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Publication
Journal: Annals of Internal Medicine
October/29/1989
Abstract
We assess toxicity related to 6-mercaptopurine in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease by reporting our experience with 396 patients (120 patients with ulcerative colitis, 276 with Crohn disease) observed over 18 years. Follow-up data for a mean period of 60.3 months were obtained for 90% of the patients. Toxicity directly induced by 6-mercaptopurine included pancreatitis in 13 patients (3.3%), bone marrow depression in 8 (2%), allergic reactions in 8 (2%), and drug hepatitis in 1 (0.3%). These complications were reversible in all cases with no mortality. Most cases of marrow depression occurred earlier in our experience, when the initial drug doses used were higher. Infectious complications were seen in 29 patients (7.4%), of which 7 (1.8%) were severe, including one instance of herpes zoster encephalitis. All infections were reversible with no deaths. Twelve neoplasms (3.1%) were observed, but only 1 (0.3%), a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma of the brain, had a probable association with the use of 6-mercaptopurine. Our data, showing a low incidence of toxicity in 396 patients, coupled with the previously demonstrated efficacy of 6-mercaptopurine in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, indicate that the drug is a reasonable alternative in the management of patients with intractable inflammatory bowel disease.
Publication
Journal: Radiology
June/25/2009
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To prospectively compare the accuracy of computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) enterography and small-bowel follow-through (SBFT) examination for detection of active small-bowel inflammation and extraenteric complications in patients with Crohn disease (CD).
METHODS
The institutional review board approved the study protocol; informed consent was obtained from all participants. Thirty-one consecutive patients who had CD or who were suspected of having CD underwent CT and MR enterography, SBFT, and ileocolonoscopy. Two independent readers reviewed CT and MR enterographic and SBFT images for presence of active terminal ileitis and extraenteric complications. Accuracy values of CT and MR enterography and SBFT for identification of active terminal ileitis were evaluated with the receiver operating characteristic method, with ileocolonoscopic findings as the reference standard. Sensitivity values of CT and MR enterography and SBFT for detection of extraenteric complications were compared by using the McNemar test, with results of imaging studies, surgery, and physical examination as reference standards.
RESULTS
The study population included 30 patients (17 men, 13 women; mean age, 29.0 years) with CD. Differences in areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for CT enterography (0.900 and 0.894), MR enterography (0.933 and 0.950), and SBFT (0.883 and 0.928) for readers 1 and 2, respectively, in the detection of active terminal ileitis were not significant (P>> .017). Sensitivity values for detection of extraenteric complications were significantly higher for CT and MR enterography (100% for both) than they were for SBFT (32% for reader 1 and 37% for reader 2) (P < .001).
CONCLUSIONS
Because MR enterography has a diagnostic effectiveness comparable to that of CT enterography, this technique has potential to be used as a radiation-free alternative for evaluation of patients with CD.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Biological Chemistry
August/23/2010
Abstract
Intestinal fibrosis is a major complication of Crohn disease (CD), but the precise mechanism by which it occurs is incompletely understood. As a result, specific therapies to halt or even reverse fibrosis have not been explored. Here, we evaluated the contribution of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) to intestinal fibrosis associated with a mouse model of CD and also human inflammatory bowel disease. Mice administered intrarectal 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) develop inflammation and fibrosis that resembles CD both histologically and by immunologic profile. We utilized this model to molecularly probe the contribution of EMT to intestinal fibrosis. Additionally, we utilized double-transgenic VillinCre;R26Rosa-lox-STOP-lox-LacZ mice, in which removal of the STOP cassette by Cre recombinase in villin(+) intestinal epithelial cells activates permanent LacZ expression, to lineage trace epithelial cells that might undergo EMT upon TNBS administration. TNBS-induced fibrosis is associated with the presence of a significant number of cells that express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers. In the lineage tagged transgenic mice, the appearance of LacZ(+) cells that also express the fibroblast marker FSP1 unequivocally demonstrates EMT. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, a known inducer of EMT in epithelial cells, induces EMT in rat intestinal epithelial cells in vitro, and bone morphogenic protein-7, an antagonist of TGF-beta1, inhibits EMT and fibrosis both in vitro and in the TNBS-treated mice. Our study demonstrates that EMT contributes to intestinal fibrosis associated with the TNBS-induced model of Crohn colitis and that inhibition of TGF-beta1 with recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-7 prevents this process and prevents fibrosis.
