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Publication
Journal: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
July/13/2006
Abstract
Identifying biological mechanisms through which genes lead to individual differences in emotional behavior is paramount to our understanding of how such differences confer risk for neuropsychiatric illness. The emergence of techniques such as in vivo imaging of brain function in humans and genetic engineering in rodents has provided important new insights into the impact of serotonin (5-HT), a key modulator of emotional behavior, on neural systems subserving anxiety and depression. A major finding has been the discovery of genetic variation in a crucial regulatory molecule within the 5-HT system, the <em>5HT</em> transporter (5-HTT), and its influence on emotional traits. The study of the 5-HTT provides a new foundation for understanding the neurobiological and genetic basis of emotional regulation and affective illness.
Publication
Journal: Science
November/8/1991
Abstract
The neurotransmitter serotonin (<em>5HT</em>) activates a variety of second messenger signaling systems and through them indirectly regulates the function of ion channels. Serotonin also activates ion channels directly, suggesting that it may also mediate rapid, excitatory responses. A complementary DNA clone containing the coding sequence of one of these rapidly responding channels, a <em>5HT</em>3 subtype of the serotonin receptor, has been isolated by screening a neuroblastoma expression library for functional expression of serotonin-gated currents in Xenopus oocytes. The predicted protein product has many of the features shared by other members of the ligand-gated ion channel family. The pharmacological and electrophysiological characteristics of the cloned receptor are largely consistent with the properties of native <em>5HT</em>3 receptors. Messenger RNA encoding this receptor is found in the brain, spinal cord, and heart. This receptor defines a new class of excitatory ligand-gated channels.
Publication
Journal: Depression and Anxiety
August/23/2001
Abstract
There is abundant evidence for abnormalities of the norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (<em>5HT</em>) neurotransmitter systems in depression and anxiety disorders. The majority of evidence supports underactivation of serotonergic function and complex dysregulation of noradrenergic function, most consistent with overactivation of this system. Treatment for these disorders requires perturbation of these systems. Reproducible increases in serotonergic function and decreases in noradrenergic function accompany treatment with antidepressants, and these alterations may be necessary for antidepressant efficacy. Dysregulation of these systems clearly mediates many symptoms of depression and anxiety. The underlying causes of these disorders, however, are less likely to be found within the NE and <em>5HT</em> systems, per se. Rather their dysfunction is likely due to their role in modulating, and being modulated by, other neurobiologic systems that together mediate the symptoms of affective illness. Clarification of noradrenergic and serotonergic modulation of various brain regions may yield a greater understanding of specific symptomatology, as well as the underlying circuitry involved in euthymic and abnormal mood and anxiety states. Disrupted cortical regulation may mediate impaired concentration and memory, together with uncontrollable worry. Hypothalamic abnormalities likely contribute to altered appetite, libido, and autonomic symptoms. Thalamic and brainstem dysregulation contributes to altered sleep and arousal states. Finally, abnormal modulation of cortical-hippocampal-amygdala pathways may contribute to chronically hypersensitive stress and fear responses, possibly mediating features of anxiety, anhedonia, aggression, and affective dyscontrol. The continued appreciation of the neural circuitry mediating affective states and their modulation by neurotransmitter systems should further the understanding of the pathophysiology of affective and anxiety disorders.
Publication
Journal: Brain Research
January/14/2002
Abstract
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the principal circadian pacemaker of the mammalian circadian timing system. The SCN is composed of two anatomically and functionally distinct subdivisions, designated core and shell, which can be distinguished on the basis of their chemoarchitecture and connections in the rat. In the present study, we examine the intrinsic organization and the afferent and efferent connections of the mouse SCN using immunocytochemistry and ocular injections of cholera toxin. Neurons of the SCN shell contain GABA, calbindin (CALB), arginine vasopressin (AVP), angiotensin II (AII) and met-enkephalin (mENK), and receive input from galanin (GAL) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) immunoreactive fibers. Neurons of the SCN core synthesize GABA, CALB, VIP, calretinin (CALR), gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), and neurotensin (NT), and receive input from the retina and from fibers that contain neuropeptide Y (NPY) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (<em>5HT</em>). Fibers projecting from SCN neurons that are immunoreactive for AVP and VIP exhibit a characteristic morphology, and project to the lateral septum, a series of medial hypothalamic areas extending from the preoptic to the posterior hypothalamic area and to the paraventricular thalamic nucleus. The organization of the mouse SCN, and its connections, are similar to that in other mammalian species.
