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Publication
Journal: Cancer Cell
February/14/2012
Abstract
Fumarate hydratase (FH) mutation causes hereditary type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC2). The main effect of FH mutation is fumarate accumulation. The current paradigm posits that the main consequence of fumarate accumulation is HIF-α stabilization. Paradoxically, FH mutation differs from other HIF-α stabilizing mutations, such as VHL and SDH mutations, in its associated tumor types. We identified that fumarate can directly up-regulate antioxidant response element (ARE)-controlled genes. We demonstrated that aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) is an ARE-controlled gene and is up-regulated upon FH knockdown as well as in FH null cell lines. AKR1B10 overexpression is also a prominent feature in both hereditary and sporadic PRCC2. This phenotype better explains the similarities between hereditary and sporadic PRCC2.
Publication
Journal: Carcinogenesis
September/15/2009
Abstract
To better understand the role of transcription factor NF-E2-related factor (NRF) 2 in the human and its contribution to cancer chemoprevention, we have knocked down its negative regulators, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) and broad-complex, tramtrack and bric à brac and cap'n'collar homology 1 (BACH1), in HaCaT keratinocytes. Whole-genome microarray revealed that knockdown of KEAP1 resulted in 23 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) being up-regulated>> or = 2.0-fold. mRNA for aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1B10, AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3 were induced to the greatest extent, showing increases of between 12- and 16-fold, whereas mRNA for glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic and modifier subunits, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 and haem oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) were induced between 2.0- and 4.8-fold. Knockdown of BACH1 increased HMOX1 135-fold but induced the other genes examined to a maximum of only 2.7-fold. Activation of NRF2, by KEAP1 knockdown, caused a 75% increase in the amount of glutathione in HaCaT cells and a 1.4- to 1.6-fold increase in their resistance to the electrophiles acrolein, chlorambucil and cumene hydroperoxide (CuOOH), as well as the redox-cycling agent menadione. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis during KEAP1 knockdown, by treatment with buthionine sulfoximine, abrogated resistance to acrolein, chlorambucil and CuOOH, but not to menadione. In contrast, knockdown of BACH1 did not increase glutathione levels or resistance to xenobiotics. Knockdown of NRF2 in HaCaT cells decreased glutathione to approximately 80% of normal homeostatic levels and similarly reduced their tolerance of electrophiles. Thus, the KEAP1-NRF2 pathway determines resistance to electrophiles and redox-cycling compounds in human keratinocytes through glutathione-dependent and glutathione-independent mechanisms. This study also shows that AKR1B10, AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 proteins have potential utility as biomarkers for NRF2 activation in the human.
Publication
Journal: Clinical Cancer Research
June/20/2005
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma of the lung are currently subject to similar treatment regimens despite distinct differences in histology and epidemiology. The aim of this study is to identify a molecular target with diagnostic and therapeutic values for SCC.
METHODS
Genes specifically up-regulated in SCC were explored through microarray analysis of 5 SCCs, 5 adenocarcinomas, 10 small cell lung carcinomas, 27 normal tissues, and 40 cancer cell lines. Clinical usefulness of these genes was subsequently examined mainly by immunohistochemical analysis.
RESULTS
Seven genes, including aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B10 (AKR1B10), were identified as SCC-specific genes. AKR1B10 was further examined by immunohistochemical analysis of 101 non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) and its overexpression was observed in 27 of 32 (84.4%) SCCs and 19 of 65 (29.2%) adenocarcinomas. Multiple regression analysis showed that smoking was an independent variable responsible for AKR1B10 overexpression in NSCLCs (P < 0.01) and adenocarcinomas (P < 0.01). AKR1B10 staining was occasionally observed even in squamous metaplasia, a precancerous lesion of SCC.
CONCLUSIONS
AKR1B10 was overexpressed in most cases with SCC, which is closely associated with smoking, and many adenocarcinoma cases of smokers. These results suggest that AKR1B10 is a potential diagnostic marker specific to smokers' NSCLCs and might be involved in tobacco-related carcinogenesis.
