Best match
Only Free Articles
Search in:AllTitleAbstractAuthor name
Publications
(4K+)
Patents
Grants
Pathways
Clinical trials
Publication
Journal: British Journal of Radiology
October/27/2015
Abstract
Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) implies the electromagnetic spatial control of well-circumscribed "pencil beams" of protons of variable energy and intensity. Proton pencil beams take advantage of the charged-particle Bragg peak-the characteristic peak of dose at the end of range-combined with the modulation of pencil beam variables to create target-local modulations in dose that achieves the dose objectives. IMPT improves on X-ray intensity modulated beams (intensity modulated radiotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy) with dose modulation along the beam axis as well as lateral, in-field, dose modulation. The clinical practice of IMPT further improves the healthy tissue vs target dose differential in comparison with X-rays and thus allows increased target dose with dose reduction elsewhere. In addition, heavy-charged-particle beams allow for the modulation of biological effects, which is of active interest in combination with dose "painting" within a target. The clinical utilization of IMPT is actively pursued but technical, physical and clinical questions remain. Technical questions pertain to control processes for manipulating pencil beams from the creation of the proton beam to delivery within the patient within the accuracy requirement. Physical questions pertain to the interplay between the proton penetration and variations between planned and actual patient anatomical representation and the intrinsic uncertainty in tissue stopping powers (the measure of energy loss per unit distance). Clinical questions remain concerning the impact and management of the technical and physical questions within the context of the daily treatment delivery, the clinical benefit of IMPT and the biological response differential compared with X-rays against which clinical benefit will be judged. It is expected that IMPT will replace other modes of proton field delivery. Proton radiotherapy, since its first practice 50 years ago, always required the highest level of accuracy and pioneered volumetric treatment planning and imaging at a level of quality now standard in X-ray therapy. IMPT requires not only the highest precision tools but also the highest level of system integration of the services required to deliver high-precision radiotherapy.
Publication
Journal: Physics in Medicine and Biology
December/23/2015
Abstract
The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods. We conclude by briefly speculating on possible future areas of research of relevance to the physics of proton therapy.
Publication
Journal: Chinese journal of cancer
August/23/2012
Abstract
Radiation dose escalation and acceleration improves local control but also increases toxicity. Proton radiation is an emerging therapy for localized cancers that is being sought with increasing frequency by patients. Compared with photon therapy, proton therapy spares more critical structures due to its unique physics. The physical properties of a proton beam make it ideal for clinical applications. By modulating the Bragg peak of protons in energy and time, a conformal radiation dose with or without intensity modulation can be delivered to the target while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Thus, proton therapy is ideal when organ preservation is a priority. However, protons are more sensitive to organ motion and anatomy changes compared with photons. In this article, we review practical issues of proton therapy, describe its image-guided treatment planning and delivery, discuss clinical outcome for cancer patients, and suggest challenges and the future development of proton therapy.
Publication
Journal: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
February/19/2017
Abstract
In principle, proton therapy offers a substantial clinical advantage over conventional photon therapy. This is because of the unique depth-dose characteristics of protons, which can be exploited to achieve significant reductions in normal tissue doses proximal and distal to the target volume. These may, in turn, allow escalation of tumor doses and greater sparing of normal tissues, thus potentially improving local control and survival while at the same time reducing toxicity and improving quality of life. Protons, accelerated to therapeutic energies ranging from 70 to 250MeV, typically with a cyclotron or a synchrotron, are transported to the treatment room where they enter the treatment head mounted on a rotating gantry. The initial thin beams of protons are spread laterally and longitudinally and shaped appropriately to deliver treatments. Spreading and shaping can be achieved by electro-mechanical means to treat the patients with "passively-scattered proton therapy" (PSPT) or using magnetic scanning of thin "beamlets" of protons of a sequence of initial energies. The latter technique can be used to treat patients with optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT), the most powerful proton modality. Despite the high potential of proton therapy, the clinical evidence supporting the broad use of protons is mixed. It is generally acknowledged that proton therapy is safe, effective and recommended for many types of pediatric cancers, ocular melanomas, chordomas and chondrosarcomas. Although promising results have been and continue to be reported for many other types of cancers, they are based