be explained by the intrinsic nature of the two domains, the four-metal α-cluster being more resistant to proton attack due to its lower charge-to-metal ratio, compared with the three-metal β-domain.