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Publication
Journal: Stroke and vascular neurology
November/11/2019
Abstract
Prehospital delay is one of the major causes of low rate of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke in China. Regional emergency systems have been proven a successful approach to improve access to thrombolysis. Shenzhen is a high population density city with great geographical disparity of healthcare resources, leading to limited access to rt-PA thrombolysis for most patients with acute ischaemic stroke. To improve rapid access to rt-PA thrombolysis in Shenzhen, a Shenzhen stroke emergency map was implemented by Shenzhen healthcare administrations. This map comprised certification of qualified local hospitals, identification of patients with stroke, acute stroke transport protocol and maintenance of the map. We conducted a retrospective observational study to compare consecutive patients with acute stroke arriving at qualified local hospitals before and after implementation of the Shenzhen stroke emergency map. After implementation of the map, the rate of patients receiving rt-PA thrombolysis increased from 8.3% to 9.7% (p=0.003), and the rate of patients treated with endovascular thrombectomy increased from 0.9% to 1.6% (p<0.001). Sixteen of 20 hospitals have an increase in the number of patients with stroke treated with rt-PA thrombolysis. The median time between receipt of the call and arrival on the scene reduced significantly (17.0 min vs 9.0 min, p<0.001). In Shenzhen Second People's Hospital, the median onset-to-needle time and door-to-needle time were reduced (175.5 min vs 149.5 min, p=0.039; 71.5 min vs 51.5 min, p<0.001). No statistically significant differences were found in the proportion of rt-PA-treated patients within various geographical distances. Currently, there are more than 40 cities in China implementing a stroke emergency map. The Shenzhen stroke emergency map improves access to rt-PA thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke, and the novel model has been expanded to multiple areas in China. Future efforts should be conducted to optimise the stroke emergency map.
Publication
Journal: Acta crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic communications
November/11/2019
Abstract
The asymmetric units of the title compounds both contain one nonplanar mol-ecule. In 4-benzyl-6-phenyl-4,5-di-hydro-pyridazin-3(2H)-one, C17H14N2O, (I), the phenyl and pyridazine rings are twisted with respect to each other, making a dihedral angle of 46.69 (9)°; the phenyl ring of the benzyl group is nearly perpendicular to the plane of the pyridazine ring, the dihedral angle being 78.31 (10)°. In methyl 2-[5-(2,6-di-chloro-benz-yl)-6-oxo-3-phenyl-1,4,5,6-tetra-hydropyridazin-1-yl]acetate, C20H16Cl2N2O3, (II), the phenyl and pyridazine rings are twisted with respect to each other, making a dihedral angle of 21.76 (18)°, whereas the phenyl ring of the di-chloro-benzyl group is inclined to the pyridazine ring by 79.61 (19)°. In the crystal structure of (I), pairs of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into inversion dimers with an R22(8) ring motif. In the crystal structure of (II), C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate dimers with R12(7), R22(16) and R22(18) ring motifs. The Hirshfeld surface analyses of compound (I) suggests that the most significant contributions to the crystal packing are by H⋯H (48.2%), C⋯H/H⋯C (29.9%) and O⋯H/H⋯O (8.9%) contacts. For compound (II), H⋯H (34.4%), C⋯H/H⋯C (21.3%) and O⋯H/H⋯O (16.5%) inter-actions are the most important contributions.
Publication
Journal: Acta crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic communications
November/11/2019
Abstract
The title com-pound, C24H24N2O6, consists of ethyl 2-(1,2,3,4-tetra-hydro-2-oxo-quinolin-1-yl)acetate and 4-[(2-eth-oxy-2-oxoeth-yl)(phen-yl)carbomoyl] units, where the oxo-quinoline unit is almost planar and the acetate substituent is nearly perpendicular to its mean plane. In the crystal, C-HOxqn⋯OEthx and C-HPh-yl⋯OCarbx (Oxqn = oxoquinolin, Ethx = eth-oxy, Phyl = phenyl and Carbx = carboxyl-ate) weak hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into a three-dimensional network sturucture. A π-π inter-action between the constituent rings of the oxo-quinoline unit, with a centroid-centroid distance of 3.675 (1) Å may further stabilize the structure. Both terminal ethyl groups are disordered over two sets of sites. The ratios of the refined occupanies are 0.821 (8):0.179 (8) and 0.651 (18):0.349 (18). The Hirshfeld surface analysis of the crystal structure indicates that the most important contributions for the crystal packing are from H⋯H (53.9%), H⋯O/O⋯H (28.5%) and H⋯C/C⋯H (11.8%) inter-actions. Weak inter-molecular hydrogen-bond inter-actions and van der Waals inter-actions are the dominant inter-actions in the crystal packing. Density functional theory (DFT) geometric optimized structures at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level are com-pared with the experimentally determined mol-ecular structure in the solid state. The HOMO-LUMO mol-ecular orbital behaviour was elucidated to determine the energy gap.
