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Publication
Journal: Nature
October/20/2009
Abstract
Recent advances in next generation sequencing have made it possible to precisely characterize all somatic coding mutations that occur during the development and progression of individual cancers. Here we used these approaches to sequence the genomes (>43-fold coverage) and transcriptomes of an oestrogen-receptor-alpha-positive metastatic lobular breast cancer at depth. We found 32 somatic non-synonymous coding mutations present in the metastasis, and measured the frequency of these somatic mutations in DNA from the primary tumour of the same patient, which arose 9 years earlier. Five of the 32 mutations (in ABCB11, HAUS3, SLC24A4, SNX4 and PALB2) were prevalent in the DNA of the primary tumour removed at diagnosis 9 years earlier, six (in KIF1C, USP28, MYH8, MORC1, KIAA1468 and RNASEH2A) were present at lower frequencies (1-13%), 19 were not detected in the primary tumour, and two were undetermined. The combined analysis of genome and transcriptome data revealed two new RNA-editing events that recode the amino acid sequence of SRP9 and COG3. Taken together, our data show that single nucleotide mutational heterogeneity can be a property of low or intermediate grade primary breast cancers and that significant evolution can occur with disease progression.
Publication
Journal: Physiological Reviews
April/18/2003
Abstract
Molecular medicine has led to rapid advances in the characterization of hepatobiliary transport systems that determine the uptake and excretion of bile salts and other biliary constituents in the liver and extrahepatic tissues. The bile salt pool undergoes an enterohepatic circulation that is regulated by distinct bile salt transport proteins, including the canalicular bile salt export pump BSEP (ABCB11), the ileal Na(+)-dependent bile salt transporter ISBT (SLC10A2), and the hepatic sinusoidal Na(+)- taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide NTCP (SLC10A1). Other bile salt transporters include the organic anion transporting polypeptides OATPs (SLC21A) and the multidrug resistance-associated proteins 2 and 3 MRP2,3 (ABCC2,3). Bile salt transporters are also present in cholangiocytes, the renal proximal tubule, and the placenta. Expression of these transport proteins is regulated by both transcriptional and posttranscriptional events, with the former involving nuclear hormone receptors where bile salts function as specific ligands. During bile secretory failure (cholestasis), bile salt transport proteins undergo adaptive responses that serve to protect the liver from bile salt retention and which facilitate extrahepatic routes of bile salt excretion. This review is a comprehensive summary of current knowledge of the molecular characterization, function, and regulation of bile salt transporters in normal physiology and in cholestatic liver disease and liver regeneration.
Publication
Journal: Nature Genetics
December/19/2011
Abstract
Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10(-8) to P = 10(-190)). We used functional genomic approaches including metabonomic profiling and gene expression analyses to identify probable candidate genes at these regions. We identified 69 candidate genes, including genes involved in biliary transport (ATP8B1 and ABCB11), glucose, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (FADS1, FADS2, GCKR, JMJD1C, HNF1A, MLXIPL, PNPLA3, PPP1R3B, SLC2A2 and TRIB1), glycoprotein biosynthesis and cell surface glycobiology (ABO, ASGR1, FUT2, GPLD1 and ST3GAL4), inflammation and immunity (CD276, CDH6, GCKR, HNF1A, HPR, ITGA1, RORA and STAT4) and glutathione metabolism (GSTT1, GSTT2 and GGT), as well as several genes of uncertain or unknown function (including ABHD12, EFHD1, EFNA1, EPHA2, MICAL3 and ZNF827). Our results provide new insight into genetic mechanisms and pathways influencing markers of liver function.
Publication
Journal: Diabetes
December/30/2010
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA₁(c)), used to monitor and diagnose diabetes, is influenced by average glycemia over a 2- to 3-month period. Genetic factors affecting expression, turnover, and abnormal glycation of hemoglobin could also be associated with increased levels of HbA₁(c). We aimed to identify such genetic factors and investigate the extent to which they influence diabetes classification based on HbA₁(c) levels.
