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Publication
Journal: Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]
February/19/2020
Abstract
Objective: To analyze the molecular characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes strains from ready-to eat food in China. Methods: A total of 239 Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from ready-to-eat food in 2017, all strains underwent whole-genome sequencing (WGS) , and comparisons uncovered population structure derived from lineages, clonal complex, serogroups, antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence, which were inferred in silico from the WGS data. Core genome multilocus sequence typing was used to subtype isolates. Results: All strains were categorized into three different lineages, lineage Ⅱ was the predominant types in food, and IIa was the main serogroups. CC8, CC101 and CC87 were the first three prevalent CCs among 23 detected CCs, accounting for 49.4%. Only 4.6% (11 isolates) of tested strains harbored antibiotic resistance genes, which were mostly trimethoprim genes (7 isolates, 2.9%). All strains were positive for LIPI-1, and only a part of strains harbored LIPI-3 and LIPI-4, accounting for 13.8% (33 isolates) and 14.2% (34 isolates), respectively. ST619 carried both LIPI-3 and LIPI-4. 51.5% (123 isolates) of strains carried SSI-1, and all CC121 strains harbored SSI-2. Different lineages, serogroups and CCs can be separated obviously through cgMLST analysis, and 24 sublineages were highly concordant with CCs. Conclusion: Ⅱa was the main serogroups in ready-to-eat food isolates in China; CC8, CC101 and CC87 were the prevalent CCs, and CC87 isolates was hypervirulent isolates, cgMLST method can be adopted for prospective foodborne disease surveillance and outbreaks detection.
Authors
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Publication
Journal: Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]
February/19/2020
Abstract
Objective: To analyze the association between the self-rated health (SRH) status and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among the middle-aged and eldly Chinese. Methods: Data were obtained from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), which enrolled 21 133 participants by using the probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling from 150 counties/districts of 28 provinces in China from 2011 to 2012. A total of 11 701 participants were included in the study. Basic information and SRH were obtained in the baseline survey via questionnaires. Information of CVD was self-reported during the follow-up. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to analyze the association between the baseline SRH and risk of CVD. Subgroup analyses were performed by age, sex and body mass index (BMI), and their interactions with SRH for risk of CVD were examined by using the likelihood ratio test. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to test the robustness of the association. Results: Participants were (57.9±9.7) years old, and men accounted for 48.1% (5 626). SRH was reported as the excellent, very good, good, fair and poor among 4.2% (n=487), 13.5% (n=1 583), 33.6% (n=3 932), 35.4% (n=4 147) and 13.3% (n=1 552), respectively. During 42 104 person-years of followed up, 590 cases of CVD were identified. Cox regression analyses showed that compared with the excellent/very good SRH, the HR (95%CI) of CVD risk for the good, fair and poor SRH was 1.36 (1.02-1.80), 1.66 (1.26-2.19) and 1.89 (1.38-2.59), respectively. Subgroup analyses showed that compared with the excellent/very good SRH, HR (95%CI) of CVD risk for poor SRH in the group of 45-59 years old, equal to or over 75 years old, men, women and normal BMI were 2.00 (1.32-3.04), 3.87 (1.04-14.46), 1.76 (1.07-2.91), 1.92 (1.27-2.91) and 2.30 (1.42-3.72), respectively. There were no interactions between age, sex, BMI and SRH (P>0.05). Conclusion: SRH is associated with risk of CVD among middle-aged and elderly Chinese. The CVD risk for good, fair and poor SRH is higher than that for excellent/very good SRH.