Publication
Journal: Acta crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic communications
November/11/2019
Abstract
In the title com-pound, C30H20Cl2O2Se, the C-Se-C angle is 99.0 (2)°, with the dihedral angle between the planes of the attached benzene rings being 79.1 (3)°. The average endocyclic angles (Se-C-C) facing the Se atom are 122.1 (5) and 122.2 (5)°. The Se atom is essentially coplanar with the attached benzene rings, deviating by 0.075 (1) and 0.091 (1) Å. In the two phenyl-ene(4-chloro-phen-yl)prop-2-en-1-one units, the benzene rings are inclined to each other by 44.6 (3) and 7.8 (3)°. In the crystal, the mol-ecules stack up the a axis, forming layers parallel to the ac plane. There are no significant classical inter-molecular inter-actions present. Hirshfeld surface analysis, two-dimensional fingerprint plots and the mol-ecular electrostatic potential surface were used to analyse the crystal packing. The Hirshfeld surface analysis suggests that the most significant contributions to the crystal packing are by C⋯H/H⋯C contacts (17.7%).
Publication
Journal: Acta crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic communications
November/11/2019
Abstract
A one-dimensional ladder-type coordination polymer, poly[[(μ2-hydroxido)(μ2-1H-pyrazole-3,5-di-carboxyl-ato)gallium(III)] monohydrate], [Ga(C5H2N2O4)(OH)(H2O)] n or [Ga(HPDC)(OH)(H2O)] n , I, isotypic with a V3+ coordination polymer previously reported by Chen et al. [J. Coord. Chem. (2008). 61, 3556-3567] was prepared from Ga3+ and pyrazole-3,5-di-carb-oxy-lic acid monohydrate (H3PDC·H2O). Compound I was isolated using three distinct experimental methods: hydro-thermal (HT), microwave-assisted (MWAS) and one-pot (OP) and the crystallite size should be fine-tuned according to the method employed. The coordination polymeric structure is based on a dimeric Ga3+ moiety comprising two μ2-bridging hydroxide groups, which are inter-connected by HPDC2- anionic organic linkers. The close packing of individual polymers is strongly directed by the supra-molecular inter-actions, namely several O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions.
Publication
Journal: Acta crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic communications
November/11/2019
Abstract
In the crystal structures of the title com-pounds, namely μ-aqua-κ2O:O-di-μ-di-phenyl-acetato-κ4O:O'-bis-[(di-phenyl-acetato-κO)bis-(pyridine-κN)nickel(II)], [Ni2(C14H11O2)4(C5H5N)4(H2O)] (1) and μ-aqua-κ2O:O-di-μ-di-phenyl-acetato-κ4O:O'-bis-[(2,2'-bi-pyridine-κ2N,N')(di-phenyl-acetato-κO)nickel(II)]-aceto-nitrile-di-phenyl-acetic acid (1/2.5/1), [Ni2(C14H11O2)4(C10H8N2)2(H2O)]·2.5CH3CN·C14H12O2 (2), the com-plex units are stabilized by a variety of intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonds, as well as C-H⋯π and π-π contacts between the aromatic systems of the pyridine, dipyridyl and di-phenyl-acetate ligands. Despite the fact that the di-phenyl-acetate ligand is sterically bulky, this does not inter-fere with the formation of the described aqua-bridged dimeric core, even with a 2,2'-bi-pyridine ligand, which has a strong chelating effect.
Publication
Journal: Acta crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic communications
November/11/2019
Abstract
The title mol-ecular salt, C9H12N3O2S+·HSO4-, was obtained through the protonation of the azomethine N atom in a sulfuric acid medium. The crystal com-prises two entities, a thio-semicarbazide cation and a hydrogen sulfate anion. The cation is essentially planar and is further stabilized by a strong intra-molecular O-H⋯N hydrogen bond. In the crystal, a three-dimensional network is established through O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. A weak intermolecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond is also observed. The hydrogen sulfate anion exhibits disorder over two sets of sites and was modelled with refined occupancies of 0.501 (6) and 0.499 (6).