on small studies. Considering the high cost of establishing and operating proton therapy centers, questions have been raised about their cost effectiveness. General consensus is that there is a need to conduct randomized trials and/or collect outcomes data in multi-institutional registries to unequivocally demonstrate the advantage of protons. Treatment planning and plan evaluation of PSPT and IMPT require special considerations compared to the processes used for photon treatment planning. The differences in techniques arise from the unique physical properties of protons but are also necessary because of the greater vulnerability of protons to uncertainties, especially from inter- and intra-fractional variations in anatomy. These factors must be considered in designing as well as evaluating treatment plans. In addition to anatomy variations, other sources of uncertainty in dose delivered to the patient include the approximations and assumptions of models used for computing dose distributions for planning of treatments. Furthermore, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons is simplistically assumed to have a constant value of 1.1. In reality, the RBE is variable and a complex function of the energy of protons, dose per fraction, tissue and cell type, end point, etc. These uncertainties, approximations and current technological limitations of proton therapy may limit the achievement of its true potential. Ongoing research is aimed at better understanding the consequences of the various uncertainties on proton therapy and reducing the uncertainties through image-guidance, adaptive radiotherapy, further study of biological properties of protons and the development of novel dose computation and optimization methods. However, residual uncertainties will remain in spite of the best efforts. To increase the resilience of dose distributions in the face of uncertainties and improve our confidence in dose distributions seen on treatment plans, robust optimization techniques are being developed and implemented. We assert that, with such research, proton therapy will be a commonly applied radiotherapy modality for most types of solid cancers in the near future.
Publication
Journal: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
September/17/2015
Abstract
Radiotherapy is commonly offered to patients with pancreatic malignancies although its ultimate utility is compromised since the pancreas is surrounded by exquisitely radiosensitive normal tissues, such as the duodenum, stomach, jejunum, liver, and kidneys. Proton radiotherapy can be used to create dose distributions that conform to tumor targets with significant normal tissue sparing. Because of this, protons appear to represent a superior modality for radiotherapy delivery to patients with unresectable tumors and those receiving postoperative radiotherapy. A particularly exciting opportunity for protons also exists for patients with resectable and marginally resectable disease. In this paper, we review the current literature on proton therapy for pancreatic cancer and discuss scenarios wherein the improvement in the therapeutic index with protons may have the potential to change the management paradigm for this malignancy.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Particle Therapy
October/17/2017
Abstract
Primary or recurrent gynecologic cancers in operable patients with a history of prior pelvic radiation are typically treated with surgery based on the risk of late toxicities historically associated with reirradiation. A number of studies have demonstrated that, compared with conventional radiation therapy (RT) using photons, proton therapy (PT) offers dosimetric advantages for patients with gynecologic cancers by reducing radiation dose to healthy tissues. Thereby, we expect that, in appropriately selected cases, PT may reduce long-term treatment-related morbidities without compromising treatment efficacy. Herein, we describe the treatment planning, technique, and long-term follow-up of a patient who was treated with PT for a primary vaginal carcinoma nearly 30 years after a prior course of pelvic RT. Using this case, we illustrate the utility and advantages of PT in the treatment of cancers that occur at less favorable sites, adjacent to normal structures with low radiation tolerance, or in paients with a history of prior irradiation. Additionally, we provide a brief discussion and review of literature of prior case series of pelvic reirradiation, illustrating the value of identifying treatment approaches that can reduce treatment-related morbidities, particularly late treatment toxicities.
Publication
Journal: British Journal of Radiology
October/27/2015
Abstract
Protons are being used in radiation therapy because of typically better dose conformity and reduced total energy deposited in the patient as compared with photon techniques. Both aspects are related to the finite range of a proton beam. The finite range also allows advanced dose shaping. These benefits can only be fully utilized if the end of range can be predicted accurately in the patient. The prediction of the range in tissue is associated with considerable uncertainties owing to imaging, patient set-up, beam delivery, interfractional changes in patient anatomy and dose calculation. Consequently, a significant range (of the order of several millimetres) is added to the prescribed range in order to ensure tumour coverage. Thus, reducing range uncertainties would allow a reduction of the treatment volume and reduce dose to potential organs at risk.