Publication
Journal: Radiographics
September/4/2006
Abstract
Computed tomographic (CT) enterography combines the improved spatial and temporal resolution of multi-detector row CT with large volumes of ingested neutral enteric contrast material to permit visualization of the small bowel wall and lumen. Adequate luminal distention can usually be achieved with oral hyperhydration, thereby obviating nasoenteric intubation and making CT enterography a useful, well-tolerated study for the evaluation of diseases affecting the mucosa and bowel wall. Unlike routine CT, which has been used to detect the extraenteric complications of Crohn disease such as fistula and abscess, CT enterography clearly depicts the small bowel inflammation associated with Crohn disease by displaying mural hyperenhancement, stratification, and thickening; engorged vasa recta; and perienteric inflammatory changes. As a result, CT enterography is becoming the first-line modality for the evaluation of suspected inflammatory bowel disease. CT enterography has also become an important alternative to traditional fluoroscopy in the assessment of other small bowel disorders such as celiac sprue and small bowel neoplasms.
Publication
Journal: Medicine
January/3/2001
Abstract
We prospectively evaluated the initial presenting symptoms in 261 patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) over a 25-year period. Twenty-two percent of the patients had multiple endocrine neoplasia-type 1 (MEN-1) with ZES. Mean age at onset was 41.1 +/- 0.7 years, with MEN-1 patients presenting at a younger age than those with sporadic ZES (p < 0.0001). Three percent of the patients had onset of the disease < age 20 years, and 7%>> 60 years. A mean delay to diagnosis of 5.2 +/- 0.4 years occurred in all patients. A shorter duration of symptoms was noted in female patients and in patients with liver metastases. Abdominal pain and diarrhea were the most common symptoms, present in 75% and 73% of patients, respectively. Heartburn and weight loss, which were uncommonly reported in early series, were present in 44% and 17% of patients, respectively. Gastrointestinal bleeding was the initial presentation in a quarter of the patients. Patients rarely presented with only 1 symptom (11%); pain and diarrhea was the most frequent combination, occurring in 55% of patients. An important presenting sign that should suggest ZES is prominent gastric body folds, which were noted on endoscopy in 94% of patients; however, esophageal stricture and duodenal or pyloric scarring, reported in numerous case reports, were noted in only 4%-10%. Patients with MEN-1 presented less frequently with pain and bleeding and more frequently with nephrolithiasis. Comparing the clinical presentation before the introduction of histamine H2-receptor antagonists (pre-1980, n = 36), after the introduction of histamine H2-receptor antagonists (1981-1989, n = 118), and after the introduction of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) >> 1990, n = 106) demonstrates no change in age of onset; delay in diagnosis; frequency of pain, diarrhea, weight loss; or frequency of complications of severe peptic disease (bleeding, perforations, esophageal strictures, pyloric scarring). Since the introduction of histamine H2-receptor antagonists, fewer patients had a previous history of gastric acid-reducing surgery or total gastrectomy. Only 1 patient evaluated after 1980 had a total gastrectomy, and this was done in 1977. The location of the primary tumor in general had a minimal effect on the clinical presentation, causing no effect on the age at presentation, delay in diagnosis, frequency of nephrolithiasis, or severity of disease (strictures, perforations, peptic ulcers, pyloric scarring). Disease extent had a minimal effect on symptoms, with only bleeding being more frequent in patients with localized disease. Patients with advanced disease presented at a later age and with a shorter disease history (p = 0.001), were less likely to have MEN-1 (p = 0.0087), and tended to have diarrhea more frequently (p = 0.079). A correct diagnosis of ZES was made by the referring physician initially in only 3% of the patients. The most common misdiagnosis made were idiopathic peptic ulcer disease (71%), idiopathic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (7%), and chronic idiopathic diarrhea (7%). Other less common misdiagnosis were Crohn disease (2%) and various diarrhea diseases (celiac sprue [3%], irritable bowel syndrome [3%], infectious diarrhea [2%], and lactose intolerance [1%]). Other medical disorders were present in 55% of all patients; patients with sporadic disease had fewer other medical disorders than patients with MEN-1 (45% versus 90%, p < 0.00001). Hyperparathyroidism and a previous history of kidney stones were significantly more frequent in patients with MEN-1 than in those with sporadic ZES. Pulmonary disorders and other malignancies were also more common in patients with MEN-1. These results demonstrate that abdominal pain, diarrhea, and heartburn are the most common presenting symptoms in ZES and that heartburn and diarrhea are more common than previously reported. The presence of