Publication
Journal: Acta crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic communications
November/11/2019
Abstract
In the title 1:1 cocrystal, C7H4ClNO4·C6H6N2O, nicotinamide (NIC) and 2-chloro-5-nitro-benzoic acid (CNBA) cocrystallize with one mol-ecule each of NIC and CNBA in the asymmetric unit. In this structure, CNBA and NIC form hydrogen bonds through O-H⋯N, N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O inter-actions along with N-H⋯O dimer hydrogen bonds of NIC. Further additional weak π-π inter-actions stabilize the mol-ecular assembly of this cocrystal.
Publication
Journal: New microbes and new infections
November/11/2019
Abstract
Extended-spectrum β-lactamases, carbapenemases, 16S rRNA methylases conferring pan-drug aminoglycoside resistance and colistin resistance were investigated among Gram-negative bacteria recovered from clinical samples (infections) from 200 individuals hospitalized at the Khyber Teaching Hospital of Peshawar, north Pakistan, from December 2017 to March 2018. Out of 65 isolates recovered, 19% were carbapenem resistant and 16% carried a blaNDM-1 gene, confirming the widespread distribution of NDM producers in this country. The association of the NDM carbapenem-resistance determinant, together with the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M-15 and 16S rRNA methylases, was frequent, explaining the multidrug-resistance pattern observed. All isolates remained susceptible to colistin.
Publication
Journal: Psychologica Belgica
November/11/2019
Abstract
Deviance theory introduces a behavioural view on constructive and destructive deviance to explain how an individual's intent can harm or improve organisational well-being. However, to our knowledge, no scale exists that evaluates the personal orientation aspect of deviance and normativity. This article discusses the creation of the Norm and Deviance-Seeking Personal Orientation Scale (NDPOS). To create this scale, we studied the psychometric properties of the instrument using data from French workers. NDPOS exploratory analysis indicated a 12-item scale composed of four factors: normative conformity, normative rule adequacy, deviant performance seeking, and deviant proactivity seeking. Confirmatory factor analysis corroborated the factorial structure in four sub-scales. Convergent and discriminant validity indicated that deviant dimensions were positively related to expressing voice, cognitive flexibility, and deviant behaviours, whereas normativity dimensions were negatively or not related to these behaviours. Furthermore, opposite relations between the conformity construct and the four factors were observed. Practical implications and suggestions for the development of future research on constructive deviance theory are discussed.
Publication
Journal: Acta crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic communications
November/11/2019
Abstract
The title pull-push chromophores, 2-[4-(di-methyl-amino)-benzyl-idene]-1H-indene-1,3(2H)-dione, C18H15NO2 (ID[1]) and (E)-2-{3-[4-(di-methyl-amino)-phen-yl]allyl-idene}-1H-indene-1,3(2H)-dione, C20H17NO2 (ID[2]), have donor-π-bridge-acceptor structures. The mol-ecule with the short π-bridge, ID[1], is almost planar while for the mol-ecule with a longer bridge, ID[2], is less planar. The benzene ring is inclined to the mean plane of the 2,3-di-hydro-1H-indene unit by 3.19 (4)° in ID[1] and 13.06 (8)° in ID[2]. The structures of three polymorphs of compound ID[1] have been reported: the α-polymorph [space group P21/c; Magomedova & Zvonkova (1978 ▸). Kristallografiya, 23, 281-288], the β-polymorph [space group P21/c; Magomedova & Zvonkova (1980 ▸). Kristallografiya, 25 1183-1187] and the γ-polymorph [space group Pna21; Magomedova, Neigauz, Zvonkova & Novakovskaya (1980 ▸). Kristallografiya, 25, 400-402]. The mol-ecular packing in ID[1] studied here is centrosymmetric (space group P21/c) and corresponds to the β-polymorph structure. The mol-ecular packing in ID[2] is non-centrosymmetric (space group P21), which suggests potential NLO properties for this crystalline material. In both compounds, there is short intra-molecular C-H⋯O contact present, enclosing an S(7) ring motif. In the crystal of ID[1], mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming layers parallel to the bc plane. In the crystal of ID[2], mol-ecules are liked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form 21 helices propagating along the b-axis direction. The mol-ecules in the helix are linked by offset π-π inter-actions with, for example, a centroid-centroid distance of 3.9664 (13) Å (= b axis) separating the indene rings, and an offset of 1.869 Å. Spectroscopic and electrochemical measurements show the ability of these compounds to easily transfer electrons through the π-conjugated chain.