Publication
Journal: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research
January/29/2013
Abstract
Proton radiotherapy has seen an increasing role in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Historically, external beam radiotherapy has played a very limited role in HCC due to a high incidence of toxicity to surrounding normal structures. The ability to deliver a high dose of radiation to the tumor is a key factor in improving outcomes in HCC. Advances in photon radiotherapy have improved dose conformity and allowed dose escalation to the tumor. However, despite these advances there is still a large volume of normal liver that receives a considerable radiation dose during treatment. Proton beams do not have an exit dose along the beam path once they enter the body. The inherent physical attributes of proton radiotherapy offer a way to maximize tumor control via dose escalation while avoiding excessive radiation to the remaining liver, thus increasing biological effectiveness. In this review we discuss the physical attributes and rationale for proton radiotherapy in HCC. We also review recent literature regarding clinical outcomes of using proton radiotherapy for the treatment of HCC.
Publication
Journal: Asia Pacific Allergy
June/30/2021
Abstract
Background:Skull-base chordomas and chondrosarcomas are rare tumors that arise directly adjacent to important critical structures. Appropriate management consists of maximal safe resection followed by postoperative dose-escalated radiation therapy. Proton beam therapy is often employed in this context to maximize the sparing of organs at risk, such as the brainstem and optic apparatus.
Methods: This is a single-institutional experience treating skull-base chordomas and chondrosarcomas with postoperative pencil beam scanning proton therapy. We employed a simultaneous integrated boost to the gross tumor volume (GTV) for increased conformality. Demographic, clinicopathologic, toxicity, and dosimetry information were collected. Toxicity was assessed according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), v. 4.0.
Results: Between 2017 and 2020, 13 patients were treated with postoperative proton therapy. There were 10 patients with chordoma (77%) and three with chondrosarcoma (23%). A gross total resection was achieved in six (60%) patients with chordoma and one patient with chondrosarcoma (33%). Nine patients (69%) received postoperative therapy, whereas four (31%) received treatment at recurrence/progression following re-excision. The median dose to the GTV was 72.4 cobalt-Gray equivalents (range, 70.0 to 75.8). The mean GTV was 3.4 cc (range, 0.2-38.7). There were no grade 3 or greater toxicities. One patient developed grade 2 temporal lobe necrosis. At 10.7 months' median follow-up (range, 2.1-30.6), the rates of local control and overall survival were 100%.
Conclusions: Proton beam therapy with pencil beam scanning and simultaneous integrated boost to the GTV affords excellent early local control with the suggestion of low morbidity. This method deserves consideration as an optimal method for limiting dose to adjacent organs at risk and delivering clinically effective doses to the treatment volume.
Keywords: pencil beam scanning; proton beam therapy; simultaneous integrated boost; skull-base chondrosarcomas; skull-base chordomas.
Publication
Journal: Theranostics
July/15/2014
Abstract
Proton therapy is very sensitive to uncertainties introduced during treatment planning and dose delivery. PET imaging of proton induced positron emitter distributions is the only practical approach for in vivo, in situ verification of proton therapy. This article reviews the current status of proton therapy verification with PET imaging. The different data detecting systems (in-beam, in-room and off-line PET), calculation methods for the prediction of proton induced PET activity distributions, and approaches for data evaluation are discussed.
Publication
Journal: Breast Care
November/13/2018
Abstract
Proton therapy reduces the integral dose received by normal tissues due to its physical properties of dose deposition in the Bragg peak. In a small but significant percentage of patients requiring adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for left-sided breast cancer, photon-based RT can lead to cardiac complications during long-term follow-up. The risk of cardiac complications is correlated with the dose to the coronary arteries and to the general 'mean heart dose'. Dosimetric comparison analysis has identified advantages of proton therapy in accomplishing sparing of the heart with increasing target complexity while permitting uncompromised target coverage of the chest wall ± breast plus draining lymphatics. Early clinical data indicate good clinical tolerance to proton therapy without unexpected complications. Several clinical trials are presently ongoing to prospectively confirm a clinical benefit and to identify the subgroup of patients benefitting most from proton therapy for breast cancer.
Publication
Journal: British Journal of Radiology
February/5/2013
Abstract
The goal of radiotherapy is to achieve uniform target coverage while sparing normal tissue. In proton therapy, the same sources of geometric uncertainty are present as in conventional radiotherapy. However, an important and fundamental difference in proton therapy is that protons have a finite range, highly dependent on the electron density of the material they are traversing, resulting in a steep dose gradient at the distal edge of the Bragg peak. Therefore, an accurate knowledge of the sources and magnitudes of the uncertainties affecting the proton range is essential for producing plans which are robust to these uncertainties. This review describes the current knowledge of the geometric uncertainties and discusses their impact on proton dose plans. The need for patient-specific validation is essential and in cases of complex intensity-modulated proton therapy plans the use of a planning target volume (PTV) may fail to ensure coverage of the target. In cases where a PTV cannot be used, other methods of quantifying plan quality have been investigated. A promising option is to incorporate uncertainties directly into the optimisation algorithm. A further development is the inclusion of robustness into a multicriteria optimisation framework, allowing a multi-objective Pareto optimisation function to balance robustness and conformity. The question remains as to whether adaptive therapy can become an integral part of a proton therapy, to allow re-optimisation during the course of a patient's treatment. The challenge of ensuring that plans are robust to range uncertainties in proton therapy remains, although these methods can provide practical solutions.