Publication
Journal: Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]
February/19/2020
Abstract
Objective: To develop the environment scale of unintentional injury in the home for children aged 0-6 years living in urban area of China, and test its validity and reliability. Methods: The content of the environment scale was established through the literature review, expert consultation and pilot study. A total of 1 104 children aged 0-6 years in urban area of Changsha were enrolled in this study by using a multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method. The questionnaire was used to collect the basic information of children, the incidence of unintentional injury and the status of home environment. The reliability of the scale was tested by using Cronbach's α coefficient and split-half reliability coefficient. The content validity and construct validity were tested by using Pearson correlation analysis and factor analysis. All children were divided into two groups according to the incidence of unintentional injury in the home and the discrimination validity of the scale was tested by using t-test. Results: The scale had 54 items in 6 dimensions. The number of eligible questionnaires was 1 074, including 554 (51.6%) from boys and 519 (48.3%) from children under 3 years old. The incidence rate of unintentional injury and in-home injury was 18.34% (197 children) and 10.71% (115 children). The internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α) coefficient for the scale was 0.87 and the split-efficacy reliability coefficient was 0.82, both meeting the standard of reliability above 0.70. The Pearson correlation coefficient between each dimension and the whole scale ranged from 0.53 to 0.84 (all P values <0.001). The common factor cumulative variance contribution rate of the scale was 58.34%. There were 54 items with factor loadings greater than 0.30. The root mean square error of approximation, comparative fit index and goodness-of-fit index were 0.07, 0.61 and 0.71, respectively. The score of scale in children with injury was significantly higher than that in children without injury (P=0.022). Conclusion: The validity and reliability of the environment scale for unintentional injury in the home for children aged 0-6 years old in the urban area of China are good.
Publication
Journal: Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]
February/19/2020
Abstract
Objective: To analyze the trends of overweight and obesity of children and adolescents in 9 provinces of China from 1991 to 2015. Methods: A total of 14 888 children and adolescents aged 6-17 years with complete data were selected from the China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1991 to 2015. The definitions of overweight and obesity were defined using the international body mass index (BMI) cut-offs for child overweight and obesity established by the International Obesity Task Force in 2000 (hereinafter referred to as 'IOTF Standard'), the growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents established by the World Health Organization in 2007 (hereinafter referred to as 'WHO Standard'), the BMI cut-offs for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese children established by Li Hui et al. in 2009 (hereinafter referred to as 'Expert Standard'), and the screening thresholds for overweight and obesity in Chinese school-age children and adolescents released by the National Health and Family Planning Commission in 2018 (hereinafter referred to as 'Industry Standard'). Multivariable linear regression model was used to examine the trends in BMI values from 1991 to 2015, and multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity from 1991 to 2015. Results: After adjusting for the age, sex and region, BMI values increased from 17.26 kg/m(2) in 1991 to 18.72 kg/m(2) in 2015 (P value for trend <0.001). The prevalence of overweight defined by the IOTF Standard, WHO Standard, Expert Standard, and Industry Standard increased from 4.06%, 5.37%, 5.16%, and 4.27% in 1991 to 13.58%, 16.23%, 13.30%, and 11.70% in 2015, respectively (all P values for trend <0.001), and the prevalence of obesity increased from 1.02%, 1.86%, 2.24%, and 2.41% in 1991 to 7.45%, 10.75%, 12.08%, and 12.74% in 2015, respectively (all P values for trend <0.001). Conclusion: The BMI values and prevalence of overweight and obesity increased significantly in Chinese children and adolescents from nine provinces from1991 to 2015.
Publication
Journal: Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]
February/19/2020
Abstract
Objective: To explore the interaction of health literacy and second-hand smoke exposure on psychopathological symptoms of middle school students. Methods: From November 2015 to January 2016, 22 628 middle school students from Shenyang of Liaoning Province, Bengbu of Anhui Province, Xinxiang of Henan Province, Ulanqab of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Chongqing Municipality, and Yangjiang of Guangdong Province were enrolled by using the multi-stage cluster convenience sampling method. A questionnaire was used to collect the data including demographic information, health literacy, second-hand smoke exposure, and psychopathological symptoms. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the interaction of health literacy and second-hand smoke exposure on psychopathological symptoms of middle school students. Results: The age of students was (15.36±1.79) years old, of which 10 990 were boys, accounting for 48.6% of total students. The detection rate of psychopathological symptoms was 29.1% (6 581/22 628). The detection rate of psychopathological symptoms in those who were exposed to second-hand smoke was 38.1% (2 401/6 304), which was higher than that in the non-second-hand smoke exposure group [25.6% (4 180/16 324)] (P<0.001). The OR (95%CI) of the interaction between medium and low levels of overall health literacy, low level of interpersonal dimension of health literacy and second-hand smoke exposure was 1.19 (1.15-1.24), 2.00 (1.92-2.10) and 1.59 (1.52-1.66), respectively. Conclusion: There was a positive interaction between middle and low levels of overall health literacy, low level of interpersonal dimension of health literacy and second-hand smoke exposure on psychopathological symptoms of middle school students.
