From the fruits and leaves of Aglaia erythrosperma (Meliaceae), 10 chemical constituents were isolated and identified, i.e. the dammarane triterpenoids cabraleadiol (1), cabraleahydroxylactone (2), ethyl eichlerianoate (3), eichlerialactone (4), aglinin A (5), cabralealactone (6), the aglaialactone 5,6-desmethylenedioxy-5-methoxy-aglalactone (7), the flavagline 4'-demethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxy-methyl rocaglate (8) and two coumarins: scoparone and scopoletin. Flavagline 8 exhibited antimalarial activity with an IC(50) value of 7.30 µg mL(-1) and was strongly cytotoxic against small cell lung cancer (NCI-H187), epidermoid carcinoma (KB) and breast cancer (BC) cell lines, with IC(50) values of 2.17, 2.10 and 0.11 µg mL(-1), respectively. Aglinin A (5) displayed moderate cytotoxicity against all the three cancer cell lines, whereas ethyl eichlerianoate (3), cabralealactone (6) and the aglaialactone 7 were exclusively cytotoxic to NCI-H187 cell line. Cabraleahydroxylactone (2) showed antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type-1 with an IC(50) value of 3.20 µg mL(-1), in comparison with the standard acyclovir (IC(50) = 1.90 µg mL(-1)). When tested for antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Ra, compounds 1-4 and 6-8 displayed minimum inhibitory concentration in the range of 25-50 µg mL(-1).