Yu Zhang
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Publication
Journal: Cerebral Cortex
October/30/2017
Abstract
The human brain atlases that allow correlating brain anatomy with psychological and cognitive functions are in transition from ex vivo histology-based printed atlases to digital brain maps providing multimodal in vivo information. Many current human brain atlases cover only specific structures, lack fine-grained parcellations, and fail to provide functionally important connectivity information. Using noninvasive multimodal neuroimaging techniques, we designed a connectivity-based parcellation framework that identifies the subdivisions of the entire human brain, revealing the in vivo connectivity architecture. The resulting human Brainnetome Atlas, with 210 cortical and 36 subcortical subregions, provides a fine-grained, cross-validated atlas and contains information on both anatomical and functional connections. Additionally, we further mapped the delineated structures to mental processes by reference to the BrainMap database. It thus provides an objective and stable starting point from which to explore the complex relationships between structure, connectivity, and function, and eventually improves understanding of how the human brain works. The human Brainnetome Atlas will be made freely available for download at http://atlas.brainnetome.org, so that whole brain parcellations, connections, and functional data will be readily available for researchers to use in their investigations into healthy and pathological states.
Publication
Journal: Nature
January/2/2008
Abstract
X chromosomes evolve differently from autosomes, but general governing principles have not emerged. For example, genes with male-biased expression are under-represented on the X chromosome of D. melanogaster, but are randomly distributed in the genome of Anopheles gambiae. In direct global profiling experiments using species-specific microarrays, we find a nearly identical paucity of genes with male-biased expression on D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. yakuba, D. ananassae, D. virilis and D. mojavensis X chromosomes. We observe the same under-representation on the neo-X of D. pseudoobscura. It has been suggested that precocious meiotic silencing of the X chromosome accounts for reduced X chromosome male-biased expression in nematodes, mammals and Drosophila. We show that X chromosome genes with male-biased expression are under-represented in somatic cells and in mitotic male germ cells. These data are incompatible with simple X chromosome inactivation models. Using expression profiling and comparative sequence analysis, we show that selective gene extinction on the X chromosome, creation of new genes on autosomes and changed genomic location of existing genes contribute to the unusual X chromosome gene content.
Publication
Journal: Trends in Genetics
May/28/2008
Abstract
Several contributing factors have been implicated in evolutionary rate heterogeneity among proteins, but their evolutionary mechanisms remain poorly characterized. The recently sequenced 12 Drosophila genomes provide a unique opportunity to shed light on these unresolved issues. Here, we focus on the role of natural selection in shaping evolutionary rates. We use the Drosophila genomic data to distinguish between factors that increase the strength of purifying selection on proteins and factors that affect the amount of positive selection experienced by proteins. We confirm the importance of translational selection in shaping protein evolution in Drosophila and show that factors such as tissue bias in expression, gene essentiality, intron number, and recombination rate also contribute to evolutionary rate variation among proteins.
Publication
Journal: Molecular Cell
January/6/2009
Abstract
Seasonal changes in day length are perceived by plant photoreceptors and transmitted to the circadian clock to modulate developmental responses such as flowering time. Blue-light-sensing cryptochromes, the E3 ubiquitin-ligase COP1, and clock-associated proteins ELF3 and GI regulate this process, although the regulatory link between them is unclear. Here we present data showing that COP1 acts with ELF3 to mediate day length signaling from CRY2 to GI within the photoperiod flowering pathway. We found that COP1 and ELF3 interact in vivo and show that ELF3 allows COP1 to interact with GI in vivo, leading to GI degradation in planta. Accordingly, mutation of COP1 or ELF3 disturbs the pattern of GI cyclic accumulation. We propose a model in which ELF3 acts as a substrate adaptor, enabling COP1 to modulate light input signal to the circadian clock through targeted destabilization of GI.