Publication
Journal: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
March/21/2000
Abstract
1. Unlike some interfaces between the blood and the nervous system (e.g., nerve perineurium), the brain endothelium forming the blood-brain barrier can be modulated by a range of inflammatory mediators. The mechanisms underlying this modulation are reviewed, and the implications for therapy of the brain discussed. 2. Methods for measuring blood-brain barrier permeability in situ include the use of radiolabeled tracers in parenchymal vessels and measurements of transendothelial resistance and rate of loss of fluorescent dye in single pial microvessels. In vitro studies on culture models provide details of the signal transduction mechanisms involved. 3. Routes for penetration of polar solutes across the brain endothelium include the paracellular tight junctional pathway (usually very tight) and vesicular mechanisms. Inflammatory mediators have been reported to influence both pathways, but the clearest evidence is for modulation of tight junctions. 4. In addition to the brain endothelium, cell types involved in inflammatory reactions include several closely associated cells including pericytes, astrocytes, smooth muscle, microglia, mast cells, and neurons. In situ it is often difficult to identify the site of action of a vasoactive agent. In vitro models of brain endothelium are experimentally simpler but may also lack important features generated in situ by cell:cell interaction (e.g. induction, signaling). 5. Many inflammatory agents increase both endothelial permeability and vessel diameter, together contributing to significant leak across the blood-brain barrier and cerebral edema. This review concentrates on changes in endothelial permeability by focusing on studies in which changes in vessel diameter are minimized. 6. Bradykinin (Bk) increases blood-brain barrier permeability by acting on B2 receptors. The downstream events reported include elevation of [Ca2+]i, activation of phospholipase A2, release of arachidonic acid, and production of free radicals, with evidence that IL-1 beta potentiates the actions of Bk in ischemia. 7. Serotonin (<em>5HT</em>) has been reported to increase blood-brain barrier permeability in some but not all studies. Where barrier opening was seen, there was evidence for activation of 5-HT2 receptors and a calcium-dependent permeability increase. 8. Histamine is one of the few central nervous system neurotransmitters found to cause consistent blood-brain barrier opening. The earlier literature was unclear, but studies of pial vessels and cultured endothelium reveal increased permeability mediated by H2 receptors and elevation of [Ca2+]i and an H1 receptor-mediated reduction in permeability coupled to an elevation of cAMP. 9. Brain endothelial cells express nucleotide receptors for ATP, UTP, and ADP, with activation causing increased blood-brain barrier permeability. The effects are mediated predominantly via a P2U (P2Y2) G-protein-coupled receptor causing an elevation of [Ca2+]i; a P2Y1 receptor acting via inhibition of adenyl cyclase has been reported in some in vitro preparations. 10. Arachidonic acid is elevated in some neural pathologies and causes gross opening of the blood-brain barrier to large molecules including proteins. There is evidence that arachidonic acid acts via generation of free radicals in the course of its metabolism by cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. 11. The mechanisms described reveal a range of interrelated pathways by which influences from the brain side or the blood side can modulate blood-brain barrier permeability. Knowledge of the mechanisms is already being exploited for deliberate opening of the blood-brain barrier for drug delivery to the brain, and the pathways capable of reducing permeability hold promise for therapeutic treatment of inflammation and cerebral edema.
Authors
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
April/23/1993
Abstract
A Na(+)- and Cl(-)-coupled serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, <em>5HT</em>) transporter is expressed on human neuronal, platelet, placental, and pulmonary membranes. The brain <em>5HT</em> transporter appears to be a principal site of action of therapeutic antidepressants and may mediate behavioral and/or toxic effects of cocaine and amphetamines. Oligonucleotides derived from consensus transporter sequences were used to identify human placental cDNAs highly related to the rat brain <em>5HT</em> carrier. Transfection of one of these cDNAs into HeLa cells yields a high-affinity (Km = 463 nM), Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent <em>5HT</em> transport activity which can be blocked by selective <em>5HT</em> transport inhibitors, including paroxetine, fluoxetine, and imipramine, and which is antagonized by cocaine and amphetamine. Sequence analysis reveals a 630-amino acid open reading frame bearing 92% identity to the cloned rat brain <em>5HT</em> transporter, with identical predicted topological features and conserved sites for posttranslational modifications. Unlike the rodent, where a single mRNA appears to encode <em>5HT</em> transporters, multiple hybridizing RNAs are observed in human placenta and lung. Somatic cell hybrid and in situ hybridization studies are consistent, however, with a single gene encoding the human <em>5HT</em> transporter, localized to chromosome 17q11.1-17q12.