Publication
Journal: Acta crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic communications
November/11/2019
Abstract
In the title compound, bis-(2-meth-oxy-ethyl xanthato-κS)(N,N,N',N'-tetra-methyl-ethylenedi-amine-κ2N,N')zinc(II) acetone hemisolvate, [Zn(C4H7O2S2)2(C6H16N2)]·0.5C3H6O, the ZnII ion is coordinated by two N atoms of the N,N,N',N'-tetra-methyl-ethylenedi-amine ligand and two S atoms from two 2-meth-oxy-ethyl xanthate ligands. The amine ligand is disordered over two orientations and was modelled with refined occupancies of 0.538 (6) and 0.462 (6). The mol-ecular structure features two C-H⋯O and two C-H⋯S intra-molecular inter-actions. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by weak C-H⋯O and C-H⋯S hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture. The mol-ecular structure was optimized using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311 G(d,p) level. The smallest HOMO-LUMO energy gap (3.19 eV) indicates the suitability of this crystal for optoelectronic applications. The mol-ecular electrostatic potential (MEP) further identifies the positive, negative and neutral electrostatic potential regions of the mol-ecules. Half a mol-ecule of disordered acetone was removed with the solvent-mask procedure in OLEX2 [Dolomanov et al. (2009 ▸). J. Appl. Cryst.42, 339-341] and this contribition is included in the formula.
Publication
Journal: Acta crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic communications
November/11/2019
Abstract
In the title pyrazoline derivative, C16H16N2O3·H2O, the pyrazoline ring has an envelope conformation with the substituted sp2 C atom on the flap. The pyrazoline ring makes angles of 86.73 (12) and 13.44 (12)° with the tris-ubstituted and disubstituted benzene rings, respectively. In the crystal structure, the mol-ecules are connected into chains running in the b-axis direction by O-H⋯N hydrogen bonding. Parallel chains inter-act through N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking of the tris-ubstituted phenyl rings. The major contribution to the surface contacts are H⋯H contacts (44.3%) as concluded from a Hirshfeld surface analysis.
Publication
Journal: Clinical liver disease
November/11/2019
Publication
Journal: Clinical liver disease
November/11/2019
Publication
Journal: Molecular autism
November/11/2019
Abstract
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13229-019-0280-6.].
Publication
Journal: Radiology case reports
November/11/2019
Abstract
Arachnoid granulations are outpouchings of arachnoid membrane which extend into the dural sinuses or calvarium, surrounded by a capsule of dense connective tissue. Within dural sinuses, these appear as well-defined, nodular, rounded, or ovoid structures of focal localization. However, it is important to be aware of their variability in presentation in order to correctly identify them and distinguish them from other dural sinus pathology, especially a misdiagnosis of venous sinus thrombosis with risks of unnecessary anticoagulation, intravascular thrombolysis/thrombectomy, or invasive intracranial pressure monitoring. Here we demonstrate a case of a previously unreported giant intrasinus arachnoid granulation of an unusual vermiform morphology, unduly elongated up to 6 cm in length, involving a significant segment of the superior sagittal sinus. The proof of this diagnosis was the radiologic appearance on multiple modalities and an unchanged appearance over the long-term.
Publication
Journal: BioPsychoSocial medicine
November/11/2019
Abstract
In a previous randomized controlled trial, we found that practicing seated isometric yoga regularly for 2 months improved the fatigue of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) who are resistant to conventional therapy. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the possible mechanisms behind this finding by comparing blood biomarkers, autonomic nervous function, and psychological indices before versus after an intervention period of seated isometric yoga practice.Fifteen patients with CFS who did not show satisfactory improvements after at least 6 months of conventional therapy practiced seated isometric yoga (biweekly 20-min sessions with a yoga instructor and daily practice at home) for 2 months. The longitudinal effects of seated isometric yoga on fatigue, blood biomarkers, autonomic function, and psychological state were investigated by comparing the following parameters before and after the intervention period: Fatigue severity was assessed by the Chalder fatigue scale (FS) score. Levels of the blood biomarkers cortisol, DHEA-S, TNF-α, IL-6, prolactin, carnitine, TGF-β1, BDNF, MHPG, HVA, and α-MSH were measured. The autonomic nervous functions assessed were heart rate (HR) and HR variability. Psychological indices included the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).