weight loss especially with abdominal pain, diarrhea, or heartburn is an important clue suggesting the presence of gastrinoma. The presence of prominent gastric body folds, a clinical sign that has not been appreciated, is another important clue to the diagnosis of ZES. Patients with MEN-1 presented at an earlier age; however, in general, the initial symptoms were similar to patients without MEN-1. Gastrinoma extent and location have minimal effects on the clinical presentation. Overall, neither the introduction of successful antisecretory therapy nor widespread publication about ZES, attempting to increase awareness, has shortened the delay in diagnosis or reduced the incidence of patients presenting with peptic complications. The introduction of successful antisecretory therapy, however, has dramatically decreased the rate of surgery in controlling the acid secretion and likely led to patients presenting with less severe symptoms and fewer complications. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
Publication
Journal: Blood
August/29/2004
Abstract
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the NOD2/CARD15 gene resulting in a diminished nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) response to bacterial cell wall products have been associated with an increased incidence of Crohn disease. To assess a possible contribution of NOD2/CARD15 mutations to graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and complications following allogeneic stem cell transplantation, we retrospectively typed DNA from donor/recipient pairs in 169 consecutive patients receiving transplants from related or unrelated donors. Mutated alleles were observed in 21% of patients and in 14% of donors. Cumulative incidence of 1-year, transplant-related mortality rose from 20% in donor/recipient pairs without mutated SNPs to 49% in pairs with recipient mutations (P =.03) and 59% in pairs with donor mutations (P <.005), and was highest in 12 pairs with mutated alleles in both donor and recipients (83%; P <.001). Similar associations were observed for severe overall and severe gastrointestinal GvHD. The impact of NOD2/CARD15 mutations was more prominent for HLA-identical sibling transplantations but was also observed in unrelated donor transplantation. Mutations proved to be independent risk factors for transplant-related mortality. Our findings indicate a major role of monocyte/macrophage dysfunction in the pathophysiology of GvHD and strongly suggest a future risk assessment or even donor selection through NOD2/CARD15 typing.
Publication
Journal: Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
June/6/2007
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Anaemia is a serious complication of Crohn's disease that triggers hospitalization and, if not interfered with, may lead to death.
OBJECTIVE
To systematically summarize and compare the literature on anaemia in Crohn's disease.
METHODS
For this systematic review the literature was searched for English-language articles using anaemia, Crohn* and IBD as key words. 144 articles were identified and sorted according to the following topics: prevalence, aetiology, diagnostic tests and therapy.
RESULTS
The reported prevalence of anaemia varied between 6.2% and 73.7%, with higher reported frequencies in older studies and in in-patients. Iron deficiency is the most common underlying condition. Vitamin B12 deficiency is related to the extent of ileal resection but has rarely impact on anaemia. Diagnostic criteria are not established and treatment guidelines are missing. Oral iron supplementation seems effective for short periods but intolerance leads to discontinuation in up to 21%. Eleven of 11 studies show that oral iron enhances intestinal inflammation and colon carcinogenesis in animal models of colitis. Intravenous iron supplementation with iron sucrose has been tested in over 250 Crohn's disease patients, is safe, effective and does not carry such hazards.
CONCLUSIONS
As disease activity is determining the degree of anaemia in Crohn's disease, implementation of more effective therapy for Crohn's disease will lower its incidence. However, further studies regarding the safety and effectiveness of iron supplementation are needed.
Publication
Journal: Pediatrics
July/26/2010
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
The aim of this study was to analyze a possible association between cesarean delivery and enteric inflammatory diseases in children.
METHODS
A retrospective, multicenter, case-control study that included 1950 children was performed in cooperation with 26 university and 16 nonacademic children's hospitals. Information on intestinal disease manifestation, together with mode of delivery and gestational age at birth, postnatal complications, and breastfeeding, was collected by the attending physician from children and their parents who were visiting a gastrointestinal outpatient clinic for Crohn disease (CD; 516 cases), ulcerative colitis (250 cases), celiac disease (157 cases), and other gastrointestinal diseases (165 cases) and control subjects who were visiting ophthalmologic, orthodontic, and dental outpatient clinics (862 cases).