Publication
Journal: Medical Physics
August/6/2014
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
This paper presents a concept for a proton therapy system capable of delivering intensity modulated proton therapy using a fan beam of protons. This system would allow present and future gantry-based facilities to deliver state-of-the-art proton therapy with the greater normal tissue sparing made possible by intensity modulation techniques.
METHODS
A method for producing a divergent fan beam of protons using a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles is described and particle transport through the quadrupole doublet is simulated using a commercially available software package. To manipulate the fan beam of protons, a modulation device is developed. This modulator inserts or retracts acrylic leaves of varying thickness from subsections of the fan beam. Each subsection, or beam channel, creates what effectively becomes a beam spot within the fan area. Each channel is able to provide 0-255 mm of range shift for its associated beam spot, or stop the beam and act as an intensity modulator. Results of particle transport simulations through the quadrupole system are incorporated into the MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code along with a model of the range and intensity modulation device. Several design parameters were investigated and optimized, culminating in the ability to create topotherapy treatment plans using distal-edge tracking on both phantom and patient datasets.
RESULTS
Beam transport calculations show that a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles can be used to create a divergent fan beam of 200 MeV protons over a distance of 2.1 m. The quadrupole lengths were 30 and 48 cm, respectively, with transverse field gradients less than 20 T/m, which is within the range of water-cooled magnets for the quadrupole radii used. MCNPX simulations of topotherapy treatment plans suggest that, when using the distal edge tracking delivery method, many delivery angles are more important than insisting on narrow beam channel widths in order to obtain conformal target coverage. Overall, the sharp distal falloff of a proton depth-dose distribution was found to provide sufficient control over the dose distribution to meet objectives, even with coarse lateral resolution and channel widths as large as 2 cm. Treatment plans on both phantom and patient data show that dose conformity suffers when treatments are delivered from less than approximately ten angles. Treatment time for a sample prostate delivery is estimated to be on the order of 10 min, and neutron production is estimated to be comparable to that found for existing collimated systems.
CONCLUSIONS
Fan beam proton therapy is a method of delivering intensity modulated proton therapy which may be employed as an alternative to magnetic scanning systems. A fan beam of protons can be created by a set of quadrupole magnets and modified by a dual-purpose range and intensity modulator. This can be used to deliver inversely planned treatments, with spot intensities optimized to meet user defined dose objectives. Additionally, the ability of a fan beam delivery system to effectively treat multiple beam spots simultaneously may provide advantages as compared to spot scanning deliveries.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Neurological Surgery, Part B: Skull Base
February/4/2014
Abstract
Objectives Skull base chordoma is a rare, locally aggressive tumor located adjacent to critical structures. Gross total resection is difficult to achieve, and proton therapy has the conformal advantage of delivering a high postoperative dose to the tumor bed. We present our experience using proton therapy to treat 33 patients with skull base chordomas. Design Retrospective outcomes study. Setting University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute; 2007 to 2011. Participants A total of 33 patients with skull base chordomas received postoperative three-dimensional conformal proton therapy. The patients were 79% male and 6% diabetic; 27% had received a gross total resection. Main Outcome Measures The gross tumor/tumor bed received a dose between 77.4 CGE and 79.4 CGE. Local control and overall survival were tracked, and radiation toxicity was assessed using a modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme. Results Median follow-up for all patients was 21 months. Local control and overall survival rates at 2 years were 86% and 92%, respectively. Grade 2 toxicity was observed in 18% of our cohort in the form of unilateral hearing loss partially corrected with a hearing aid. No grade 2 or higher optic or brainstem toxicities were observed. Conclusions Proton therapy is an effective treatment modality for skull base chordomas.