METHODS
We studied associations with HbA₁(c) in up to 46,368 nondiabetic adults of European descent from 23 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and 8 cohorts with de novo genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We combined studies using inverse-variance meta-analysis and tested mediation by glycemia using conditional analyses. We estimated the global effect of HbA₁(c) loci using a multilocus risk score, and used net reclassification to estimate genetic effects on diabetes screening.
RESULTS
Ten loci reached genome-wide significant association with HbA(1c), including six new loci near FN3K (lead SNP/P value, rs1046896/P = 1.6 × 10⁻²⁶), HFE (rs1800562/P = 2.6 × 10⁻²⁰), TMPRSS6 (rs855791/P = 2.7 × 10⁻¹⁴), ANK1 (rs4737009/P = 6.1 × 10⁻¹²), SPTA1 (rs2779116/P = 2.8 × 10⁻⁹) and ATP11A/TUBGCP3 (rs7998202/P = 5.2 × 10⁻⁹), and four known HbA₁(c) loci: HK1 (rs16926246/P = 3.1 × 10⁻⁵⁴), MTNR1B (rs1387153/P = 4.0 × 10⁻¹¹), GCK (rs1799884/P = 1.5 × 10⁻²⁰) and G6PC2/ABCB11 (rs552976/P = 8.2 × 10⁻¹⁸). We show that associations with HbA₁(c) are partly a function of hyperglycemia associated with 3 of the 10 loci (GCK, G6PC2 and MTNR1B). The seven nonglycemic loci accounted for a 0.19 (% HbA₁(c)) difference between the extreme 10% tails of the risk score, and would reclassify ∼2% of a general white population screened for diabetes with HbA₁(c).
CONCLUSIONS
GWAS identified 10 genetic loci reproducibly associated with HbA₁(c). Six are novel and seven map to loci where rarer variants cause hereditary anemias and iron storage disorders. Common variants at these loci likely influence HbA₁(c) levels via erythrocyte biology, and confer a small but detectable reclassification of diabetes diagnosis by HbA₁(c).
Publication
Journal: Journal of Biological Chemistry
September/13/2001
Abstract
The bile salt excretory pump (BSEP, ABCb11) is critical for ATP-dependent transport of bile acids across the hepatocyte canalicular membrane and for generation of bile acid-dependent bile secretion. Recent studies have demonstrated that the expression of this transporter is sensitive to the flux of bile acids through the hepatocyte, possibly at the level of transcription of the BSEP gene. To determine the mechanisms underlying the regulation of BSEP by bile acids, the promoter of the BSEP gene was cloned. The sequence of the promoter contained an inverted repeat (IR)-1 element (5'-GGGACA T TGATCCT-3') at base pairs -63/-50 consisting of two nuclear receptor half-sites organized as an inverted repeat and separated by a single nucleotide. This IR-1 element has been shown in several recent studies to serve as a binding site for the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor for bile acids. FXR activity requires heterodimerization with RXR alpha, and when bound by bile acids, the complex effectively regulates the transcription of several genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. Gel mobility shift assays demonstrated specific binding of FXR/RXR alpha heterodimers to the IR-1 element in the BSEP promoter. In HepG2 cells, co-transfection of FXR and RXR alpha is required to attain full transactivation of the BSEP promoter by bile acids. Two FXR transactivation-deficient mutants (an AF-2 deletion and a W469A point mutant) failed to transactivate, indicating that the effect of bile acids is FXR-dependent. Further, mutational analysis confirms that the FXR/RXR alpha heterodimer activates transcription through the IR-1 site in the human BSEP promoter. These results demonstrate a mechanism by which bile acids transcriptionally regulate the activity of the bile salt excretory pump, a critical component involved in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids.
Publication
Journal: Circulation
March/23/2009
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Inflammation is proposed to impair reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), a major atheroprotective function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The present study presents the first integrated functional evidence that inflammation retards numerous components of RCT.