Publication
Journal: Genes and Development
March/16/2010
Abstract
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate gene expression by deacetylating histones and also modulate the acetylation of a number of nonhistone proteins, thus impinging on various cellular processes. Here, we analyzed the major class I enzymes HDAC1 and HDAC2 in primary mouse fibroblasts and in the B-cell lineage. Fibroblasts lacking both enzymes fail to proliferate in culture and exhibit a strong cell cycle block in the G1 phase that is associated with up-regulation of the CDK inhibitors p21(WAF1/CIP1) and p57(Kip2) and of the corresponding mRNAs. This regulation is direct, as in wild-type cells HDAC1 and HDAC2 are bound to the promoter regions of the p21 and p57 genes. Furthermore, analysis of the transcriptome and of histone modifications in mutant cells demonstrated that HDAC1 and HDAC2 have only partly overlapping roles. Next, we eliminated HDAC1 and HDAC2 in the B cells of conditionally targeted mice. We found that B-cell development strictly requires the presence of at least one of these enzymes: When both enzymes are ablated, B-cell development is blocked at an early stage, and the rare remaining pre-B cells show a block in G1 accompanied by the induction of apoptosis. In contrast, elimination of HDAC1 and HDAC2 in mature resting B cells has no negative impact, unless these cells are induced to proliferate. These results indicate that HDAC1 and HDAC2, by normally repressing the expression of p21 and p57, regulate the G1-to-S-phase transition of the cell cycle.
Publication
Journal: Genes and Development
March/18/2008
Abstract
An essential part of the cellular response to environmental stress is a reversible translational suppression, taking place in dynamic cytoplasmic structures called stress granules (SGs). We discovered that HDAC6, a cytoplasmic deacetylase that acts on tubulin and HSP90 and also binds ubiquitinated proteins with high affinity, is a novel critical SG component. We found that HDAC6 interacts with another SG protein, G3BP (Ras-GTPase-activating protein SH3 domain-binding protein 1), and localizes to SGs under all stress conditions tested. We show that pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of HDAC6 abolishes SG formation. Intriguingly, we found that the ubiquitin-binding domain of HDAC6 is essential and that SGs are strongly positive for ubiquitin. Moreover, disruption of microtubule arrays or impairment of motor proteins also prevents formation of SGs. These findings identify HDAC6 as a central component of the stress response, and suggest that it coordinates the formation of SGs by mediating the motor-protein-driven movement of individual SG components along microtubules.
Publication
Journal: Molecular and Cellular Biology
August/22/2007
Abstract
Essential for embryonic development, the polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is overexpressed in breast and prostate cancers and is implicated in the growth and aggression of the tumors. The tumorigenic mechanism underlying EZH2 overexpression is largely unknown. It is believed that EZH2 exerts its biological activity as a transcription repressor. However, we report here that EZH2 functions in gene transcriptional activation in breast cancer cells. We show that EZH2 transactivates genes that are commonly targeted by estrogen and Wnt signaling pathways. We demonstrated that EZH2 physically interacts directly with estrogen receptor alpha and beta-catenin, thus connecting the estrogen and Wnt signaling circuitries, functionally enhances gene transactivation by estrogen and Wnt pathways, and phenotypically promotes cell cycle progression. In addition, we identified the transactivation activity of EZH2 in its two N-terminal domains and demonstrated that these structures serve as platforms to connect transcription factors and the Mediator complex. Our experiments indicated that EZH2 is a dual function transcription regulator with a dynamic activity, and we provide a mechanism for EZH2 in tumorigenesis.
Publication
Journal: Brain
December/13/2009
Abstract
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease are sometimes difficult to differentiate clinically because of overlapping symptoms. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements of fractional anisotropy (FA) can be useful in distinguishing the different patterns of white matter degradation between the two dementias. In this study, we performed MRI scans in a 4 Tesla MRI machine including T1-weighted structural images and diffusion tensor images in 18 patients with FTD, 18 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 19 cognitively normal (CN) controls. FA was measured selectively in specific fibre tracts (including corpus callosum, cingulum, uncinate and corticospinal tracts) as well as globally in a voxel-by-voxel analysis. Patients with FTD were associated with reductions of FA in frontal and temporal regions including the anterior corpus callosum (P < 0.001), bilateral anterior (left P < 0.001; right P = 0.005), descending (left P < 0.001; right P = 0.003) cingulum tracts, and uncinate tracts (left P < 0.001; right P = 0.005), compared to controls. Patients with Alzheimer's disease were associated with reductions of FA in parietal, temporal and frontal regions including the left anterior (P = 0.003) and posterior (P = 0.002) cingulum tracts, bilateral descending cingulum tracts (P < 0.001) and left uncinate tracts (P < 0.001) compared to controls. When compared with Alzheimer's disease, FTD was associated with greater reductions of FA in frontal brain regions, whereas no region in Alzheimer's disease showed greater reductions of FA when compared to FTD. In conclusion, the regional patterns of anisotropy reduction in FTD and Alzheimer's disease compared to controls suggest a characteristic distribution of white matter degradation in each disease. Moreover, the white matter degradation seems to be more prominent in FTD than in Alzheimer's disease. Taken together, the results suggest that white matter degradation measured with DTI may improve the diagnostic differentiation between FTD and Alzheimer's disease.