RESULTS
Whereas the rate of cesarean delivery of children with Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis was similar to that of control subjects, a significantly enhanced likelihood of being born by cesarean delivery was found in children with celiac disease compared with control subjects (odds ratio: 1.8 [95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.88]; P = .014).
CONCLUSIONS
The mode of delivery and associated alterations in the development of the enteric homeostasis during the neonatal period might influence the incidence of celiac disease.
Publication
Journal: Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
January/2/2002
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) has been considered a rare entity associated with a grave prognosis. Since 1978, when Liebman et al reviewed 64 cases of HPVG and reported a mortality of 75%, the number of reported cases has been increasing.
METHODS
Case series.
METHODS
We reviewed the literature on 182 cases of HPVG in adults, including 4 of our patients, (transplantation and abdominal trauma cases were excluded) and analyzed the cause, pathogenesis, and clinical features.
RESULTS
In this series, the underlying clinical events associated with HPVG were bowel necrosis (43%), digestive tract dilatation (12%), intraperitoneal abscess (11%), ulcerative colitis (4%), gastric ulcer (4%), Crohn disease (4%), complications of endoscopic procedures (4%), intraperitoneal tumor (3%), and other (15%). The overall mortality was 39% but varied depending on the underlying disease.
CONCLUSIONS
Hepatic portal venous gas is a lethal or curable entity caused by various diseases. The underlying disease associated with HPVG determines the clinical features and prognosis of the patients. The treatment of patients with HPVG should be directed to the underlying disease.
Publication
Journal: Neurology
March/4/2009
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Accelerating the clearance of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from the body may be useful to address uncommon but serious complications from treatment, such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Treatment of PML requires immune reconstitution. Plasma exchange (PLEX) may accelerate mAb clearance, restoring the function of inhibited proteins and increasing the number or function of leukocytes entering the CNS. We evaluated the efficacy of PLEX in accelerating natalizumab (a therapy for multiple sclerosis [MS] and Crohn disease) clearance and alpha4-integrin desaturation. Restoration of leukocyte transmigratory capacity was evaluated using an in vitro blood-brain barrier (ivBBB).
METHODS
Twelve patients with MS receiving natalizumab underwent three 1.5-volume PLEX sessions over 5 or 8 days. Natalizumab concentrations and alpha4-integrin saturation were assessed daily throughout PLEX and three times over the subsequent 2 weeks, comparing results with the same patients the previous month. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) migration (induced by the chemokine CCL2) across an ivBBB was assessed in a subset of six patients with and without PLEX.
RESULTS
Serum natalizumab concentrations were reduced by a mean of 92% from baseline to 1 week after three PLEX sessions (p < 0.001). Although average alpha4-integrin saturation was not reduced after PLEX, it was reduced to less than 50% when natalizumab concentrations were below 1 mug/mL. PBMC transmigratory capacity increased 2.2-fold after PLEX (p < 0.006).
CONCLUSIONS
Plasma exchange (PLEX) accelerated clearance of natalizumab, and at natalizumab concentrations below 1 mug/mL, desaturation of alpha4-integrin was observed. Also, CCL2-induced leukocyte transmigration across an in vitro blood-brain barrier was increased after PLEX. Therefore, PLEX may be effective in restoring immune effector function in natalizumab-treated patients.
Publication
Journal: JAMA Pediatrics
February/24/2016
Abstract
The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease, are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract most often diagnosed in adolescence and young adulthood, with a rising incidence in pediatric populations. These disorders are common enough in children that most pediatricians and other pediatric clinicians will encounter children with IBD in their general practice. Inflammatory bowel disease is caused by a dysregulated mucosal immune response to the intestinal microflora in genetically predisposed hosts. Although children can present with the classic symptoms of weight loss, abdominal pain, and bloody diarrhea, many present with nonclassic symptoms of isolated poor growth, anemia, or other extraintestinal manifestations. Once IBD is diagnosed, the goals of therapy consist of eliminating symptoms, normalizing quality of life, restoring growth, and preventing complications while minimizing the adverse effects of medications. Unique considerations when treating children and adolescents with IBD include attention to the effects of the disease on growth and development, bone health, and psychosocial functioning. The purpose of this review is to provide a contemporary overview of the epidemiologic features, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of IBD in children and adolescents.
