Citations
All
Search in:AllTitleAbstractAuthor name
Publications
(4K+)
Patents
Grants
Pathways
Clinical trials
Publication
Journal: Endocrine reviews
January/17/2000
Abstract
Over the last decade, the concept of an IGFBP family has been well accepted, based on structural similarities and on functional abilities to bind IGFs with high affinities. The existence of other potential IGFBPs was left open. The discovery of proteins with N-terminal domains bearing striking structural similarities to the N terminus of the IGFBPs, and with reduced, but demonstrable, affinity for IGFs, raised the question of whether these proteins were "new" IGFBPs (22, 23, 217). The N-terminal domain had been uniquely associated with the IGFBPs and has long been considered to be critical for IGF binding. No other function has been confirmed for this domain to date. Thus, the presence of this important IGFBP domain in the N terminus of other proteins must be considered significant. Although these other proteins appear capable of binding IGF, their relatively low affinity and the fact that their major biological actions are likely to not directly involve the IGF peptides suggest that they probably should not be classified within the IGFBP family as provisionally proposed (22, 23). The conservation of this single domain, so critical to high-affinity binding of IGF by the six IGFBPs, in all of the IGFBP-rPs, as well, speaks to its biological importance. Historically, and perhaps, functionally, this has led to the designation of an "IGFBP superfamily". The classification and nomenclature for the IGFBP superfamily, are, of course, arbitrary; what is ultimately relevant is the underlying biology, much of which still remains to be deciphered. The nomenclature for the IGFBP related proteins was derived from a consensus of researchers working in the IGFBP field (52). Obviously, a more general consensus on nomenclature, involving all groups working on each IGFBP-rP, has yet to be reached. Further understanding of the biological functions of each protein should help resolve the nomenclature dilemma. For the present, redesignating these proteins IGFBP-rPs simplifies the multiple names already associated with each IGFBP related protein, and reinforces the concept of a relationship with the IGFBPs. Beyond the N-terminal domain, there is a lack of structural similarity between the IGFBP-rPs and IGFBPs. The C-terminal domains do share similarities to other internal domains found in numerous other proteins. For example, the similarity of the IGFBP C terminus to the thyroglobulin type-I domain shows that the IGFBPs are also structurally related to numerous other proteins carrying the same domain (87). Interestingly, the functions of the different C-terminal domains in members of the IGFBP superfamily include interactions with the cell surface or ECM, suggesting that, even if they share little sequence similarities, the C-terminal domains may be functionally related. The evolutionary conservation of the N-terminal domain and functional studies support the notion that IGFBPs and IGFBP-rPs together form an IGFBP superfamily. A superfamily delineates between closely related (classified as a family) and distantly related proteins. The IGFBP superfamily is therefore composed of distantly related families. The modular nature of the constituents of the IGFBP superfamily, particularly their preservation of an highly conserved N-terminal domain, seems best explained by the process of exon shuffling of an ancestral gene encoding this domain. Over the course of evolution, some members evolved into high-affinity IGF binders and others into low-affinity IGF binders, thereby conferring on the IGFBP superfamily the ability to influence cell growth by both IGF-dependent and IGF-independent means (Fig. 10). A final word, from Stephen Jay Gould (218): "But classifications are not passive ordering devices in a world objectively divided into obvious categories. Taxonomies are human decisions imposed upon nature--theories about the causes of nature's order. The chronicle of historical changes in classification provides our finest insight into conceptual revolutions
Publication
Journal: European urology
July/28/2011
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Our aim is to present a summary of the 2010 version of the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on the treatment of advanced, relapsing, and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
METHODS
The working panel performed a literature review of the new data emerging from 2007 to 2010. The guidelines were updated, and the levels of evidence (LEs) and/or grades of recommendation (GR) were added to the text based on a systematic review of the literature, which included a search of online databases and bibliographic reviews.