Publication
Journal: Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]
February/19/2020
Abstract
Objective: To analyze the long-term trend of mortality and years of life lost (YLL) of gastric cancer in Tianjin from 1999 to 2015. Methods: From January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2015, the data of gastric cancer deaths was collected from the Tianjin death surveillance system. The inclusion criteria of death due to gastric cancer were coded by using 151 in the 9(th) edition of the international classification of diseases (ICD) (1999-2002) and C16 in the 10(th) edition of ICD (2003-2015). The crude and age-standardized mortality rate (ASR) of gastric cancer was calculated according to Segi's world standard population. YLL was calculated according to the standard method of the disease burden of WHO. The Joinpoint regression was used to calculate the average annual percentage change (AAPC) to indicate the trend of mortality and YLL of gastric cancer. Results: From 1999 to 2015, there were 20 000 deaths of gastric cancer in Tianjin. The proportion of gastric cancer death in the population aged 0-44 years old, 45-64 years old, and 65 years old and above was 4.9%, 30.4%, and 64.8%, respectively. The proportion of males and urban was 67.1% and 67.5%, respectively. From 1999 to 2015, the crude mortality rate was from 12.10/100 000 to 12.58/100 000. The ASR was from 11.04/100 000 to 7.24/100 000. The average annual YLL number was 29 625.83 person-years and the rate was 3.09 person-years per thousand people. From 1999 to 2015, the crude mortality rate and the PYLL of gastric cancer in Tianjin were stable (the AAPC was 0.34% and -0.24%, all P values >0.05). The ASR showed a downward trend (AAPC=-2.58%, P<0.001). Conclusion: From 1999 to 2015, the ASR of gastric cancer in Tianjin showed a downward trend, and the YLL of gastric cancer was stable.
Publication
Journal: Zhonghua nei ke za zhi
February/19/2020
Abstract
A 47-year-old female patient presented nausea and vomiting for half a year and elevated serum creatinine for 3 days. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) complicated with anemiawas confirmed after admission. Secondary factors, such as autoimmune disease, drugs, poison, monoclonal gammopathy, were excluded. Renal biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis. The patient was administrated with daily prednisone 50 mg, sodium bicarbonate 4 g, 3 times per day, erythropoietin 3 000 U, 2 times per week, combined with potassium, calcium, and calcitriol tablets. Serum creatinine reduced to 90 μmol/L. However nausea and vomiting deteriorated with lactic acidosis. Bone marrow biopsy indicated the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, therefore the patient was treated with chemotherapy. Although metabolic acidosis improved gradually after chemotherapy, severe pneumocystis carinii pneumonia developed two weeks later. The patient refused further treatment and was discharged.
Authors
Publication
Journal: Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]
February/19/2020
Abstract
Flood disaster is one of the most serious natural disasters in the world, and it could pose an inestimable impact on the affected people. Based on existing laws, regulations, and emergency manuals in China, extensive literature review, epidemiological and related protection evidence, and expert consultation, this study analyzed different health risk factors of flood disaster and proposed a multi-stage, multi-population, and multi-phase comprehensive protection measures for the public in the perspective of pre-event prevention, in-event intervention and post-event rescue strategy, which could provide a scientific basis for improving the level of public health protection against the flood disaster and corresponding health outcomes.
Authors
Publication
Journal: Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]
February/19/2020
Abstract
This article summarized the use of guanidine disinfectants in China and the use of guanidine cationic disinfectants, polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG), in South Korea, which had caused severe lung damage events such as pulmonary fibrosis. The authors reviewed the studies that Chinese scientists employed ultrasonic atomization technology to simulate the actual scenario of human exposure to PHMG and proved the findings that PHMG could cause pulmonary fibrosis. These results could highlight the necessity of full attention to lung damage caused by guanidine disinfectants and its mechanism, so as to provide the important scientific basis for the protection of public health safety and the formulation of corresponding policies.