Publication
Journal: Neuropsychopharmacology
June/30/1997
Abstract
The affinities of olanzapine, clozapine, haloperidol, and four potential antipsychotics were compared on binding to the neuronal receptors of a number of neurotransmitters. In both rat tissues and cell lines transfected with human receptors olanzapine had high affinity for dopamine D1, D2, D4, serotonin (<em>5HT</em>)2A, <em>5HT</em>2C, <em>5HT</em>3, alpha 1-adrenergic, histamine H1, and five muscarinic receptor subtypes. Olanzapine had lower affinity for alpha 2-adrenergic receptors and relatively low affinity for <em>5HT</em>1 subtypes, GABAA, beta-adrenergic receptors, and benzodiazepine binding sites. The receptor binding affinities for olanzapine was quite similar in tissues from rat and human brain. The binding profile of olanzapine was comparable to the atypical antipsychotic clozapine, while the binding profiles for haloperidol, resperidone, remoxipride, Org 5222, and seroquel were substantially different from that of clozapine. The receptor binding profile of olanzapine is consistent with the antidopaminergic, antiserotonergic, and antimuscarinic activity observed in animal models and predicts atypical antipsychotic activity in man.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
August/19/2010
Abstract
Various types of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been established by different methods, and each type exhibits different biological properties. Before iPS cell-based clinical applications can be initiated, detailed evaluations of the cells, including their differentiation potentials and tumorigenic activities in different contexts, should be investigated to establish their safety and effectiveness for cell transplantation therapies. Here we show the directed neural differentiation of murine iPS cells and examine their therapeutic potential in a mouse spinal cord injury (SCI) model. "Safe" iPS-derived neurospheres, which had been pre-evaluated as nontumorigenic by their transplantation into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mouse brain, produced electrophysiologically functional neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in vitro. Furthermore, when the safe iPS-derived neurospheres were transplanted into the spinal cord 9 d after contusive injury, they differentiated into all three neural lineages without forming teratomas or other tumors. They also participated in remyelination and induced the axonal regrowth of host <em>5HT</em>(+) serotonergic fibers, promoting locomotor function recovery. However, the transplantation of iPS-derived neurospheres pre-evaluated as "unsafe" showed robust teratoma formation and sudden locomotor functional loss after functional recovery in the SCI model. These findings suggest that pre-evaluated safe iPS clone-derived neural stem/progenitor cells may be a promising cell source for transplantation therapy for SCI.
Publication
Journal: Nature
December/11/1991
Abstract
Selective antagonism of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, <em>5HT</em>) and noradrenaline transport by antidepressants is a key element in the 'amine' hypothesis of affective disorders. Uptake and/or transport sites of <em>5HT</em> have been reported to be reduced in platelets of patients suffering from depression and in post-mortem brain samples of depressed patients and suicide victims. To date there has been little molecular information available on the structure and regulation of <em>5HT</em> transporters. Using the polymerase chain reaction with degenerate oligonucleotides derived from two highly conserved regions of the transporters for noradrenaline and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), we have identified a large family of related gene products expressed in rodent brain. One of these products hybridizes to a single 3.7-kilobase RNA restricted to rat midbrain and brainstem, where it is highly enriched within the serotonergic raphe complex. Transfection with a single 2.3-kilobase brainstem complementary DNA clone is sufficient to confer expression of a Na(+)-dependent <em>5HT</em> transporter upon nonneural cells, with transport selectively and potently antagonized by <em>5HT</em> uptake-specific antidepressants, including paroxetine, citalopram and fluoxetine.