RESULTS
Luteinising hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists are the standard of care in metastatic prostate cancer (P<em>C</em>a). Although LHRH antagonists decrease testosterone without any testosterone surge, their clinical benefit remains to be determined. <em>C</em>omplete androgen blockade has a small survival benefit of about 5%. Intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD) results in equivalent oncologic efficacy when compared with continuous androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in well-selected populations. In locally advanced and metastatic P<em>C</em>a, early ADT does not result in a significant survival advantage when compared with delayed ADT. Relapse after local therapy is defined by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values>>0.2 ng/ml following radical prostatectomy (<em>RP</em>) and>>2 ng/ml above the nadir after radiation therapy (RT). Therapy for PSA relapse after <em>RP</em> includes salvage RT at PSA levels <0.5 ng/ml and salvage <em>RP</em> or cryosurgical ablation of the prostate in radiation failures. Endorectal magnetic resonance imaging and (11)<em>C</em>-choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (<em>C</em>T) are of limited importance if the PSA is <2.5 ng/ml; bone scans and <em>C</em>T can be omitted unless PSA is>>20 ng/ml. Follow-up after ADT should include screening for the metabolic syndrome and an analysis of PSA and testosterone levels. Treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (<em>C</em><em>RP</em><em>C</em>) includes second-line hormonal therapy, novel agents, and chemotherapy with docetaxel at 75 mg/m(2) every 3 wk. <em>C</em>abazitaxel as a second-line therapy for relapse after docetaxel might become a future option. Zoledronic acid and denusomab can be used in men with <em>C</em><em>RP</em><em>C</em> and osseous metastases to prevent skeletal-related complications.
CONCLUSIONS
The knowledge in the field of advanced, metastatic, and CRPC is rapidly changing. These EAU guidelines on PCa summarise the most recent findings and put them into clinical practice. A full version is available at the EAU office or online at www.uroweb.org.
Publication
Journal: Nature genetics
January/31/2001
Abstract
Usher syndrome type I (USH1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction and visual impairment due to early onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP). So far, six loci (USH1A-USH1F) have been mapped, but only two USH1 genes have been identified: MYO7A for USH1B and the gene encoding harmonin for USH1C. We identified a Cuban pedigree linked to the locus for Usher syndrome type 1D (MIM 601067) within the q2 region of chromosome 10). Affected individuals present with congenital deafness and a highly variable degree of retinal degeneration. Using a positional candidate approach, we identified a new member of the cadherin gene superfamily, CDH23. It encodes a protein of 3,354 amino acids with a single transmembrane domain and 27 cadherin repeats. In the Cuban family, we detected two different mutations: a severe course of the retinal disease was observed in individuals homozygous for what is probably a truncating splice-site mutation (c.4488G->>C), whereas mild RP is present in individuals carrying the homozygous missense mutation R1746Q. A variable expression of the retinal phenotype was seen in patients with a combination of both mutations. In addition, we identified two mutations, Delta M1281 and IVS51+5G->>A, in a German USH1 patient. Our data show that different mutations in CDH23 result in USH1D with a variable retinal phenotype. In an accompanying paper, it is shown that mutations in the mouse ortholog cause disorganization of inner ear stereocilia and deafness in the waltzer mouse.
Publication
Journal: Medicine
August/1/1976
Abstract
Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is not a totally rare rheumatic disease. We have seen 23 patients from 1960-1975, and there are now a total of 159 reported cases, which form the basis of this study. RP occurs equally in both sexes, and has a maximum frequency in the fourth decade. 2) Empirically defined diagnostic criteria are proposed, to include the most common clinical features: a) Bilateral auricular chondritis b) Nonerosive sero-negative inflammatory polyarthritis c) nasal chondritis d) Ocular inflammation e) Respiratory tract chondritis f) Audiovestibular damage The diagnosis is based primarly upon the unique clinical features, and is quite certain if three or more criteria are present together with histologic confirmation. 3) Fifty percent of patients present with either auricular chondritis or the arthropathy of RP; but with prolonged follow-up, a majority of patients develop four or more of the above mentioned criteria. 4) Approximately 30 percent of patients have a preceding or coexistent rheumatic or autoimmune disease, which can lead to initial diagnostic confusion. 5) Laboratory and radiographic investigations help mainly to rule out other diagnostic possibilities, with no characteristic abnormalities being present in a majority of patients. 6) On follow-up, three-fourths of our patients required chronic corticosteroid therapy with an average dose of 25 mg per day of prednisone. Corticosteroids decrease the frequency, duration, and severity of flares, but do not stop disease progression in severe cases. 7) The mortality rate has been 30 percent in our series and 22 percent in the other 136 reported cases. Of the 29 cases where the cause of death was known, 17 were from respiratory tract involvement and 9 from cardiac valvular or vasculitic involvement, emphasizing the need to search for critical involvement of either of these organ systems in each patient. 8) Detailed reports of selected cases are presented to illustrate the clinical diagnosis and differential diagnosis, and to demonstrate the need for careful prolonged follow-up. 9) Although the etiology remains unknown, there is a frequent association with, and clinical similarity to, other rheumatic diseases. 10) Careful clinicopathological study of our 23 patients leads us to postulate an underying systemic vascultis as an important pathologic mechanism in RP.