Publication
Journal: Genes and Development
October/31/2007
Abstract
A cellular defense mechanism counteracts the deleterious effects of misfolded protein accumulation by eliciting a stress response. The cytoplasmic deacetylase HDAC6 (histone deacetylase 6) was previously shown to be a key element in this response by coordinating the clearance of protein aggregates through aggresome formation and their autophagic degradation. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that HDAC6 is involved in another crucial cell response to the accumulation of ubiquitinated protein aggregates, and unravel its molecular basis. Indeed, our data show that HDAC6 senses ubiquitinated cellular aggregates and consequently induces the expression of major cellular chaperones by triggering the dissociation of a repressive HDAC6/HSF1 (heat-shock factor 1)/HSP90 (heat-shock protein 90) complex and a subsequent HSF1 activation. HDAC6 therefore appears as a master regulator of the cell protective response to cytotoxic protein aggregate formation.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
July/25/2011
Abstract
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine. Typically, hESC-based applications would require their in vitro differentiation into a desirable homogenous cell population. A major challenge of the current hESC differentiation paradigm is the inability to effectively capture and, in the long-term, stably expand primitive lineage-specific stem/precursor cells that retain broad differentiation potential and, more importantly, developmental stage-specific differentiation propensity. Here, we report synergistic inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and Notch signaling pathways by small molecules can efficiently convert monolayer cultured hESCs into homogenous primitive neuroepithelium within 1 wk under chemically defined condition. These primitive neuroepithelia can stably self-renew in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor, GSK3 inhibitor (CHIR99021), and TGF-β receptor inhibitor (SB431542); retain high neurogenic potential and responsiveness to instructive neural patterning cues toward midbrain and hindbrain neuronal subtypes; and exhibit in vivo integration. Our work uniformly captures and maintains primitive neural stem cells from hESCs.
Publication
Journal: Nature Structural and Molecular Biology
February/10/2011
Abstract
Chromosomal translocations arise from the misjoining of DNA breaks, but the identity of the DNA repair factors and activities involved in their formation has been elusive. Here we show that depletion of CtIP, a DNA end-resection factor, results in a substantial decrease in chromosomal translocation frequency in mouse cells. Moreover, microhomology usage, a signature of the alternative nonhomologous end-joining pathway (alt-NHEJ), is significantly lower in translocation breakpoint junctions recovered from CtIP-depleted cells than in those from wild-type cells. Thus, we directly demonstrate that CtIP-mediated alt-NHEJ has a primary role in translocation formation. CtIP depletion in Ku70(-/-) cells reduces translocation frequency without affecting microhomology, indicating that Ku70-dependent NHEJ generates a fraction of translocations in wild-type cells. Translocations from both wild-type and Ku70(-/-) cells have smaller deletions on the participating chromosomes when CtIP is depleted, implicating the end-resection activity of CtIP in translocation formation.
Publication
Journal: Science
December/3/2012
Abstract
During transcription initiation, RNA polymerase (RNAP) binds and unwinds promoter DNA to form an RNAP-promoter open complex. We have determined crystal structures at 2.9 and 3.0 Å resolution of functional transcription initiation complexes comprising Thermus thermophilus RNA polymerase, σ(A), and a promoter DNA fragment corresponding to the transcription bubble and downstream double-stranded DNA of the RNAP-promoter open complex. The structures show that σ recognizes the -10 element and discriminator element through interactions that include the unstacking and insertion into pockets of three DNA bases and that RNAP recognizes the -4/+2 region through interactions that include the unstacking and insertion into a pocket of the +2 base. The structures further show that interactions between σ and template-strand single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) preorganize template-strand ssDNA to engage the RNAP active center.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Controlled Release
August/24/2014
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding endogenous RNAs that direct post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by several mechanisms. Activity is primarily through binding to the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of messenger RNAs (mRNA) resulting in degradation and translation repression. Unlike other small-RNAs, miRNAs do not require perfect base pairing, and thus, can regulate a network of broad, yet specific, genes. Although we have only just begun to gain insights into the full range of biologic functions of miRNA, their involvement in the onset and progression of disease has generated significant interest for therapeutic development. Mounting evidence suggests that miRNA-based therapies, either restoring or repressing miRNAs expression and activity, hold great promise. However, despite the early promise and exciting potential, critical hurdles often involving delivery of miRNA-targeting agents remain to be overcome before transition to clinical applications. Limitations that may be overcome by delivery include, but are not limited to, poor in vivo stability, inappropriate biodistribution, disruption and saturation of endogenous RNA machinery, and untoward side effects. Both viral vectors and nonviral delivery systems can be developed to circumvent these challenges. Viral vectors are efficient delivery agents but toxicity and immunogenicity limit their clinical usage. Herein, we review the recent advances in the mechanisms and strategies of nonviral miRNA delivery systems and provide a perspective on the future of miRNA-based therapeutics.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Clinical Oncology
May/24/2007
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
This multi-institutional phase I trial was designed to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of cilengitide (EMD 121974) and to evaluate the use of perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with recurrent malignant glioma.