Publication
Journal: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
September/18/2013
Abstract
Despite the claim in the published literature, the introduction of proton therapy for children is not analogous to the evolution of conformal photon irradiation relying on the understanding of the impact of altered dose distributions. The differences in radiobiological effect when comparing photons with protons mean that we are comparing a known entity with an unknown entity: the dose-volume histogram for proton therapy might mean something substantially different from the dose-volume histogram for photon therapy. The multifaceted difference between the 2 modalities supports the argument for careful evaluation, follow-up, and clinical trials with adverse event monitoring when using proton therapy in children. We review the current data on the outcome of proton therapy in a range of pediatric tumors and compare them with the often excellent results of photon therapy in the setting of multidisciplinary management of childhood cancer. It is hoped that the apparent dosimetric advantage of proton therapy over photons will lead to improved indications for therapy, disease control, and functional outcomes. Although physical dose distribution is of clear importance, the multimodality management of children by an expert pediatric oncology team and the availability of ancillary measures that improve the quality of treatment delivery may be more important than the actual beam. In addition, current estimates of the benefit of proton therapy over photon therapy based on toxicity reduction will only be realized when survivorship has been achieved. Once substantive proton therapy data become available, it will be necessary to demonstrate benefit in clinically relevant outcome measures in comparison with best existing photon outcome data. Such an effort will require improved funding and appreciation for late effects research. Only real clinical outcome data combined with better understanding of the radiobiological differences between protons and photons will help us to further reduce side effects in children and exploit the full curative potential of this relatively new modality.
Publication
Journal: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
September/18/2013
Abstract
Proton therapy has been used in the treatment of prostate cancer for several decades, and interest surrounding its use continues to grow. Proton-based treatment techniques have evolved significantly over this period, and several centers now routinely use technologies such as pencil-beam scanning. However, whether the theoretical dosimetric advantages of the proton beam translate into clinically meaningful improvements for prostate cancer patients is unknown, and outcomes from single-arm experiences using whole courses of proton beam therapy in the treatment of early-stage prostate cancer have shown mixed results when compared with contemporary intensity-modulated radiotherapy. A randomized trial comparing proton beam therapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy in early-stage disease has been launched and will be important in defining the role for proton therapy in this setting. We review the available evidence and present the current state of proton beam therapy for prostate cancer.
Publication
Journal: World journal of radiology
July/13/2011
Abstract
Protons deposit most of their kinetic energy at the end of their path with no energy deposition beyond the range, making proton therapy a valuable option for treating tumors while sparing surrounding tissues. It is imperative to know the location of the dose deposition to ensure the tumor, and not healthy tissue, is being irradiated. To be able to extract this information in a clinical situation, an accurate dosimetry measurement system is required. There are currently two in vivo methods that are being used for proton therapy dosimetry: (1) online or in-beam monitoring and (2) offline monitoring, both using positron emission tomography (PET) systems. The theory behind using PET is that protons experience inelastic collisions with atoms in tissues resulting in nuclear reactions creating positron emitters. By acquiring a PET image following treatment, the location of the positron emitters in the patient, and therefore the path of the proton beam, can be determined. Coupling the information from the PET image with the patient's anatomy, it is possible to monitor the location of the tumor and the location of the dose deposition. This review summarizes current research investigating both of these methods with promising results and reviews the limitations along with the advantages of each method.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Particle Therapy
November/27/2019
Abstract
We report the case of an 87-year-old man affected by an unresectable ameloblastoma of the right jaw that was successfully treated by definitive proton therapy up to a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions. Treatment was well tolerated, and there were no interruptions due to toxicity. At follow-up visits, the patient experienced complete response to treatment with no evidence of disease and complete recovery from acute side effects. In this report, we discuss the potential and possible pitfalls of proton therapy in the treatment of specific settings.
Publication
Journal: Medical Physics
April/30/2012
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is highly sensitive to range uncertainties and uncertainties caused by setup variation. The conventional inverse treatment planning of IMPT optimized based on the planning target volume (PTV) is not often sufficient to ensure robustness of treatment plans. In this paper, a method that takes the uncertainties into account during plan optimization is used to mitigate the influence of uncertainties in IMPT.