Publication
Journal: Nature genetics
October/18/1999
Abstract
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases that afflicts approximately 1.5 million people worldwide. Affected individuals suffer from a progressive degeneration of the photoreceptors, eventually resulting in severe visual impairment. To isolate candidate genes for chorioretinal diseases, we cloned cDNAs specifically or preferentially expressed in the human retina and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) through a novel suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. One of these cDNAs (RET3C11) mapped to chromosome 1q31-q32.1, a region harbouring a gene involved in a severe form of autosomal recessive RP characterized by a typical preservation of the para-arteriolar RPE (RP12; ref. 3). The full-length cDNA encodes an extracellular protein with 19 EGF-like domains, 3 laminin A G-like domains and a C-type lectin domain. This protein is homologous to the Drosophila melanogaster protein crumbs (CRB), and denoted CRB1 (crumbs homologue 1). In ten unrelated RP patients with preserved para-arteriolar RPE, we identified a homozygous AluY insertion disrupting the ORF, five homozygous missense mutations and four compound heterozygous mutations in CRB1. The similarity to CRB suggests a role for CRB1 in cell-cell interaction and possibly in the maintenance of cell polarity in the retina. The distinct RPE abnormalities observed in RP12 patients suggest that CRB1 mutations trigger a novel mechanism of photoreceptor degeneration.
Publication
Journal: Nature
February/1/2005
Abstract
Regulation of ribosome biogenesis is central to the control of cell growth. In rapidly growing yeast cells, ribosomal protein (RP) genes account for approximately one-half of all polymerase II transcription-initiation events, yet these genes are markedly and coordinately downregulated in response to a number of environmental stress conditions, or during the transition from fermentation to respiration. Although several conserved signalling pathways (TOR, RAS/protein kinase A and protein kinase C) impinge upon RP gene transcription, little is known about how initiation at these genes is controlled. Rap1 (refs 6, 7) and more recently Fhl1 (ref. 8) were shown to bind upstream of many RP genes. Here we show that the essential protein Ifh1 binds to and activates many RP gene promoters under optimal growth conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ifh1 is recruited to RP gene promoters through the forkhead-associated domain of Fhl1. Ifh1 binding decreases when RP genes are downregulated either by TOR inhibition or nutrient depletion, and is restored after release from starvation or upon regulated induction of IFH1 expression. These findings indicate a central role for Ifh1 and Fhl1 in RP gene regulation.
Publication
Journal: Analytical chemistry
October/19/2008
Abstract
The conformational properties of proteins can be probed with hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HXMS). In order to maintain the deuterium label during LC/MS analyses, chromatographic separation must be done rapidly (usually in under 8-10 min) and at 0 degrees C. Traditional RP-HPLC with approximately 3-mum particles has shown generally poor chromatographic performance under these conditions and thereby has been prohibitive for HXMS analyses of larger proteins and many protein complexes. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) employs particles smaller than 2 mum in diameter to achieve superior resolution, speed, and sensitivity as compared to HPLC. UPLC has previously been shown to be compatible with the fast separation and low temperature requirements of HXMS. Here we present construction and validation of a custom UPLC system for HXMS. The system is based on the Waters nanoACQUITY platform and contains a Peltier-cooled module that houses the injection and switching valves, online pepsin digestion column, and C-18 analytical separation column. Single proteins in excess of 95 kDa and a four-protein mixture in excess of 250 kDa have been used to validate the performance of this new system. Near-baseline resolution was achieved in 6-min separations at 0 degrees C and displayed a median chromatographic peak width of approximately 2.7 s at half-height. Deuterium recovery was similar to that obtained using a conventional HPLC and ice bath. This new system represents a significant advancement in HXMS technology that is expected to make the technique more accessible and mainstream in the near future.