Publication
Journal: Toxicology Letters
August/10/2006
Abstract
Our objective is to identify molecular factors which contribute to the increased risk of smokers for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In the present study, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on gene expression profiles in different human oral cell phenotypes: normal epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK), oral dysplasia cell lines (Leuk1 and Leuk2), and a primary oral carcinoma cell line (101A). We determined differential gene expression patterns in CSC-exposed versus non-exposed cells using high-density microarray RNA expression profiling and validation by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. A set of 35 genes was specifically up- or down-regulated following CSC treatment (25microg/ml for 24h) by at least 2-fold in any one cell type. Notably, five genes of the cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1, CYP1B1) and aldo-keto reductase (AKR1C1, AKR1C3, AKR1B10) families were highly increased in expression, some of them 15- to 30-fold. The timing and extent of induction for these genes differed among the four cell phenotypes. A potential biological interaction network for the CSC response in oral cells was derived from these data, proposing novel putative response pathways. These CSC-responsive genes presumably participate in the prevention or repair of carcinogen-induced DNA damage in tobacco-related oral carcinogenesis, and may potentially be exploited for determining the severity of exposure and for correcting mutagenic damage in exposed tissues of the oral cavity.
Publication
Journal: Clinical Cancer Research
August/20/2010
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
The outcome of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has remained unsatisfactory. Patients with HCC suffer from chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis, and their reserve liver function is often limited.
METHODS
To develop new therapeutic agents that act specifically on HCC but interfere only minimally with residual liver function, we searched for genes that were upregulated in 20 cases of HCC [namely, discovery sets 1 (n = 10) and 2 (n = 10)] in comparison with corresponding nontumorous liver and a panel representing normal organs using high-density microarrays capable of detecting all exons in the human genome.
RESULTS
Eleven transcripts whose expression was significantly increased in HCC were subjected to siRNA-based secondary screening of genes required for HCC cell proliferation as well as quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis [validation sets 1 (n = 20) and 2 (n = 44)] and immunohistochemistry (n = 19). We finally extracted four genes, AKR1B10, HCAP-G, RRM2, and TPX2, as candidate therapeutic targets for HCC. siRNA-mediated knockdown of these candidate genes inhibited the proliferation of HCC cells and the growth of HCC xenografts transplanted into immunodeficient mice.
CONCLUSIONS
The four genes we identified were highly expressed in HCC, and HCC cells are highly dependent on these genes for proliferation. Although many important genes must have been overlooked, the selected genes were biologically relevant. The combination of genome-wide expression and functional screening described here is a rapid and comprehensive approach that could be applied in the identification of therapeutic targets in any type of human malignancy.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Pathology
September/28/2007
Abstract
Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer worldwide. Gene expression in surgically resected and microdissected samples of non-small-cell lung cancers (18 squamous cell carcinomas and nine adenocarcinomas), matched normal bronchial epithelium, and peripheral lung tissue from both smokers (n = 22) and non-smokers (n = 5) was studied using the Affymetrix U133A array. A subset of 15 differentially regulated genes was validated by real-time PCR or immunohistochemistry. Hierarchical cluster analysis clearly distinguished between benign and malignant tissue and between squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. The bronchial epithelium and adenocarcinomas could be divided into the two subgroups of smokers and non-smokers. By comparison of the gene expression profiles in the bronchial epithelium of non-smokers, smokers, and matched cancer tissues, it was possible to identify a signature of 23 differentially expressed genes, which might reflect early cigarette smoke-induced and cancer-relevant molecular lesions in the central bronchial epithelium of smokers. Ten of these genes are involved in xenobiotic metabolism and redox stress (eg AKR1B10, AKR1C1, and MT1K). One gene is a tumour suppressor gene (HLF); two genes act as oncogenes (FGFR3 and LMO3); two genes are involved in matrix degradation (MMP12 and PTHLH); three genes are related to cell differentiation (SPRR1B, RTN1, and MUC7); and five genes have not been well characterized to date. By comparison of the tobacco-exposed peripheral alveolar lung tissue of smokers with non-smokers and with adenocarcinomas from smokers, it was possible to identify a signature of 27 other differentially expressed genes. These genes are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics (eg GPX2 and FMO3) and may represent cigarette smoke-induced, cancer-related molecular targets that may be utilized to identify smokers with increased risk for lung cancer.