Authors
Publication
Journal: Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
February/19/2020
Abstract
Chronic inflammation during pregnancy (e.g., preeclampsia, diabetes) is linked to increased risk for offspring neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, mediators of such exposures that could be targeted with maternal intervention are unclear, as few chronic gestational inflammation models have been tested. One potential mediator is interleukin-17 (IL-17), a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders and gestational disease. To test chronic maternal IL-17 impacts on offspring, C57BL/6J dams were administered IL-17A continuously throughout pregnancy. Offspring were assessed for body weight; cortical volume, gene expression, and cellular composition; and adult behavior. IL-17A-condition offspring exhibited decreased somatic and cortical size at embryonic day 18 (E18) and as adults. mRNA sequencing of E18 cortex revealed 320 differentially expressed genes in males, but none in females. These were significantly enriched for ASD (Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative), synaptic, and cell cycle genes. By adulthood, neocortical glial cell density and gene expression were decreased, while GABAergic synaptic gene expression was increased in males. Furthermore, IL-17A-condition male but not female offspring exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior. Social approach deficits in males were negatively correlated with neocortical GABAergic synaptic gene expression. Chronic gestational IL-17A was sufficient to cause ASD-like phenotypes early and persistently in male offspring. This echoes the male bias, altered cortical development, and behavioral findings in ASD, suggesting that chronic maternal IL-17 contributes to offspring ASD pathogenesis. Furthermore, the trajectory from embryonically dysregulated synaptic and cell cycle genes to disrupted adult glia, inhibitory synapses, and behavior suggests a mechanism for chronic maternal IL-17 effects on offspring.
Publication
Journal: Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
February/19/2020
Abstract
The α2a-adrenergic receptor (α2a-AR) agonist guanfacine has been investigated as a potential treatment for substance use disorders. While decreasing stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking in animal models and stress-induced craving in human studies, guanfacine has not been reported to decrease relapse rates. Although guanfacine engages α2a-AR autoreceptors, it also activates excitatory Gi-coupled heteroreceptors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a key brain region in driving stress-induced relapse. Thus, BNST α2a-AR heteroreceptor signaling might decrease the beneficial efficacy of guanfacine. We aimed to determine the role of α2a-AR heteroreceptors and BNST Gi-GPCR signaling in stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) and the effects of low dose guanfacine on BNST activity and stress-induced reinstatement. We used a genetic deletion strategy and the cocaine CPP procedure to first define the contributions of α2a-AR heteroreceptors to stress-induced reinstatement. Next, we mimicked BNST Gi-coupled α2a-AR heteroreceptor signaling using a Gi-coupled designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug (Gi-DREADD) approach. Finally, we evaluated the effects of low-dose guanfacine on BNST cFOS immunoreactivity and stress-induced reinstatement. We show that α2a-AR heteroreceptor deletion disrupts stress-induced reinstatement and that BNST Gi-DREADD activation is sufficient to induce reinstatement. Importantly, we found that low-dose guanfacine does not increase BNST activity, but prevents stress-induced reinstatement. Our findings demonstrate a role for α2a-AR heteroreceptors and BNST Gi-GPCR signaling in stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP and provide insight into the impact of dose on the efficacy of guanfacine as a treatment for stress-induced relapse of cocaine use.
Publication
Journal: Journal of food protection
February/19/2020
Abstract
Foodborne diseases continue to represent an important threat to public health in many parts of the world and are particularly widespread in developing countries. They are essentially acquired through an oro-fecal route via the consumption of uncooked fruits and vegetables.This study evaluated the parasitological contamination of vegetables for sale to humans in Tunisian retail markets. A total of 240 samples of fresh vegetables were examined for helminth eggs and protozoan cysts and oocyts (oo/cysts) contamination. The parasitic elements (helminth eggs and protozoan oo/cysts) were concentrated by sucrose flotation and identified by microscopic examination. The molecular identification of Echinococcus granulosus eggs was carried out with PCR approach. Helminth and protozoan oo/cysts eggs were found in 12.5% of the unwashed vegetables and the most common parasites observed in vegetables were Coccidian oocysts (4.1%), Toxocara spp. (2.5%), hookworm (2.1%), and Taenia spp. (1.25%) eggs followed by Pseudolimax butschlii (1.6%) and Entamoeba coli (1.6%) protozoan cysts. Furthermore, parasite contamination differed significantly from one city to another. Taeniid eggs were identified by PCR as E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) (genotype G1). To our knowledge, this study highlights for the first time in Tunisia that fresh vegetables for sale in markets are contaminated with helminths and protozoan cysts which are potentially pathogenic for humans.The control of these pathogens is in part a question of sanitary education especially for retail vendors, and improvement in hygiene measures throughout the food production chain, from the field to the consumer.