Publication
Journal: Experimental eye research
August/6/2006
Abstract
Usher syndrome (USH) is the most frequent cause of combined deaf-blindness in man. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous and at least 12 chromosomal loci are assigned to three clinical USH types, namely USH1A-G, USH2A-C, USH3A (Davenport, S.L.H., Omenn, G.S., 1977. The heterogeneity of Usher syndrome. Vth Int. Conf. Birth Defects, Montreal; Petit, C., 2001. Usher syndrome: from genetics to pathogenesis. Annu. Rev. Genomics Hum. Genet. 2, 271-297). Mutations in USH type 1 genes cause the most severe form of USH. In USH1 patients, congenital deafness is combined with a pre-pubertal onset of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and severe vestibular dysfunctions. Those with USH2 have moderate to severe congenital hearing loss, non-vestibular dysfunction and a later onset of RP. USH3 is characterized by variable RP and vestibular dysfunction combined with progressive hearing loss. The gene products of eight identified USH genes belong to different protein classes and families. There are five known USH1 molecules: the molecular motor myosin VIIa (USH1B); the two cell-cell adhesion cadherin proteins, cadherin 23 (USH1D) and protocadherin 15, (USH1F) and the scaffold proteins, harmonin (USH1C) and SANS (USH1G). In addition, two USH2 genes and one USH3A gene have been identified. The two USH2 genes code for the transmembrane protein USH2A, also termed USH2A ("usherin") and the G-protein-coupled 7-transmembrane receptor VLGR1b (USH2C), respectively, whereas the USH3A gene encodes clarin-1, a member of the clarin family which exhibits 4-transmembrane domains. Molecular analysis of USH1 protein function revealed that all five USH1 proteins are integrated into a protein network via binding to PDZ domains in the USH1C protein harmonin. Furthermore, this scaffold function of harmonin is supported by the USH1G protein SANS. Recently, we have shown that the USH2 proteins USH2A and VLGR1b as well as the candidate for USH2B, the sodium bicarbonate co-transporter NBC3, are also integrated into this USH protein network. In the inner ear, these interactions are essential for the differentiation of hair cell stereocilia but may also participate in the mechano-electrical signal transduction and the synaptic function of maturated hair cells. In the retina, the co-expression of all USH1 and USH2 proteins at the synapse of photoreceptor cells indicates that they are organized in an USH protein network there. The identification of the USH protein network indicates a common pathophysiological pathway in USH. Dysfunction or absence of any of the molecules in the mutual "interactome" related to the USH disease may lead to disruption of the network causing senso-neuronal degeneration in the inner ear and the retina, the clinical symptoms of USH.
Publication
Journal: Molecular neurobiology
February/1/2009
Abstract
Photoreceptor cell death is the major hallmark of a group of human inherited retinal degenerations commonly referred to as retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Although the causative genetic mutations are often known, the mechanisms leading to photoreceptor degeneration remain poorly defined. Previous research work has focused on apoptosis, but recent evidence suggests that photoreceptor cell death may result primarily from non-apoptotic mechanisms independently of AP1 or p53 transcription factor activity, Bcl proteins, caspases, or cytochrome c release. This review briefly describes some animal models used for studies of retinal degeneration, with particular focus on the rd1 mouse. After outlining the major features of different cell death mechanisms in general, we then compare them with results obtained in retinal degeneration models, where photoreceptor cell death appears to be governed by, among other things, changes in cyclic nucleotide metabolism, downregulation of the transcription factor CREB, and excessive activation of calpain and PARP. Based on recent experimental evidence, we propose a putative non-apoptotic molecular pathway for photoreceptor cell death in the rd1 retina. The notion that inherited photoreceptor cell death is driven by non-apoptotic mechanisms may provide new ideas for future treatment of RP.