Publication
Journal: Gastroenterology
August/4/2010
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Intestinal metaplasia (IM) and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) are precursors to gastric carcinogenesis. We sought to identify molecular biomarkers of gastric metaplasias and gastric cancer by gene expression profiling of metaplastic lesions from patients.
METHODS
Complementary DNA microarray analysis was performed on IM and SPEM cells isolated from patient samples using laser capture microdissection. Up-regulated transcripts in metaplastic lesions were confirmed by immunostaining analysis in IM, SPEM, and gastric cancer tissues. Proteins that were highly expressed specifically in gastric cancer tissues were analyzed for their association with survival in a test set (n = 450) and a validation set (n = 502) of samples from gastric cancer patients.
RESULTS
Compared with normal chief cells, 858 genes were differentially expressed in IM or SPEM samples. Immunostaining was detected for 12 proteins, including 3 new markers of IM (ACE2, LGALS4, AKR1B10) and 3 of SPEM (OLFM4, LYZ, DPCR1). Of 13 proteins expressed in IM or SPEM, 8 were expressed by 17%-50% of human gastric cancer tissues (MUC13, OLFM4, CDH17, KRT20, MUC5AC, LGALS4, AKR1B10, REG4). Expression of CDH17 or MUC13 correlated with patient survival in the test and validation sets. Multivariate analysis showed that CDH17 was an independent prognostic factor in patients with stage I or node-negative disease.
CONCLUSIONS
We identified several novel biomarkers for IM, SPEM, and gastric cancer using gene expression profiling of human metaplastic lesions. Expression of CDH17 and MUC13 was up-regulated in gastric cancer tissues. CDH17 is a promising prognostic marker for early stage gastric cancer.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
January/15/2008
Abstract
AKR1B10 is a human aldo-keto reductase (AKR) found to be elevated in several cancer types and in precancerous lesions. In vitro, AKR1B10 exhibits a much higher retinaldehyde reductase activity than any other human AKR, including AKR1B1 (aldose reductase). We here demonstrate that AKR1B10 also acts as a retinaldehyde reductase in vivo. This activity may be relevant in controlling the first step of retinoic acid synthesis. Up-regulation of AKR1B10, resulting in retinoic acid depletion, may lead to cellular proliferation. Both in vitro and in vivo activities of AKR1B10 were inhibited by tolrestat, an AKR1B1 inhibitor developed for diabetes treatment. The crystal structure of the ternary complex AKR1B10-NADP(+)-tolrestat was determined at 1.25-A resolution. Molecular dynamics models of AKR1B10 and AKR1B1 with retinaldehyde isomers and site-directed mutagenesis show that subtle differences at the entrance of the retinoid-binding site, especially at position 125, are determinant for the all-trans-retinaldehyde specificity of AKR1B10. Substitutions in the retinaldehyde cyclohexene ring also influence the specificity. These structural features should facilitate the design of specific inhibitors, with potential use in cancer and diabetes treatments.