METHODS
The authors use the so-called "worst-case robust optimization" to render IMPT plans robust in the face of uncertainties. For each iteration, nine different dose distributions are computed-one each for ± setup uncertainties along anteroposterior (A-P), lateral (R-L) and superior-inferior (S-I) directions, for ± range uncertainty, and the nominal dose distribution. The worst-case dose distribution is obtained by assigning the lowest dose among the nine doses to each voxel in the clinical target volume (CTV) and the highest dose to each voxel outside the CTV. Conceptually, the use of worst-case dose distribution is similar to the dose distribution achieved based on the use of PTV in traditional planning. The objective function value for a given iteration is computed using this worst-case dose distribution. The objective function used has been extended to further constrain the target dose inhomogeneity.
RESULTS
The worst-case robust optimization method is applied to a lung case, a skull base case, and a prostate case. Compared with IMPT plans optimized using conventional methods based on the PTV, our method yields plans that are considerably less sensitive to range and setup uncertainties. An interesting finding of the work presented here is that, in addition to reducing sensitivity to uncertainties, robust optimization also leads to improved optimality of treatment plans compared to the PTV-based optimization. This is reflected in reduction in plan scores and in the lower normal tissue doses for the same coverage of the target volume when subjected to uncertainties.
CONCLUSIONS
The authors find that the worst-case robust optimization provides robust target coverage without sacrificing, and possibly even improving, the sparing of normal tissues. Our results demonstrate the importance of robust optimization. The authors assert that all IMPT plans should be robustly optimized.
Publication
Journal: Translational Lung Cancer Research
November/13/2018
Abstract
The prognosis of limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) continues to improve and is now roughly comparable to that of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This shift, taken together with the decreased toxicities of modern radiotherapy (RT) for LS-SCLC compared with those reported in historical trials, necessitates further evaluation of whether proton beam therapy (PBT) could further reduce both acute and late toxicities for patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy for LS-SCLC. These notions are discussed theoretically, with an emphasis on cardiac events. This is followed by a review of the published evidence to date demonstrating improved dosimetry with PBT over intensity-modulated RT and encouraging safety and efficacy profiles seen in early clinical reports. In addition to covering technical aspects of PBT for LS-SCLC such as intensity-modulated PBT, image-guidance for PBT, and adaptive planning, this review also discusses the need for increased data on intensity-modulated PBT for LS-SCLC, economic and quality of life analyses for future PBT SCLC studies, careful categorization of cardiac events in these patients, and the role for immunotherapy combined with photon- or proton-based RT for LS-SCLC.
Related with
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
July/29/2014
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To present the principles and rationale of the Proton Priority System (PROPS), a priority points framework that assigns higher scores to patients thought to more likely benefit from proton therapy, and the distribution of PROPS scores by patient characteristics
METHODS
We performed multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the association between PROPS scores and receipt of proton therapy, adjusted for insurance status, gender, race, geography, and the domains that inform the PROPS score.
RESULTS
Among 1529 adult patients considered for proton therapy prioritization during our Center's ramp-up phase of treatment availability, PROPS scores varied by age, diagnosis, site, and other PROPS domains. In adjusted analyses, receipt of proton therapy was lower for patients with non-Medicare relative to Medicare health insurance (commercial vs Medicare: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.64; managed care vs Medicare: OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.28-0.56; Medicaid vs Medicare: OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.13-0.44). Proton Priority System score and age were not significantly associated with receipt of proton therapy.
CONCLUSIONS
The Proton Priority System is a rationally designed and transparent system for allocation of proton therapy slots based on the best available evidence and expert opinion. Because the actual allocation of treatment slots depends mostly on insurance status, payers may consider incorporating PROPS, or its underlying principles, into proton therapy coverage policies.
Publication
Journal: BioImpacts
June/29/2021
Abstract
Radiotherapy delivered using photons induces an immune response that leads to modulation of the tumor microenvironment. Clinical studies are ongoing to evaluate immune checkpoint inhibitors in association with photon radiotherapy. At present, there is no publication on the radio-induced immune response after proton therapy. Balb/c mice bearing subcutaneous CT26 colon tumors were irradiated by a single fraction of 16.4 Gy using a proton beam extracted from a TR24 cyclotron. RNA sequencing analysis was assessed at 3 days post-treatment. Proton therapy immune response was monitored by flow cytometry using several panels (lymphoid, myeloid cells, lymphoid cytokines) at 7 and 14 days post-irradiation. RNA-Seq functional profiling identified a large number of GO categories linked to "immune response" and "interferon signaling". Immunomonitoring evaluation showed induced tumor infiltration by immune cells. This is the first study showing the effect of proton therapy on immune response. These interesting results provide a sound basis to assess the efficacy of a combination of proton therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Related with