Publication
Journal: Human molecular genetics
December/6/2001
Abstract
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of the peripheral retina leading to night blindness and loss of visual fields. With an incidence of approximately 1 in 4000, RP can be inherited in X-linked, autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive modes. The RP13 locus for autosomal dominant RP (adRP) was placed on chromosome 17p13.3 by linkage mapping in a large South African adRP family. Using a positional cloning and candidate gene strategy, we have identified seven different missense mutations in the splicing factor gene PRPC8 in adRP families. Three of the mutations cosegregate within three RP13 linked families including the original large South African pedigree, and four additional mutations have been identified in other unrelated adRP families. The seven mutations are clustered within a 14 codon stretch within the last exon of this large 7 kb transcript. The altered amino acid residues at the C-terminus exhibit a high degree of conservation across species as diverse as humans, Arabidopsis and trypanosome, suggesting that some functional significance is associated with this part of the protein. These mutations in this ubiquitous and highly conserved splicing factor offer compelling evidence for a novel pathway to retinal degeneration.
Publication
Journal: Human mutation
January/27/2008
Abstract
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital erythroid aplasia characterized as a normochromic macrocytic anemia with a selective deficiency in red blood cell precursors in otherwise normocellular bone marrow. In 40% of DBA patients, various physical anomalies are also present. Currently two genes are associated with the DBA phenotype--the ribosomal protein (RP) S19 mutated in 25% of DBA patients and RPS24 mutated in approximately 1.4% of DBA patients. Here we report the identification of a mutation in yet another ribosomal protein, RPS17. The mutation affects the translation initiation start codon, changing T to G (c.2T>G), thus eliminating the natural start of RPS17 protein biosynthesis. RNA analysis revealed that the mutated allele was expressed, and the next downstream start codon located at position +158 should give rise to a short peptide of only four amino acids (Met-Ser-Arg-Ile). The mutation arose de novo, since all healthy family members carry the wild-type alleles. The identification of a mutation in the third RP of the small ribosomal subunit in DBA patients further supports the theory that impaired translation may be the main cause of DBA pathogenesis.
Publication
Journal: Human genetics
July/19/2007
Abstract
Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, variable vestibular dysfunction, and visual impairment due to retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The seven proteins that have been identified for Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1) and type 2 (USH2) may interact in a large protein complex. In order to identify novel USH genes, we followed a candidate strategy, assuming that mutations in proteins interacting with this "USH network" may cause Usher syndrome as well. The DFNB31 gene encodes whirlin, a PDZ scaffold protein with expression in both hair cell stereocilia and retinal photoreceptor cells. Whirlin represents an excellent candidate for USH2 because it binds to Usherin (USH2A) and VLGR1b (USH2C). Genotyping of microsatellite markers specific for the DFNB31 gene locus on chromosome 9q32 was performed in a German USH2 family that had been excluded for all known USH loci. Patients showed common haplotypes. Sequence analysis of DFNB31 revealed compound heterozygosity for a nonsense mutation, p.Q103X, in exon 1, and a mutation in the splice donor site of exon 2, c.837+1G>A. DFNB31 mutations appear to be a rare cause of Usher syndrome, since no mutations were identified in an additional 96 USH2 patients. While mutations in the C-terminal half of whirlin have previously been reported in non-syndromic deafness (DFNB31), both alterations identified in our USH2 family affect the long protein isoform. We propose that mutations causing Usher syndrome are probably restricted to exons 1-6 that are specific for the long isoform and probably crucial for retinal function. We describe a novel genetic subtype for Usher syndrome, which we named USH2D and which is caused by mutations in whirlin. Moreover, this is the first case of USH2 that is allelic to non-syndromic deafness.
Publication
Journal: Nucleic acids research
February/1/2004
Abstract
Nucleotide substitution, insertion and deletion (indel) events are the major driving forces that have shaped genomes. Using the recently identified human ribosomal protein (RP) pseudogene sequences, we have thoroughly studied DNA mutation patterns in the human genome. We analyzed a total of 1726 processed RP pseudogene sequences, comprising more than 700 000 bases. To be sure to differentiate the sequence changes occurring in the functional genes during evolution from those occurring in pseudogenes after they were fixed in the genome, we used only pseudogene sequences originating from parts of RP genes that are identical in human and mouse. Overall, we found that nucleotide transitions are more common than transversions, by roughly a factor of two. Moreover, the substitution rates amongst the 12 possible nucleotide pairs are not homogeneous as they are affected by the type of immediately neighboring nucleotides and the overall local G+C content. Finally, our dataset is large enough that it has many indels, thus allowing for the first time statistically robust analysis of these events. Overall, we found that deletions are about three times more common than insertions (3740 versus 1291). The frequencies of both these events follow characteristic power-law behavior associated with the size of the indel. However, unexpectedly, the frequency of 3 bp deletions (in contrast to 3 bp insertions) violates this trend, being considerably higher than that of 2 bp deletions. The possible biological implications of such a 3 bp bias are discussed.