Publication
Journal: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
May/22/2012
Abstract
Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, is a potent inhibitor of experimental mammary carcinogenesis and may be an effective, safe chemopreventive agent for use in humans. SFN acts in part on the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway to regulate a battery of cytoprotective genes. In this study, transcriptomic and proteomic changes in the estrogen receptor negative, non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial MCF10A cell line were analyzed following SFN treatment or KEAP1 knockdown with siRNA using microarray and stable isotopic labeling with amino acids in culture (SILAC), respectively. Changes in selected transcripts and proteins were confirmed by PCR and Western blot in MCF10A and MCF12A cells. There was strong correlation between the transcriptomic and proteomic responses in both the SFN treatment (R = 0.679, P < 0.05) and KEAP1 knockdown (R = 0.853, P < 0.05) experiments. Common pathways for SFN treatment and KEAP1 knockdown were xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidants, glutathione metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and NADH/NADPH regeneration. Moreover, these pathways were most prominent in both the transcriptomic and the proteomic analyses. The aldo-keto reductase family members, AKR1B10, AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3, as well as NQO1 and ALDH3A1, were highly upregulated at both the transcriptomic and the proteomic levels. Collectively, these studies served to identify potential biomarkers that can be used in clinical trials to investigate the initial pharmacodynamic action of SFN in the breast.
Publication
Journal: Biochemical Journal
October/13/2006
Abstract
Retinoic acid biosynthesis in vertebrates occurs in two consecutive steps: the oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde followed by the oxidation of retinaldehyde to retinoic acid. Enzymes of the MDR (medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase), SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase) and AKR (aldo-keto reductase) superfamilies have been reported to catalyse the conversion between retinol and retinaldehyde. Estimation of the relative contribution of enzymes of each type was difficult since kinetics were performed with different methodologies, but SDRs would supposedly play a major role because of their low K(m) values, and because they were found to be active with retinol bound to CRBPI (cellular retinol binding protein type I). In the present study we employed detergent-free assays and HPLC-based methodology to characterize side-by-side the retinoid-converting activities of human MDR [ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) 1B2 and ADH4), SDR (RoDH (retinol dehydrogenase)-4 and RDH11] and AKR (AKR1B1 and AKR1B10) enzymes. Our results demonstrate that none of the enzymes, including the SDR members, are active with CRBPI-bound retinoids, which questions the previously suggested role of CRBPI as a retinol supplier in the retinoic acid synthesis pathway. The members of all three superfamilies exhibit similar and low K(m) values for retinoids (0.12-1.1 microM), whilst they strongly differ in their kcat values, which range from 0.35 min(-1) for AKR1B1 to 302 min(-1) for ADH4. ADHs appear to be more effective retinol dehydrogenases than SDRs because of their higher kcat values, whereas RDH11 and AKR1B10 are efficient retinaldehyde reductases. Cell culture studies support a role for RoDH-4 as a retinol dehydrogenase and for AKR1B1 as a retinaldehyde reductase in vivo.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Biological Chemistry
November/6/2009
Abstract
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) is primarily expressed in the normal human colon and small intestine but overexpressed in liver and lung cancer. Our previous studies have shown that AKR1B10 mediates the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha. In this study, we demonstrate that AKR1B10 is critical to cell survival. In human colon carcinoma cells (HCT-8) and lung carcinoma cells (NCI-H460), small-interfering RNA-induced AKR1B10 silencing resulted in caspase-3-mediated apoptosis. In these cells, the total and subspecies of cellular lipids, particularly of phospholipids, were decreased by more than 50%, concomitant with 2-3-fold increase in reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial cytochrome c efflux, and caspase-3 cleavage. AKR1B10 silencing also increased the levels of alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyls, leading to the 2-3-fold increase of cellular lipid peroxides. Supplementing the HCT-8 cells with palmitic acid (80 mum), the end product of fatty acid synthesis, partially rescued the apoptosis induced by AKR1B10 silencing, whereas exposing the HCT-8 cells to epalrestat, an AKR1B10 inhibitor, led to more than 2-fold elevation of the intracellular lipid peroxides, resulting in apoptosis. These data suggest that AKR1B10 affects cell survival through modulating lipid synthesis, mitochondrial function, and oxidative status, as well as carbonyl levels, being an important cell survival protein.