Results
Practicing seated isometric yoga for 2 months resulted in significant reductions in the Chalder FS (P = 0.002) and HADS-depression (P = 0.02) scores. No significant changes were observed in any other parameter evaluated. The change in Chalder FS score was not correlated with the change in HADS-depression score. However, this change was positively correlated with changes in the serum TNF-α levels (P = 0.048), the high frequency component of HR variability (P = 0.042), and TAS-20 scores (P = 0.001).

Regular practice of seated isometric yoga for 2 months reduced the fatigue and depressive symptom scores of patients with CFS without affecting any other parameters we investigated. This study failed to identify the markers responsible for the longitudinal fatigue-relieving effect of seated isometric yoga. However, considering that the reduced fatigue was associated with decreased serum TNF-α level and TAS-20 scores, fatigue improvement might be related to reduced inflammation and improved alexithymia in these patients.University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN CTR) UMIN000009646. Registered Dec 27, 2012.
Publication
Journal: Infectious agents and cancer
November/11/2019
Abstract
Hepatitis B caused by HBV is a serious public health hazard prevalent worldwide including Bangladesh. Few scattered molecular studies of HBV have been reported in Bangladesh. This study aimed to analyze the genetic variability of RT/HBsAg overlapping region of HBV isolates of Bangladesh and determination of correlation among the genotype/serotype and HBsAg escape and/or drug-resistant mutations.A total of 97 complete HBsAg sequences of Bangladeshi HBV isolates from 2005 to 2017 from NCBI GenBank were extracted and analyzed using several HBV bioinformatics tools such as Geno2pheno-HBV, HBV Serotyper, HIV-Grade:HBV-Tool, and CLC sequence viewer.

Results
The prevalence of genotypes A, C, and D are 18, 46 and 35% which correspond to serotype adw, adr, and ayw, respectively. The prevalence of HBsAg escape mutations is 51% and most of which (62%) are found in the genotype D followed by 32% in genotype C and 6% in genotype A. Interestingly most (24/36) of the sequences of HBsAg escape mutations contained 128 V mutant which all belongs to only serotype ayw3 (Genotype D). Prevalence of drug-resistant mutations is ~ 11%, most of which are from genotype C (63.64%) and D (36.36%). Lamivudine resistant mutations were found in ~ 11% of sequences followed by Telbivudine 10% and Adefovir 3% where Tenofovir showed susceptibility to all 97 sequences. Moreover, 7 among of 97 sequences showed both HBsAg and drugs resistant mutations and none of them are found due to the same nucleotide substitutions.

There is a strong correlation among the genotype/serotype and HBsAg escape and/or drug-resistant mutations. This meta-analytical review will be helpful for genotype-serotype prediction by PCR-based diagnosis and development of vaccine and/or diagnostic kits, and the treatment against HBV infection in the future.
Publication
Journal: Plant methods
November/11/2019
Abstract
Non-contact resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NC-RUS) has been proven as a reliable technique for the dynamic determination of leaf water status. It has been already tested in more than 50 plant species. In parallel, relative water content (RWC) is highly used in the ecophysiological field to describe the degree of water saturation in plant leaves. Obtaining RWC implies a cumbersome and destructive process that can introduce artefacts and cannot be determined instantaneously.

Results
Here, we present a method for the estimation of RWC in plant leaves from non-contact resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NC-RUS) data. This technique enables to collect transmission coefficient in a [0.15-1.6] MHz frequency range from plant leaves in a non-invasive, non-destructive and rapid way. Two different approaches for the proposed method are evaluated: convolutional neural networks (CNN) and random forest (RF). While CNN takes the entire ultrasonic spectra acquired from the leaves, RF only uses four relevant parameters resulted from the transmission coefficient data. Both methods were tested successfully in Viburnum tinus leaf samples with Pearson's correlations between 0.92 and 0.84.

This study showed that the combination of NC-RUS technique with deep learning algorithms is a robust tool for the instantaneous, accurate and non-destructive determination of RWC in plant leaves.