Publication
Journal: Cancer cell
October/7/2010
Abstract
In vitro studies have shown that inhibition of ribosomal biogenesis can activate p53 through ribosomal protein (RP)-mediated suppression of Mdm2 E3 ligase activity. To study the physiological significance of the RP-Mdm2 interaction, we generated mice carrying a cancer-associated cysteine-to-phenylalanine substitution in the zinc finger of Mdm2 that disrupted its binding to RPL5 and RPL11. Mice harboring this mutation, retain normal p53 response to DNA damage, but lack of p53 response to perturbations in ribosome biogenesis. Loss of RP-Mdm2 interaction significantly accelerates Eμ-Myc-induced lymphomagenesis. Furthermore, ribosomal perturbation-induced p53 response does not require tumor suppressor p19ARF. Collectively, our findings establish RP-Mdm2 interaction as a genuine p53 stress-signaling pathway activated by aberrant ribosome biogenesis and essential for safeguarding against oncogenic c-MYC-induced tumorigenesis.
Publication
Journal: Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
January/7/1998
Abstract
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an acute reactant cytokine with anti-inflammatory properties, which has been found to prevent injury in a model of acute hepatitis in mice through downregulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha); to correlate inversely with markers of hepatocellular injury in patients with liver ischemia; and to initiate liver regeneration in mice. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-6 in rodent models of hepatic warm ischemia/reperfusion (WI/Rp) injury. IL-6-deficient mice (-/-) were subjected to hepatic WI and compared with C57BL/6 mice, as well as IL-6 -/- mice pretreated with recombinant IL-6 (rIL-6). The effects of rIL-6 following various periods of ischemia were further studied in models of hepatic ischemia in rats. IL-6 -/- mice had increased reperfusion injury as assessed by transaminase levels and a tissue necrosis scoring system when compared with controls, an effect prevented by pretreatment with rIL-6. Similarly, rats pretreated with rIL-6 had reduced reperfusion injury and better survival than controls in each respective WI group. Tissue TNF-alpha expression measured by Northern blot analysis and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, a marker of inflammation, were significantly reduced in animals pretreated with rIL-6. Administration of antibodies to TNF-alpha reproduced the beneficial effect of rIL-6. Hepatocyte proliferation, as assessed by a scoring method for mitotic index and proliferating nuclear cell antigen staining, was markedly increased in rIL-6-treated rats when compared with controls. In conclusion, this study suggests that IL-6 could play an important role in limiting hepatic warm ischemia/reperfusion (WI/Rp) injury, probably through its anti-inflammatory properties, modulation of TNF-alpha, and/or promotion of liver regeneration. rIL-6 might become an important cytokine in clinical situations associated with WI/Rp injury.
Publication
Journal: Nature
April/11/2004
Abstract
Colicins are narrow-spectrum antibiotics produced by and active against Escherichia coli and its close relatives. Colicin-producing strains cannot coexist with sensitive or resistant strains in a well-mixed culture, yet all three phenotypes are recovered in natural populations. Recent in vitro results conclude that strain diversity can be promoted by colicin production in a spatially structured, non-transitive interaction, as in the classic non-transitive model rock-paper-scissors (RPS). In the colicin version of the RPS model, strains that produce colicins (C) kill sensitive (S) strains, which outcompete resistant (R) strains, which outcompete C strains. Pairwise in vitro competitions between these three strains are resolved in a predictable order (C beats S, S beats R, and R beats C), but the complete system of three strains presents the opportunity for dynamic equilibrium. Here we provide conclusive evidence of an in vivo antagonistic role for colicins and show that colicins (and potentially other bacteriocins) may promote, rather than eliminate, microbial diversity in the environment.