Publication
Journal: American Journal of Medicine
April/14/2004
Abstract
The prevalence of anemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease ranges from 8.8% to 73.7% depending on the patient subpopulation. Anemia, one of many extraintestinal complications of ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease, is generally defined as a hemoglobin value <120 g/L or hematocrit <0.4; severe anemia is defined as a hemoglobin level <100 g/L. Many patients have been shown to be intolerant of oral iron replacement therapy or their anemia was refractory to such supplementation. Correction of anemia through the administration of intravenous iron saccharate and/or supplemental erythropoietin has been shown to improve patient hematologic indices and quality of life. Future studies are needed to determine the type of patients at highest risk of developing severe anemia as well as the treatment interventions with the most beneficial effect.
Publication
Journal: Radiology
February/22/2006
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To prospectively compare oral contrast-enhanced T2-weighted half-Fourier rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced fast low-angle shot (FLASH) MR and standard examinations in the evaluation of Crohn disease.
METHODS
Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Fifty-nine patients with Crohn disease underwent MR imaging after oral administration of a superparamagnetic contrast agent; RARE plain and fat-suppressed sequences and FLASH sequences were performed before and after intravenous injection of gadolinium chelate. References were endoscopic, small-bowel barium, computed tomographic, ultrasonographic, and clinical-biochemical scoring of disease activity. Two radiologists analyzed MR images for presence and extent of Crohn disease lesions, presence of strictures or other complications, and degree of local inflammation. MR findings were correlated with endoscopic, radiologic, and clinical data (kappa statistic and Spearman rank correlation test).
RESULTS
T2-weighted MR was 95% accurate, 98% sensitive, and 78% specific for detection of ileal lesions. Agreement between T1- and T2-weighted images ranged from 0.77 for ileal lesions to 1.00 for colic lesions. T2-weighted MR enabled detection of 26 of 29 severe strictures, 17 of 24 enteroenteric fistulas, and all adhesions and abscesses; T1-weighted MR enabled detection of 20 of 29 severe strictures, 16 of 24 enteroenteric fistulas, and all adhesions and abscesses. Complications leading to surgery were found in 12 (20%) patients; these were assessed correctly with either T1- or T2-weighted images. T2-weighted signal intensities of the wall and mesentery correlated with biologic activity (P < .001, r of 0.774 and 0.712, respectively). Interobserver agreement was 0.642-1.00 for T2-weighted and 0.711-1.00 for T1-weighted images.
CONCLUSIONS
T2-weighted MR can depict Crohn disease lesions and help assess mural and transmural inflammation with the same accuracy as gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR. Combination of gadolinium-enhanced T1- and T2-weighted sequences is useful in the assessment of Crohn disease.
Publication
Journal: Autophagy
September/18/2011
Abstract
Crohn disease (CD) is a chronic and debilitating inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Prevalence in Western populations is 100-150/100,000 and somewhat higher in Ashkenazi Jews. Peak incidence is in early adult life, although any age can be affected and a majority of affected individuals progress to relapsing and chronic disease. Medical treatments rely significantly on empirical corticosteroid therapy and immunosuppression, and intestinal resectional surgery is frequently required. Thus, 80% of patients with CD come to surgery for refractory disease or complications. It is hoped that an improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms, for example by studying the genetic basis of CD and other forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), will lead to improved therapies and possibly preventative strategies in individuals identified as being at risk.
Publication
Journal: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
July/30/2017
Abstract
Crohn disease is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease condition characterized by skip lesions and transmural inflammation that can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus. For this review article, we performed a review of articles in PubMed through February 1, 2017, by using the following Medical Subject Heading terms: crohns disease, crohn's disease, crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Presenting symptoms are often variable and may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, and in certain cases fevers or chills. There are 3 main disease phenotypes: inflammatory, structuring, and penetrating. In addition to the underlying disease phenotype, up to a third of patients will develop perianal involvement of their disease. In addition, in some cases, extraintestinal manifestations may develop. The diagnosis is typically made with endoscopic and/or radiologic findings. Disease management is usually with pharmacologic therapy, which is determined on the basis of disease severity and underlying disease phenotype. Although the goal of management is to control the inflammation and induce a clinical remission with pharmacologic therapy, most patients will eventually require surgery for their disease. Unfortunately, surgery is not curative and patients still require ongoing therapy even after surgery for disease recurrence. Importantly, given the risks of complications from both Crohn disease and the medications used to treat the disease process, primary care physicians play an important role in optimizing the preventative care management to reduce the risk of complications.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Crohn's & colitis
September/27/2015
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Advances in the medical management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have altered treatment targets. Endoscopic mucosal healing is associated with better outcomes in IBD, though less is known about the significance of achieving histological remission. Our aim was to perform a systematic review to investigate whether histological or 'complete' remission constitutes a further therapeutic target in IBD.