METHODS
Patients received cilengitide twice weekly on a continuous basis. A treatment cycle was defined as 4 weeks. Treatment-related dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as any grade 3 or 4 nonhematologic toxicity or grade 4 hematologic toxicity of any duration.
RESULTS
A total of 51 patients were enrolled in cohorts of six patients to doses of 120, 240, 360, 480, 600, 1,200, 1,800, and 2,400 mg/m2 administered as a twice weekly intravenous infusion. Three patients progressed early and were inevaluable for toxicity assessment. The DLTs observed were one thrombosis (120 mg/m2), one grade 4 joint and bone pain (480 mg/m2), one thrombocytopenia (600 mg/m2) and one anorexia, hypoglycemia, and hyponatremia (800 mg/m2). The MTD was not reached. Two patients demonstrated complete response, three patients had partial response, and four patients had stable disease. Perfusion MRI revealed a significant relationship between the change in tumor relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) from baseline and area under the plasma concentration versus time curve after 16 weeks of therapy.
CONCLUSIONS
Cilengitide is well tolerated to doses of 2,400 mg/m2, durable complete and partial responses were seen in this phase I study, and clinical response appears related to rCBF changes.
Publication
Journal: EMBO Journal
September/4/2006
Abstract
HDAC6 is a unique cytoplasmic deacetylase capable of interacting with ubiquitin. Using a combination of biophysical, biochemical and biological approaches, we have characterized the ubiquitin-binding domain of HDAC6, named ZnF-UBP, and investigated its biological functions. These studies show that the three Zn ion-containing HDAC6 ZnF-UBP domain presents the highest known affinity for ubiquitin monomers and mediates the ability of HDAC6 to negatively control the cellular polyubiquitin chain turnover. We further show that HDAC6-interacting chaperone, p97/VCP, dissociates the HDAC6-ubiquitin complexes and counteracts the ability of HDAC6 to promote the accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins. We propose that a finely tuned balance of HDAC6 and p97/VCP concentrations determines the fate of ubiquitinated misfolded proteins: p97/VCP would promote protein degradation and ubiquitin turnover, whereas HDAC6 would favour the accumulation of ubiquitinated protein aggregates and inclusion body formation.
Publication
Journal: Blood
March/23/2015
Abstract
Germline loss-of-function mutations in the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) cause immunodeficiency, whereas somatic gain-of-function mutations in STAT3 are associated with large granular lymphocytic leukemic, myelodysplastic syndrome, and aplastic anemia. Recently, germline mutations in STAT3 have also been associated with autoimmune disease. Here, we report on 13 individuals from 10 families with lymphoproliferation and early-onset solid-organ autoimmunity associated with 9 different germline heterozygous mutations in STAT3. Patients exhibited a variety of clinical features, with most having lymphadenopathy, autoimmune cytopenias, multiorgan autoimmunity (lung, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and/or endocrine dysfunction), infections, and short stature. Functional analyses demonstrate that these mutations confer a gain-of-function in STAT3 leading to secondary defects in STAT5 and STAT1 phosphorylation and the regulatory T-cell compartment. Treatment targeting a cytokine pathway that signals through STAT3 led to clinical improvement in 1 patient, suggesting a potential therapeutic option for such patients. These results suggest that there is a broad range of autoimmunity caused by germline STAT3 gain-of-function mutations, and that hematologic autoimmunity is a major component of this newly described disorder. Some patients for this study were enrolled in a trial registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00001350.