Publication
Journal: Neuroepidemiology
February/19/2020
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is widely spread in South Asian (ASEAN) and Indian sub-continent. The increasing healthcare costs of DM can be prevented in the developing world by improved public healthcare interventions. Modifiable risk factors of DM like sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and stressful conditions are associated with its progression; however, the epidemiological data collected by Public Institutions are limited.A review of published literature describing geographic distribution of DM and associated dementia in South Asian region, particularly India, was conducted with the purpose of assessing the feasibility and challenges associated with the Yoga-based risk reduction. PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for DM and dementia-related articles by using a combination of keywords: Diabetes, Diabetes related Dementia Southeast Asia, Pre-diabetes, Yoga, lifestyle modification, Dementia and Exercise. The epidemiological data generated from these diseases have not prompted to any major public health policies. Yoga can be a cost-effective intervention for the prevention of Type 2 DM (T2DM) and its associated cognitive decline when detected early. If nationwide intervention of Yoga is brought about by the state, its integration in health care will become more meaningful and acceptable. Key Message: Studies suggest that Yoga and change in lifestyle can modify the health risks associated with T2DM and associated dementia if it is mainstreamed with the public health initiative of Ayushman Bharat scheme.
Publication
Journal: Psychotherapy and psychosomatics
February/19/2020
Abstract
Guideline-recommended therapies are moderately successful in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anorexia nervosa (AN), leaving room for improvement. Cognitive inflexibility, a common trait in both disorders, is likely to prevent patients from engaging in treatment and from fully benefiting from existing therapies. Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is a practical augmentation intervention aimed at ameliorating this impairing cognitive style prior to disorder-specific therapy.To compare the effectiveness of CRT and a control treatment that was not aimed at enhancing flexibility, named specialized attention therapy (SAT), as add-ons to treatment as usual (TAU).In a randomized controlled multicenter clinical trial, 71 adult patients with OCD and 61 with AN were randomized to ten twice-weekly sessions with either CRT or SAT, followed by TAU. Patients were evaluated at baseline, post-CRT/SAT, and after 6 and 12 months, with outcomes being quantified using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for OCD and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire for AN.Across study groups, most importantly CRT+TAU was not superior to control treatment (SAT)+TAU in reducing OCD and AN pathology. Contrary to expectations, SAT+TAU may have been more effective than CRT+TAU in patients being treated for OCD.CRT did not enhance the effect of TAU for OCD and AN more than SAT. Unexpectedly, SAT, the control condition, may have had an augmentation effect on TAU in OCD patients. Although this latter finding may have been due to chance, the effect of SAT delivered as a pretreatment add-on intervention for adults with OCD and AN merits future efforts at replication.
Publication
Journal: PloS one
February/19/2020
Abstract
The immune system of echinoderm sea urchins is characterised by a high degree of complexity that is not completely understood. The Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus coelomocytes mediate immune responses through phagocytosis, encapsulation of non-self particles, and production of diffusible factors including antimicrobial molecules. Details of these processes, and molecular pathways driving these mechanisms, are still to be fully elucidated.In the present study we treated the sea urchin P. lividus with the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and collected coelomocytes at different time-points (1, 3, 6 and 24 hours). We have shown, using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry, how LPS is able to modulate the coelomocyte proteome and to effect cellular pathways, such as endocytosis and phagocytosis, as soon as the immunomodulating agent is injected. The present study has also shown that treatment can modulate various cellular processes such as cytoskeleton reorganisation, and stress and energetic homeostasis.Our data demonstrates, through mass spectrometry and the following functional annotation bioinformatics analysis, how the bacterial wall constituent is sufficient to set off an immune response inducing cytoskeleton reorganisation, the appearance of clusters of heat shock proteins (Hsp) and histone proteins and the activation of the endocytic and phagocytic pathways. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD008439.