Publication
Journal: Frontiers in immunology
November/11/2019
Abstract
Primary immunodeficiencies are heritable disorders of immune function. CD19 is a B cell co-receptor important for B cell development, and CD19 deficiency is a known genetic risk factor for a rare form of primary immunodeficiency known as "common variable immunodeficiency" (CVID); an antibody deficiency resulting in low levels of serum IgG and IgA. Enteropathies are commonly observed in CVID patients but the underlying reason for this is undefined. Here, we utilize CD19-/- mice as a model of CVID to test the hypothesis that antibody deficiency negatively impacts gut physiology under steady-state conditions. As anticipated, immune phenotyping experiments demonstrate that CD19-/- mice develop a severe B cell deficiency in gut-associated lymphoid tissues that result in significant reductions to antibody concentrations in the gut lumen. Antibody deficiency was associated with defective anti-commensal IgA responses and the outgrowth of anaerobic bacteria in the gut. Expansion of anaerobic bacteria coincides with the development of a chronic inflammatory condition in the gut of CD19-/- mice that results in an intestinal malabsorption characterized by defects in lipid metabolism and transport. Administration of the antibiotic metronidazole to target anaerobic members of the microbiota rescues mice from disease indicating that intestinal malabsorption is a microbiota-dependent phenomenon. Finally, intestinal malabsorption in CD19-/- mice is a gluten-sensitive enteropathy as exposure to a gluten-free diet also significantly reduces disease severity in CD19-/- mice. Collectively, these results support an effect of antibody deficiency on steady-state gut physiology that compliment emerging data from human studies linking IgA deficiency with non-infectious complications associated with CVID. They also demonstrate that CD19-/- mice are a useful model for studying the role of B cell deficiency and gut dysbiosis on gluten-sensitive enteropathies; a rapidly emerging group of diseases in humans with an unknown etiology.
Publication
Journal: Frontiers in immunology
November/11/2019
Abstract
Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to complications of influenza A virus infection, which may result from pregnancy-induced changes in the function of immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells. To better understand NK cell function during pregnancy, we assessed the ability of the two main subsets of NK cells, CD56dim, and CD56bright NK cells, to respond to influenza-virus infected cells and tumor cells. During pregnancy, CD56dim and CD56bright NK cells displayed enhanced functional responses to both infected and tumor cells, with increased expression of degranulation markers and elevated frequency of NK cells producing IFN-γ. To better understand the mechanisms driving this enhanced function, we profiled CD56dim and CD56bright NK cells from pregnant and non-pregnant women using mass cytometry. NK cells from pregnant women displayed significantly increased expression of several functional and activation markers such as CD38 on both subsets and NKp46 on CD56dim NK cells. NK cells also displayed diminished expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 during pregnancy. Overall, these data demonstrate that functional and phenotypic shifts occur in NK cells during pregnancy that can influence the magnitude of the immune response to both infections and tumors.
Publication
Journal: Frontiers in immunology
November/11/2019
Abstract
Inflammation after trauma is both critical to normal wound healing and may be highly detrimental when prolonged or unchecked with the potential to impair physiologic healing and promote de novo pathology. Mechanical strain after trauma is associated with impaired wound healing and increased inflammation. The exact mechanisms behind this are not fully elucidated. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), a component of the neutrophil response to trauma, are implicated in a range of pro-inflammatory conditions. In the current study, we evaluated their role in linking movement and inflammation. We found that a link exists between the disruption and amplification of NETs which harbors the potential to regulate the wound's response to mechanical strain, while leaving the initial inflammatory signal necessary for physiologic wound healing intact.
Publication
Journal: Frontiers in microbiology
November/11/2019
Abstract
Methicillin-resistant/susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA/MSSA) and Enterococcus faecalis strains are often found in community- and hospital-acquired infections. The single use of conventional antibiotics hardly completely kills the bacterial cells of interest, especially in the form of biofilms. Thus, drug repurposing and antimicrobial combination are promising ways to solve this problem. Antimicrobial susceptibility assays against cocci in a suspension and in a biofilm mode of growth were performed with broth microdilution methods. Checkerboard assays and the cutaneous mouse infection model were used to examine the activity of auranofin and conventional antibiotics alone and in combination. In the present study, auranofin possesses potent antimicrobial activities against both planktonic cells and biofilms with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging 0.125-0.5 mg/L. Auranofin in combination with linezolid or fosfomycin showed synergistic antimicrobial activities against S. aureus MSSA and MRSA both in vitro and in vivo. Similarly, auranofin also behaved synergistic effect with chloramphenicol against E. faecalis. Additionally, auranofin improved the antibiofilm efficacy of chloramphenicol and linezolid, even on the biofilms grown on a catheter surface. Though, S. epidermidis showed significant susceptibility to AF treatment, no synergistic antimicrobial effects were observed with antibiotics we tested. In all, the use of a combination of auranofin with linezolid, fosfomycin, and chloramphenicol can provide a synergistic microbicidal effect in vitro and in vivo, which rapidly enhances antimicrobial activity and may help prevent or delay the emergence of resistance.
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