Publication
Journal: Nature
November/25/2013
Abstract
The repair of chromosomal double strand breaks (DSBs) is crucial for the maintenance of genomic integrity. However, the repair of DSBs can also destabilize the genome by causing mutations and chromosomal rearrangements, the driving forces for carcinogenesis and hereditary diseases. Break-induced replication (BIR) is one of the DSB repair pathways that is highly prone to genetic instability. BIR proceeds by invasion of one broken end into a homologous DNA sequence followed by replication that can copy hundreds of kilobases of DNA from a donor molecule all the way through its telomere. The resulting repaired chromosome comes at a great cost to the cell, as BIR promotes mutagenesis, loss of heterozygosity, translocations, and copy number variations, all hallmarks of carcinogenesis. BIR uses most known replication proteins to copy large portions of DNA, similar to S-phase replication. It has therefore been suggested that BIR proceeds by semiconservative replication; however, the model of a bona fide, stable replication fork contradicts the known instabilities associated with BIR such as a 1,000-fold increase in mutation rate compared to normal replication. Here we demonstrate that in budding yeast the mechanism of replication during BIR is significantly different from S-phase replication, as it proceeds via an unusual bubble-like replication fork that results in conservative inheritance of the new genetic material. We provide evidence that this atypical mode of DNA replication, dependent on Pif1 helicase, is responsible for the marked increase in BIR-associated mutations. We propose that the BIR mode of synthesis presents a powerful mechanism that can initiate bursts of genetic instability in eukaryotes, including humans.
Publication
Journal: Genome Research
February/16/2010
Abstract
The transcription factor GATA1 regulates an extensive program of gene activation and repression during erythroid development. However, the associated mechanisms, including the contributions of distal versus proximal cis-regulatory modules, co-occupancy with other transcription factors, and the effects of histone modifications, are poorly understood. We studied these problems genome-wide in a Gata1 knockout erythroblast cell line that undergoes GATA1-dependent terminal maturation, identifying 2616 GATA1-responsive genes and 15,360 GATA1-occupied DNA segments after restoration of GATA1. Virtually all occupied DNA segments have high levels of H3K4 monomethylation and low levels of H3K27me3 around the canonical GATA binding motif, regardless of whether the nearby gene is induced or repressed. Induced genes tend to be bound by GATA1 close to the transcription start site (most frequently in the first intron), have multiple GATA1-occupied segments that are also bound by TAL1, and show evolutionary constraint on the GATA1-binding site motif. In contrast, repressed genes are further away from GATA1-occupied segments, and a subset shows reduced TAL1 occupancy and increased H3K27me3 at the transcription start site. Our data expand the repertoire of GATA1 action in erythropoiesis by defining a new cohort of target genes and determining the spatial distribution of cis-regulatory modules throughout the genome. In addition, we begin to establish functional criteria and mechanisms that distinguish GATA1 activation from repression at specific target genes. More broadly, these studies illustrate how a "master regulator" transcription factor coordinates tissue differentiation through a panoply of DNA and protein interactions.
Publication
Journal: Cell Stem Cell
October/16/2013
Abstract
DNA methylation and demethylation have been proposed to play an important role in somatic cell reprogramming. Here, we demonstrate that the DNA hydroxylase Tet1 facilitates pluripotent stem cell induction by promoting Oct4 demethylation and reactivation. Moreover, Tet1 (T) can replace Oct4 and initiate somatic cell reprogramming in conjunction with Sox2 (S), Klf4 (K), and c-Myc (M). We established an efficient TSKM secondary reprogramming system and used it to characterize the dynamic profiles of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), and gene expression during reprogramming. Our analysis revealed that both 5mC and 5hmC modifications increased at an intermediate stage of the process, correlating with a transition in the transcriptional profile. We also found that 5hmC enrichment is involved in the demethylation and reactivation of genes and regulatory regions that are important for pluripotency. Our data indicate that changes in DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation play important roles in genome-wide epigenetic remodeling during reprogramming.