Publication
Journal: Psychopharmacology
November/19/1985
Abstract
Normal male human subjects ingested amino acid mixtures which were tryptophan-free, balanced or contained excess tryptophan. The tryptophan-free mixture causes a marked depletion of plasma tryptophan by 5 h. At this time the subjects in the tryptophan-free group had significantly elevated scores on the depression scale of the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist. The tryptophan-free group also performed worse than the other two groups in a proofreading task carried out while listening to a tape with themes of hopelessness and helplessness (dysphoric distractor). Cognitive theories of depression predict greater distractability of depressed individuals by dysphoric themes. Thus, both measures indicate a rapid mood lowering effect of tryptophan depletion in normal males. This effect is probably mediated by a lowering of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine. Although the mood-lowering effect was not as great as that seen in depressed patients, our results suggest that low brain <em>5HT</em> might be one factor precipitating depression in some patients.
Publication
Journal: Psychiatry Research
November/24/1980
Abstract
Cerebrospinal fluid of the major central metabolites of serotonin (<em>5HT</em>), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA)--5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy=phenylglycol (MHPG), and homovanillic acid (HVA), respectively--were studied in a group of 26 age-similar military men with no history of major psychiatric illness, but with various personality disorders and difficulties adjusting to military life. Independently scored history of aggressive behavior showed a significant negative correlation with 5HIAA (r = -0.78) and a significant positive correlation with MHPG (r = 0.64).
Publication
Journal: Nature
August/2/1989
Abstract
The neurohormone 5-hydroxytryptamine (<em>5HT</em> or serotonin) exerts its effects by binding to several distinct receptors. One of these is the M-receptor of Gaddum and Picarelli, now called the 5-HT3 receptor, through which 5-HT acts to excite enteric neurons. Ligand-binding and functional studies have shown that the 5-HT3 receptor is widely distributed in peripheral and central nervous tissue and evidence suggests that the receptor might incorporate an ion channel permeable to cations. We now report the first recordings of currents through single ion channels activated by 5-HT3 receptors, in excised (outside-out) membrane patches from neurons of the guinea pig submucous plexus. Whereas application of acetylcholine activated predominantly a 40-pS channel, 5-HT caused unitary currents apparently through two channels of conductances of 15 and 9 pS, which were reversibly blocked by antagonists of the 5-HT3 receptor. Receptors for amine neurotransmitters, including 5-HT1 and 5-HT2, have previously been thought to transduce their effects through GTP-binding proteins: the direct demonstration that 5-HT3 receptors are ligand-gated ion channels implies a role for 5-HT, and perhaps other amines, as a 'fast' synaptic transmitter.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Biological Chemistry
January/8/2003
Abstract
The major isoform of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor is thought to be composed of 2alpha(1), 2beta(2), and 1gamma(2) subunit(s), which surround the ion pore. Definite evidence for the subunit arrangement is lacking. We show here that GABA(A) receptor subunits can be concatenated to a trimer that can be functionally expressed upon combination with a dimer. Many combinations did not result in the functional expression. In contrast, four different combinations of triple subunits with dual subunit constructs, all resulting in the identical pentameric receptor gamma(2)beta(2)alpha(1)beta(2)alpha(1), could be successfully expressed in Xenopus oocytes. We characterized the functional properties of these receptors in respect to agonist, competitive antagonist, and diazepam sensitivity. All properties were similar to those of wild type alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2) GABA(A) receptors. Thus, together with information on the crystal structure of the homologous acetylcholine-binding protein (Brejc, K., van Dijk, W. J., Klaassen, R. V., Schuurmans, M., van Der Oost, J., Smit, A. B., and Sixma, T. K., (2001) Nature 411, 269-276, we provide evidence for an arrangement gamma(2)beta(2)alpha(1)beta(2)alpha(1), counterclockwise when viewed from the synaptic cleft. Forced subunit assembly will also allow receptors containing different subunit isoforms or mutant subunits to be expressed, each in a desired position. The methods established here should be applicable to the entire ion channel family comprising nicotinic acetylcholine, glycine, and <em>5HT</em>(3) receptors.