METHODS
A bibliographic search was performed on the 1st of October 2013 and subsequently on the 1st of March 2014 of online databases (OVID SP MEDLINE, OVID EMBASE, National Pubmed Central Medline, Cochrane Library, ISI, conference abstracts), using MeSH terms and key words: ("inflammatory bowel diseases" OR "crohn disease" OR "ulcerative colitis" OR "colitis") AND ("mucosal healing" OR "histological healing" OR "pathological healing" OR "histological scoring" OR "pathological scoring").
RESULTS
The search returned 2951 articles. 120 articles were cited in the final analysis. There is no validated definition of histological remission in IBD. There are 22 different histological scoring systems for IBD, none of which are fully validated. Microscopic inflammation persists in 16-100% of cases of endoscopically quiescent disease. There is evidence that histological remission may predict risk of complications in ulcerative colitis beyond endoscopic mucosal healing, though data are scarce in Crohn's disease.
CONCLUSIONS
Histological remission in IBD represents a target distinct from endoscopic mucosal healing, not yet routinely sought in clinical trials or practice. There remains a need for a standardized and validated histological scoring system and to confirm the prognostic value of histological remission as a treatment target in IBD.
Publication
Journal: Radiology
September/28/2006
Abstract
Computed tomography (CT) is widely used to assess patients with nonspecific abdominal pain or who are suspected of having colitis. The authors recommend multidetector CT with oral, rectal, and intravenous contrast material and thin sections, which can accurately demonstrate inflammatory changes in the colonic wall and help assess the extent of disease. In most cases, the final diagnosis of the type of colitis is based on clinical and laboratory data and colonoscopic and biopsy findings, but specific CT features help narrow the differential diagnosis. Ulcerative colitis is distinguished from granulomatous colitis (Crohn disease) in terms of location of involvement, extent and appearance of colonic wall thickening, and type of complications. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease (granulomatous colitis) are rarely associated with ascites, which is often seen in infectious, ischemic, and pseudomembranous colitis. Pseudomembranous colitis also demonstrates marked wall thickening and, occasionally, skip areas but is associated with broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment or chemotherapy. Neutropenic colitis is characterized by right-sided colonic and ileal involvement, whereas ischemic colitis is characterized by vascular distribution pattern and history. Diverticulitis is a focal asymmetric process with fascial thickening and inflamed diverticula. Dilatation of a thick-walled appendix with increased enhancement and adjacent stranding suggests appendicitis, but inflammatory changes may extend to the cecum and terminal ileum. Epiploic appendagitis is a focal rim-enhancing area next to the colon, usually without any substantial colonic wall thickening.
Publication
Journal: Radiographics
February/21/2010
Abstract
Crohn disease is a complex pathologic process with an unpredictable lifelong course that includes frequent relapses. It often affects young patients, who are most vulnerable to the potential adverse effects of repeated exposure to ionizing radiation from computed tomography performed for diagnosis and surgical planning. The small intestine is the bowel segment that is most frequently affected, but it is the least accessible with endoscopic techniques. Magnetic resonance (MR) enterography has the potential to safely and noninvasively meet the imaging needs of patients with Crohn disease without exposing them to ionizing radiation. Appropriate use of MR enterography requires a carefully crafted protocol to depict signs of active inflammation as well as complications such as bowel obstruction, fistulas, and abscesses. Interpretation of MR enterographic images requires familiarity with the imaging signs and mimics of active bowel inflammation and stenosis. Although MR enterography currently is helpful for management in individual patients, the standardization of acquisition protocols and interpretive methods would increase its usefulness for more rigorous, systematic assessments of Crohn disease treatment regimens.