Publication
Journal: EMBO Journal
October/27/2010
Abstract
Single-stranded DNA constitutes an important early intermediate for homologous recombination and damage-induced cell cycle checkpoint activation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, efficient double-strand break (DSB) end resection requires several enzymes; Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 (MRX) and Sae2 are implicated in the onset of 5'-strand resection, whereas Sgs1/Top3/Rmi1 with Dna2 and Exo1 are involved in extensive resection. However, the molecular events leading to a switch from the MRX/Sae2-dependent initiation to the Exo1- and Dna2-dependent resection remain unclear. Here, we show that MRX recruits Dna2 nuclease to DSB ends. MRX also stimulates recruitment of Exo1 and antagonizes excess binding of the Ku complex to DSB ends. Using resection assay with purified enzymes in vitro, we found that Ku and MRX regulate the nuclease activity of Exo1 in an opposite way. Efficient loading of Dna2 and Exo1 requires neither Sae2 nor Mre11 nuclease activities. However, Mre11 nuclease activity is essential for resection in the absence of extensive resection enzymes. The results provide new insights into how MRX catalyses end resection and recombination initiation.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Molecular Medicine
June/29/2009
Abstract
MicroRNAs are approximately 21nt single-stranded RNAs and function as regulators of gene expression. Previous studies have shown that microRNAs play crucial roles in tumorigenesis by targeting the mRNAs of oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Here we show that brain-enriched miR-128 is down-regulated in glioma tissues and cell lines when compared to normal brain tissues. Overexpression of miR-128 in glioma cells inhibited cell proliferation. A bioinformatics search revealed a conserved target site within the 3'untranslated region (UTR) of E2F3a, a transcription factor that regulates cell cycle progression. The protein levels of E2F3a in gliomas and normal brain tissues were negatively correlated to the expression levels of miR-128 in these tissues. Overexpression of miR-128 suppressed a luciferase-reporter containing the E2F3a-3'UTR and reduced the level of E2F3a protein in T98G cells. Moreover, knocking down of E2F3a had similar effect as overexpression of miR-128, and overexpression of E2F3a can partly rescue the proliferation inhibition caused by miR-128. Taken together, our study demonstrates that miR-128 can inhibit proliferation of glioma cells through one of its targets, E2F3a.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Biomedical Optics
January/4/2012
Abstract
Almost all diseases, especially cancer and diabetes, manifest abnormal oxygen metabolism. Accurately measuring the metabolic rate of oxygen (MRO(2)) can be helpful for fundamental pathophysiological studies, and even early diagnosis and treatment of disease. Current techniques either lack high resolution or rely on exogenous contrast. Here, we propose label-free metabolic photoacoustic microscopy (mPAM) with small vessel resolution to noninvasively quantify MRO(2) in vivo in absolute units. mPAM is the unique modality for simultaneously imaging all five anatomical, chemical, and fluid-dynamic parameters required for such quantification: tissue volume, vessel cross-section, concentration of hemoglobin, oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, and blood flow speed. Hyperthermia, cryotherapy, melanoma, and glioblastoma were longitudinally imaged in vivo. Counterintuitively, increased MRO(2) does not necessarily cause hypoxia or increase oxygen extraction. In fact, early-stage cancer was found to be hyperoxic despite hypermetabolism.
Publication
Journal: PLoS Genetics
May/29/2013
Abstract
Dark-grown seedlings exhibit skotomorphogenic development. Genetic and molecular evidence indicates that a quartet of Arabidopsis Phytochrome (phy)-Interacting bHLH Factors (PIF1, 3, 4, and 5) are critically necessary to maintaining this developmental state and that light activation of phy induces a switch to photomorphogenic development by inducing rapid degradation of the PIFs. Here, using integrated ChIP-seq and RNA-seq analyses, we have identified genes that are direct targets of PIF3 transcriptional regulation, exerted by sequence-specific binding to G-box (CACGTG) or PBE-box (CACATG) motifs in the target promoters genome-wide. In addition, expression analysis of selected genes in this set, in all triple pif-mutant combinations, provides evidence that the PIF quartet members collaborate to generate an expression pattern that is the product of a mosaic of differential transcriptional responsiveness of individual genes to the different PIFs and of differential regulatory activity of individual PIFs toward the different genes. Together with prior evidence that all four PIFs can bind to G-boxes, the data suggest that this collective activity may be exerted via shared occupancy of binding sites in target promoters.
Publication
Journal: Cell Stem Cell
December/17/2015
Abstract
The bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system has emerged as an effective tool for sequence-specific gene knockout through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), but it remains inefficient for precise editing of genome sequences. Here we develop a reporter-based screening approach for high-throughput identification of chemical compounds that can modulate precise genome editing through homology-directed repair (HDR). Using our screening method, we have identified small molecules that can enhance CRISPR-mediated HDR efficiency, 3-fold for large fragment insertions and 9-fold for point mutations. Interestingly, we have also observed that a small molecule that inhibits HDR can enhance frame shift insertion and deletion (indel) mutations mediated by NHEJ. The identified small molecules function robustly in diverse cell types with minimal toxicity. The use of small molecules provides a simple and effective strategy to enhance precise genome engineering applications and facilitates the study of DNA repair mechanisms in mammalian cells.
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