Publication
Journal: Neuropsychopharmacology
September/8/2004
Abstract
The goal of this study was to determine if serotonergic activity, which is impaired in depression, regulates the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) in mouse brain in vivo. GSK3beta is inhibited by phosphorylation on serine-9 and is a target of the mood stabilizer lithium. Following administration to mice of d-fenfluramine to stimulate serotonin (<em>5HT</em>) release and reduce its reuptake, and clorgyline to inhibit <em>5HT</em> catabolism, levels of phospho-Ser9-GSK3beta were 300-400% of control levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. Treatment with monoamine reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and imipramine also increased the level of phospho-Ser9-GSK3beta. Using receptor selective agonists and antagonists, <em>5HT</em>1A receptors were found to mediate increases, and <em>5HT</em>2 receptors decreases, in phospho-Ser9-GSK3beta levels. This indicates that serotonergic regulation of the phosphorylation of GSK3beta is achieved by a balance between the opposing actions of these <em>5HT</em> receptor subtypes. These findings demonstrate for the first time that serotonergic activity regulates the phosphorylation of GSK3beta and show that this regulation occurs in mammalian brain in vivo. These results raise the possibility that impaired inhibitory control of GSK3beta may occur in conditions where serotonergic activity is dysregulated, such as in mood disorders.
Publication
Journal: Neuropsychopharmacology
January/11/2005
Abstract
The endocannabinoids are a family of bioactive lipids that activate CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the brain and exert intense emotional and cognitive effects. Here, we have examined the role of endocannabinoid signaling in psychotic states by measuring levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of acute paranoid-type schizophrenic patients. We found that CSF anandamide levels are eight-fold higher in antipsychotic-naive first-episode paranoid schizophrenics (n = 47) than healthy controls (n = 84), dementia patients (n = 13) or affective disorder patients (n = 22). Such an alteration is absent in schizophrenics treated with 'typical' antipsychotics (n = 37), which antagonize dopamine D2-like receptors, but not in those treated with 'atypical' antipsychotics (n = 34), which preferentially antagonize <em>5HT</em>(2A) receptors. Furthermore, we found that, in nonmedicated acute schizophrenics, CSF anandamide is negatively correlated with psychotic symptoms (rS = -0.452, P = 0.001). The results suggest that anandamide elevation in acute paranoid schizophrenia may reflect a compensatory adaptation to the disease state.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Comparative Neurology
July/26/2006
Abstract
The presence of one or more calcium-dependent ecto-ATPases (enzymes that hydrolyze extracellular 5'-triphosphates) in mammalian taste buds was first shown histochemically. Recent studies have established that dominant ecto-ATPases consist of enzymes now called nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases). Massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) from murine taste epithelium provided molecular evidence suggesting that NTPDase2 is the most likely member present in mouse taste papillae. Immunocytochemical and enzyme histochemical staining verified the presence of NTPDase2 associated with plasma membranes in a large number of cells within all mouse taste buds. To determine which of the three taste cell types expresses this enzyme, double-label assays were performed with antisera directed against the glial glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST), the transduction pathway proteins phospholipase Cbeta2 (PLCbeta2) or the G-protein subunit alpha-gustducin, and serotonin (<em>5HT</em>) as markers of type I, II, and III taste cells, respectively. Analysis of the double-labeled sections indicates that NTPDase2 immunoreactivity is found on cell processes that often envelop other taste cells, reminiscent of type I cells. In agreement with this observation, NTPDase2 was located to the same membrane as GLAST, indicating that this enzyme is present in type I cells. The presence of ecto-ATPase in taste buds likely reflects the importance of ATP as an intercellular signaling molecule in this system.
Publication
Journal: Neuropsychopharmacology
February/14/2000
Abstract
The present study examined the regional localization of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)- and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-immunoreactive (IR) fibers within the rat dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) using immunohistochemistry. Additionally, the effects of CRF, administered intracerebroventricularly (0.1-3.0 micrograms) or intraraphe (0.3-30 ng), on discharge rates of putative 5-HT DRN neurons were quantified using in vivo single unit recording in halothane-anesthetized rats. CRF-IR fibers were present at all rostrocaudal levels of the DRN and exhibited a topographical distribution. CRF produced predominantly inhibitory effects on DRN discharge at lower doses and these effects diminished or became excitatory at higher doses. Inhibition of DRN discharge by CRF was attenuated by the nonselective CRF antagonist, DPheCRF12-41 and the CRF-R1-selective antagonist, antalarmin, implicating the CRF-R1 receptor subtype in these electrophysiological effects. The present findings provide anatomical and physiological evidence for an impact of CRF on the DRN-<em>5HT</em> system.