Publication
Journal: Kidney & blood pressure research
February/19/2020
Abstract
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is the leading cause of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, which may follow an unfavorable disease course. Despite therapeutic advances, a number of patients with AAV will eventually develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Renal transplantation (RTx) is associated with a survival benefit and improves quality of life in patients with ESRD.In recent years, RTx has been increasingly used also in patients with vasculitis. The posttransplant patient- and graft-survival rates in AAV were at least comparable to other diagnoses in most studies. Prior to transplantation, patients should be in stable remission for 12 months. Persistent ANCA positivity does not exclude patients from the waiting list. Even though the recurrence risk is generally low with modern posttransplant immunosuppression, including mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus, patients with AAV, particularly those with positive antiproteinase-3 ANCA who may have increased risk of relapse or recurrence of the disease, require constant surveillance. Similar to treatment of relapsing disease in the nontransplant setting, rituximab may become treatment of choice for posttransplant recurrences. Key Messages: RTx is the preferred renal replacement therapy of choice for AAV patients with ESRD. It is recommended that patients should be in remission for about 12 months prior to proceeding with RTx. ANCA positivity alone is not a contraindication for transplantation. The risk of relapse posttransplantation is minimal with currently used posttransplant immunosuppressive regimen.
Publication
Journal: RoFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Rontgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
February/19/2020
Publication
Journal: Pediatric research
February/19/2020
Publication
Journal: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai zasshi
February/19/2020
Abstract
Specific binding ratio (SBR) is mainly used as a quantitative index of dopamine transporter scintigraphy, although it was reported that standardized uptake value (SUV) is useful for clinical diagnosis in recent years. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether xSPECT is useful for SUV in dopamine transporter scintigraphy. xSPECT is a recently developed, high-resolution image reconstruction technique that transforms single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to a computed tomography (CT) coordinate system. Furthermore, low-penetration high-resolution (LPHR), which there has been no previous physical evaluation report was also evaluated. The radioactive concentration of the image with xSPECT is automatically calculated by the periodic sensitivity calibration and one volume sensitivity calibration. In the case of images with conventional reconstruction methods as filtered back projection (FBP) and ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM), the calibration factor related to the photon count and radioactive concentration was calculated from measuring a cylinder phantom filled with Iodine-123. Radioactive concentrations of the SUV factor were measured by SPECT data acquisition with the striatal phantom in various conditions. Radioactive concentrations with conventional reconstruction methods had a lower value (for example, with FBP it was 7.53 kBq/ml, with OSEM it was 7.22 kBq/ml) compared to the actual measurement value, although that with xSPECT (12.45 kBq/ml) got close to the actual measurement value (14.68 kBq/ml). LPHR showed an approximation to low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) in terms of spatial resolution and scatter fraction estimated from energy windows. The quantitative accuracy of radioactive concentration was the highest under xSPECT.
Publication
Journal: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai zasshi
February/19/2020
Abstract
The aims of this study were to elucidate signal pattern of cerebral aneurysm clip in brain magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) using non-contrast enhanced ultra-short echo time (UTE) sequence and to explore effective utilization of this novel technique for patients, who underwent cerebral aneurysm clipping. The clip was embedded in homemade phantom and scanned using UTE sequence. We investigated characteristic features of the artifacts derived from the clip. Besides, we compared the volume of signal loss between conventional time-of-flight (TOF) and UTE-MRA in 50 patients with the cerebral aneurysm clip. In phantom study, the clip was delineated as signal void area fully surrounded by high signal on original images. On reconstructed short-axial views for the clip, four-leaf clover pattern of artifact was observed when clip was arranged orthogonal to the static magnetic field. On the other hand, this artifact disappeared when the clip was arranged in parallel with the static magnetic field. The volume of signal loss in clinical cases was significantly reduced in UTE-MRA (P < 0.05): 1.30, 0.52-2.77 cm3 for TOF; 0.84, 0.28-1.74 cm3 for UTE (median, range). The scan time for UTE-MRA was 2 minutes and 52 seconds. To understand the characteristic feature of the artifacts from the clip could contribute to define vascular structure in image interpretation. Adding UTE-MRA to routine protocol is useful approach for follow-up imaging after cerebral aneurysm clipping with clinically acceptable prolongation of the scan time.