RESULTS
We used subacute endotoxemia in the rodent macrophage-to-feces RCT model to assess the effects of inflammation on RCT in vivo and performed proof of concept experimental endotoxemia studies in humans. Endotoxemia (3 mg/kg SC) reduced (3)H-cholesterol movement from macrophage to plasma and (3)H-cholesterol associated with HDL fractions. At 48 hours, bile and fecal counts were markedly reduced consistent with downregulation of hepatic expression of ABCG5, ABCG8, and ABCB11 biliary transporters. Low-dose lipopolysaccharide (0.3 mg/kg SC) also reduced bile and fecal counts, as well as expression of biliary transporters, but in the absence of effects on plasma or liver counts. In vitro, lipopolysaccharide impaired (3)H-cholesterol efflux from human macrophages to apolipoprotein A-I and serum coincident with reduced expression of the cholesterol transporter ABCA1. During human (3 ng/kg; n=20) and murine endotoxemia (3 mg/kg SC), ex vivo macrophage cholesterol efflux to acute phase HDL was attenuated.
CONCLUSIONS
We provide the first in vivo evidence that inflammation impairs RCT at multiple steps in the RCT pathway, particularly cholesterol flux through liver to bile and feces. Attenuation of RCT and HDL efflux function, independent of HDL cholesterol levels, may contribute to atherosclerosis in chronic inflammatory states including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes.
Publication
Journal: Gastroenterology
February/17/2004
Abstract
The vectorial transport of bile salts from blood into bile is essential for the generation of bile flow, solubilization of cholesterol in bile, and emulsification of lipids in the intestine. Major transport proteins involved in the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts include the hepatocellular bile salt export pump (BSEP, ABCB11), the apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter (ASBT, SLC10A2) in cholangiocytes and enterocytes, the sodium-dependent hepatocyte bile salt uptake system NTCP (SLC10A1), the organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP-C (SLC21A6), OATP8 (SLC21A8) and OATP-A (SLC21A3), and the multidrug resistance protein MRP3 (ABCC3). Synthesis and transport of bile salts are intricately linked processes that undergo extensive feedback and feed-forward regulation by transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. A key regulator of hepatocellular bile salt homeostasis is the bile acid receptor/farnesoid X receptor FXR, which activates transcription of the BSEP and OATP8 genes and of the small heterodimer partner 1 (SHP). SHP is a transcriptional repressor that mediates bile acid-induced repression of the bile salt uptake systems rat Ntcp and human OATP-C. A nuclear receptor that activates rodent Oatp2 (Slc21a5) and human MRP2 (ABCC2) is the pregnane X receptor/steroid X receptor PXR/SXR. Intracellular trafficking and membrane insertion of bile salt transporters is regulated by lipid, protein, and extracellular signal-related kinases in response to physiologic stimuli such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate or taurocholate. Finally, dysfunction of individual bile salt transporters such as BSEP, on account of genetic mutations, steric inhibition, suppression of gene expression, or disturbed signaling, is an important cause of cholestatic liver disease.
Publication
Journal: Diabetes
June/6/2011
Abstract
OBJECTIVE The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as concomitant disorders of lipid and glucose metabolism, central obesity, and high blood pressure, with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study tests whether common genetic variants with pleiotropic effects account for some of the correlated architecture among five metabolic phenotypes that define MetS. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Seven studies of the STAMPEED consortium, comprising 22,161 participants of European ancestry, underwent genome-wide association analyses of metabolic traits using a panel of ∼2.5 million imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Phenotypes were defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria for MetS in pairwise combinations. Individuals exceeding the NCEP thresholds for both traits of a pair were considered affected. RESULTS Twenty-nine common variants were associated with MetS or a pair of traits. Variants in the genes LPL, CETP, APOA5 (and its cluster), GCKR (and its cluster), LIPC, TRIB1, LOC100128354/MTNR1B, ABCB11, and LOC100129150 were further tested for their association with individual qualitative and quantitative traits. None of the 16 top SNPs (one per gene) associated simultaneously with more than two individual traits. Of them 11 variants showed nominal associations with MetS per se. The effects of 16 top SNPs on the quantitative traits were relatively small, together explaining from ∼9% of the variance in triglycerides, 5.8% of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 3.6% of fasting glucose, and 1.4% of systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS Qualitative and quantitative pleiotropic tests on pairs of traits indicate that a small portion of the covariation in these traits can be explained by the reported common genetic variants.