Publication
Journal: Environmental Science & Technology
January/16/2007
Abstract
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used to flame-retard products common in homes and the workplace, and subsequently, they have become widely dispersed in the environment. Detailed compositional knowledge of these complex PBDE mixtures is crucial to a fuller understanding of their toxicological potencies and environmental fate due to selective congener biomagnification, degradation, and transport. Utilizing recenttechnical enhancements and newly available commercial standards, we developed a method capable of analyzing a larger suite of mono- through deca-BDEs. We then characterized the congener composition of six common technical flame-retardant mixtures: two penta-BDE products (DE-71 and Bromkal 70-5DE) two octa-BDE products (DE-79 and Bromkal 79-8DE) and two deca-BDE products (Saytex 102E and Bromkal 82-0DE). PBDEs were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Structural conformations based on fragmentation patterns and molecular ions were established by electron-capture negative ionization (ECNI) and electron ionization (El). Sixty-four commercially available PBDE standards were chromato-graphed on two GC columns (DB-1HT and DB-<em>5HT</em>) and relative retention indexes (RRI) calculated. Thirty-nine PBDEs were identified in these products, 29 at concentrations >0.02% by weight. Of these, 12 previously unreported congeners have been confirmed as commercial mixture components. Four of these congeners were detected >0.02% w/w (BDE-144, -171, -180, and -201) and three (BDE-75, -184, and -194) at <0.02%. Five other congeners (four <0.02% by weight) were tentatively identified based on their molecular ion and ECNI fragmentation in the absence of corresponding analytical standards.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
December/12/2005
Abstract
Serotonin (<em>5HT</em>) is a critical modulator of neural circuits that support diverse behaviors and physiological processes, and multiple lines of evidence implicate abnormal serotonergic signaling in psychiatric pathogenesis. The significance of <em>5HT</em> underscores the importance of elucidating the molecular pathways involved in serotonergic system development, function, and plasticity. However, these mechanisms remain poorly defined, owing largely to the difficulty of accessing <em>5HT</em> neurons for experimental manipulation. To address this methodological deficiency, we present a transgenic route to selectively alter <em>5HT</em> neuron gene expression. This approach is based on the ability of a Pet-1 enhancer region to direct reliable <em>5HT</em> neuron-specific transgene expression in the CNS. Its versatility is illustrated with several transgenic mouse lines, each of which provides a tool for <em>5HT</em> neuron studies. Two lines allow Cre-mediated recombination at different stages of <em>5HT</em> neuron development. A third line in which <em>5HT</em> neurons are marked with yellow fluorescent protein will have numerous applications, including their electrophysiological characterization. To demonstrate this application, we have characterized active and passive membrane properties of midbrain reticular <em>5HT</em> neurons, which heretofore have not been reported to our knowledge. A fourth line in which Pet-1 loss of function is rescued by expression of a Pet-1 transgene demonstrates biologically relevant levels of transgene expression and offers a route for investigating serotonergic protein structure and function in a behaving animal. These findings establish a straightforward and reliable approach for developing an array of tools for in vivo and in vitro studies of <em>5HT</em> neurons.
Publication
Journal: Science
November/25/1991
Abstract
A complementary DNA clone for a serotonin (<em>5HT</em>) transporter has been isolated from rat basophilic leukemia cells. The complementary DNA sequence predicts a 653-amino acid protein with 12 to 13 putative transmembrane domains. The <em>5HT</em> transporter has significant homology to the gamma-aminobutyric acid, dopamine, and norepinephrine transporters. Uptake by CV-1 cells expressing the transporter complementary DNA resembles <em>5HT</em> uptake by platelets and brain synaptosomes; it is sensitive to antidepressants, amphetamine derivatives, and cocaine.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
May/21/2012
Abstract
Fifty years ago, increased whole-blood serotonin levels, or hyperserotonemia, first linked disrupted 5-HT homeostasis to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). The 5-HT transporter (SERT) gene (SLC6A4) has been associated with whole blood 5-HT levels and ASD susceptibility. Previously, we identified multiple gain-of-function SERT coding variants in children with ASD. Here we establish that transgenic mice expressing the most common of these variants, SERT Ala56, exhibit elevated, p38 MAPK-dependent transporter phosphorylation, enhanced 5-HT clearance rates and hyperserotonemia. These effects are accompanied by altered basal firing of raphe 5-HT neurons, as well as <em>5HT</em>(1A) and <em>5HT</em>(2A) receptor hypersensitivity. Strikingly, SERT Ala56 mice display alterations in social function, communication, and repetitive behavior. Our efforts provide strong support for the hypothesis that altered 5-HT homeostasis can impact risk for ASD traits and provide a model with construct and face validity that can support further analysis of ASD mechanisms and potentially novel treatments.