Publication
Journal: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai zasshi
February/19/2020
Abstract
A virtual monochromatic image (VMI) is acquired from two different types of polychromatic energy X-rays, not a monochromatic X-ray. The effective energy of monochromatic X-ray does not vary in passing through the patient's body. On the other hand, beam hardening effects are seen in images because of the change of polychromatic X-ray energy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the beam hardening improvement effect of VMI using a phantom with a bone mimicking ring.We used a water equivalent electron density phantom with a hole in the center for inserting various measurement materials (i.e. fat, two types of bone with differing densities, contrast medium, blood, and water). Then, the CT numbers of each measurement materials were obtained from single energy CT (SECT) images and VMIs, respectively. Also, an additional bone-mimetic ring was used to obtain the CT numbers for evaluation of beam hardening effect. The CT number change rates were calculated from the obtained CT numbers with and without beam hardening effect.The rate of CT number, change of VMI was significantly lower than that of SECT for all measured materials.In this study, VMI minimized changes in CT numbers due to the beam hardening effect and showed a higher beam hardening reduction effect.
Publication
Journal: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai zasshi
February/19/2020
Abstract
X-ray film or computed radiography (CR) system has been employed in clinical setting, and these devices are gradually replaced by portable flat-panel detector (FPD) systems. They may be employed to measure the beam width instead of the traditional CR system. In this study, we estimated the accuracy of beam width measured by the portable FPD system.A CR cassette and FPD were placed at the isocenter, and the pixel values were measured in a single axial CT scanning at a tube potential of 80 kVp, tube currents of 10-40 mA (5 mA steps), and tube rotation time of 0.5 s. Then, the FPD was sandwiched between 0.5 mm copper plate and 2 mm lead plate to avoid the pixel saturation and artifact from the FPD electronic substrates. The beam widths were measured at selected nominal beam widths (40, 80, 120 and 160 mm) using a double exposure technique (tube currents of 10 and 20 mA).Log-linear relationships for two systems were obtained between the pixel value and radiation exposure for parameters less than or equal to 12.5 mAs. A test for the equivalence with confidence intervals showed that the measurement accuracy of the CR and FPD systems was equivalent.The portable FPD system could be utilized for the measurement of the CT beam width as well as CR system.
Publication
Journal: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai zasshi
February/19/2020
Abstract
Japanese Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) were released as "Japan DRLs 2015" from Japan Network for Research and Information on Medical Exposure (J-RIME) in June 2015. In "Japan DRLs 2015", DRLs in angiography and interventional procedures are set at a fluoroscopic dose rate of 20 mGy/min at the interventional reference point using a phantom. In order to achieve optimization with DRLs, then it need to be revised regularly. Therefore, we (research group to examine the effect of Japan DRLs 2015 and the necessity of additional items in angiography and vascular interventions) examined the effects of "Japan DRLs 2015" on angiography and interventional procedures. And we also investigated for DRLs revision in the future. As a result, it turned out that it is important to create DRLs in medical procedures that can be effectively used in clinical settings.
Publication
Journal: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai zasshi
February/19/2020
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to compare the detectability of diseases the new image processing and the conventional image processing by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and to show the usefulness of the new image processing. Radiographs with and without nodular cancer models in the chest phantom were used for observation samples. Totally 200 radiographs were evaluated by 10 radiological technologists (each readers had over 20 years or under 4 years of experience). The mean area under the curve (AUC) calculated from the over 20 years group was 0.754 for the new processing and 0.771 for the conventional processing (p value=0.651, 95% confidence interval=-0.084/0.049 (lower bound/upper bound)). On the other hand, the average AUC calculated from under 4 years group was 0.819 for the new processing and 0.678 for the conventional processing (p value= 0.041, 95% confidence interval=0.019/0.262 (lower bound/upper bound)). New image processing provides high detectability in less than 4 years group compared to conventional processing.
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