Publication
Journal: Annals of Neurology
March/12/2004
Abstract
We have shown that the development of cutaneous allodynia (exaggerated skin sensitivity) during migraine is detrimental to the anti-migraine action of the <em>5HT</em>(IB/ID) receptor agonists known is triptans. Because cutaneous allodynia is a manifestation of sensitization of central trigeminovascular neurons, we examined whether triptan treatment can intercept such sensitization before its initiation or after its establishment in our rat model for cutaneous allodynia induced by intracranial pain. Single-unit recordings were obtained from spinal trigeminal neurons that proved to received convergent inputs from the dura and facial skin. The effects of sumatriptan (300 microg/kg i.v.) on central sensitization induced by topical application of inflammatory soup (IS) on the dura were determined when the drug was administered either 2 h after IS (late intervention) or at the same time as IS (early intervention). Late sumatriptan intervention counteracted two aspects of central sensitization: dural receptive fields, which initially expanded by IS, shrunk back after treatment; neuronal response threshold to dural indentation, which initially decreased after IS, increased after sumatriptan. On the other hand, late sumatriptan intervention did not reverse other aspects of central sensitization: spontaneous firing rate and neuronal response magnitude to skin brushing which initially increased after IS, remained elevated after sumatriptan; response threshold to heating of the skin, which initially dropped after IS, remained low after sumatriptan. Early sumatriptan intervention effectively blocked the development of all aspects of central sensitization expected to be induced 2 h after IS application: dural receptive fields did not expand; neuronal response threshold to dural indentation and skin stimulation did not decrease; spontaneous firing rate did not increase. The early treatment results suggest that triptan action provides a powerful means of preventing the initiation of central sensitization triggered by chemical stimulation of meningeal nociceptors. The late treatment results suggest that triptan action is insufficient to counteract an already established central sensitization. Thus, triptan action appears to be exerted directly on peripheral rather than central trigeminovascular neurons.
Publication
Journal: Environmental Health Perspectives
August/16/2005
Abstract
Developmental exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) causes persistent changes in serotonergic (<em>5HT</em>) systems. We administered 1 mg/kg/day CPF to rats on postnatal days 1-4, a regimen below the threshold for systemic toxicity. When tested in adulthood, CPF-exposed animals showed abnormalities in behavioral tests that involve <em>5HT</em> mechanisms. In the elevated plus maze, males treated with CPF spent more time in the open arms, an effect seen with <em>5HT</em> deficiencies in animal models of depression. Similarly, in an anhedonia test, the CPF-exposed group showed a decreased preference for chocolate milk versus water. Developmental CPF exposure also has lasting effects on cognitive function. We replicated our earlier finding that developmental CPF exposure ablates the normal sex differences in 16-arm radial maze learning and memory: during acquisition training, control male rats typically perform more accurately than do control females, but CPF treatment eliminated this normal sex difference. Females exposed to CPF showed a reduction in working and reference memory errors down to the rate of control males. Conversely, CPF-exposed males exhibited an increase in working and reference memory errors. After radial-arm acquisition training, we assessed the role of <em>5HT</em> by challenging the animals with the <em>5HT</em>2 receptor antagonist ketanserin. Ketanserin did not affect performance in controls but elicited dose-dependent increases in working and reference memory errors in the CPF group, indicating an abnormal dependence on <em>5HT</em> systems. Our results indicate that neonatal CPF exposures, classically thought to be subtoxic, produce lasting changes in <em>5HT</em>-related behaviors that resemble animal models of depression.
Publication
Journal: Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
December/17/2009
Abstract
Zebrafish are becoming more widely used to study neurobehavioral pharmacology. We have developed a method to assess novel environment diving behavior of zebrafish as a model of stress response and anxiolyti