Publication
Journal: Radiographics
February/21/2010
Abstract
Cross-sectional imaging techniques are playing an increasing role in the evaluation of suspected small-bowel disorders, and a growing awareness of the risks of ionizing radiation exposure has prompted the exploration of alternative imaging techniques. Advantages of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging include a lack of ionizing radiation, the ability to provide dynamic information regarding bowel distention and motility, improved soft-tissue contrast, and a relatively safe intravenous contrast agent profile. Limitations of MR imaging include cost, imager access, variability in examination quality, and lower spatial and temporal resolution compared with those of computed tomography (CT). MR imaging of the small bowel is indicated for patients with Crohn disease, those for whom exposure to radiation is a concern, those with contraindications to CT, and those with low-grade small-bowel obstruction. MR imaging may be performed with enterography or enteroclysis. In enterography, large volumes of fluid are ingested. Several different contrast agents may be used. These agents are classified according to their signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. In enteroclysis, enteric contrast material is administered through a nasoenteric tube. Crohn disease is the primary indication for MR imaging of the small bowel because many patients require multiple follow-up examinations. Findings suggestive of active inflammation include bowel wall thickening and hyperenhancement, ulcerations, increased mesenteric vascularity, and perienteric inflammation. Complications are well depicted and may include penetrating disease and small-bowel obstruction.
Publication
Journal: The European journal of surgery = Acta chirurgica
July/5/2000
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To compare safety, outcome, and feasibility of laparoscopic assisted and conventional laparotomy for ileocolic resection in Crohn's disease.
METHODS
Retrospective study.
METHODS
Private clinic, USA.
METHODS
74 patients who had ileocolic resection and anastomosis for Crohn's disease between August 1991 and July 1996, 48 through conventional laparotomy and 26 in whom it was laparoscopically assisted.
METHODS
Age, operating time, duration of hospital stay, early and late morbidity, and patients' subjective assessment.
RESULTS
The mean age was 42 (+/- 17) in the conventional group and 40 (+/- 15) in the laparoscopically assisted group. The mean operating time was significantly shorter in the conventional group, 90.5 +/- 3.7 minutes, compared with 150 +/- 1.2 minutes in the laparoscopic-assisted group (p < 0.0001), but they stayed in hospital significantly longer, 9.6 +/- 0.6 days in the conventional group, compared with 7 +/- 0.8 days in the laparoscopic-assisted group (p < 0.0001). There were no differences between the groups in the incidence of early complications or the cost of admission, but at a mean follow up of 30 months (range 2-59) significantly more patients in the conventional group had developed symptomatic bowel obstruction (15/48 compared with 2/26, p = 0.02). 31 patients in the conventional group (65%) and 16 in the laparoscopically assisted group (62%) returned their subjective assessments. There were no differences between the groups in the number with changed bowel habits, use of drugs for bowel movement, or restricted diet, but patients in the laparoscopically assisted group returned to work more quickly (3.7 +/- 1.2 weeks) compared with 8.2 +/- 1.1 weeks in the conventional group, had better cosmetic results (14/16 compared with 13/31, p = 0.004), and were more likely to have improved social and sexual lives (8/16 compared with 5/31, p = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS
Laparoscopically assisted ileocolic resection for Crohn' s disease is safe and has less morbidity than conventional laparotomy.
Publication
Journal: Hepatology
April/20/2010
Abstract
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), a severe complication in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis, has been attributed to bacterial translocation from the intestine. Variants of the NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2) gene have been associated with impaired mucosal barrier function in Crohn disease. We hypothesized that the risk of acquiring SBP is increased in patients with cirrhosis carrying NOD2 variants. We recruited 150 nonselected patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites admitted to our unit, monitored survival, and recorded the development of SBP prospectively and retrospectively. SBP was defined as the presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) cells >250 per microL of ascitic fluid. Patients were genotyped for the NOD2 variants p.R702W, p.G908R, and c.3020insC. During a median follow-up of 155 days, 54 patients (36%) died and SBP was diagnosed in 30 patients (20%). The occurrence of SBP was increased significantly (P = 0.008) in carriers of NOD2 variants (odds ratio [OR] = 3.06). Retrospectively, SBP was observed in 22 additional patients, and the combined prospective and retrospective analysis substantiated the association between NOD2 and SBP (P = 0.004; OR = 2.98). Of note, carriers of NOD2 risk alleles showed a significantly (P = 0.007) reduced mean survival time (274 days) in comparison to patients with wildtype genotypes (395 days).
CONCLUSIONS
Common NOD2 variants linked previously to impaired mucosal barrier function may be genetic risk factors for death and SBP. These findings might serve to identify patients with cirrhotic ascites eligible for preemptive antibiotic treatment.
Publication
Journal: World Journal of Gastroenterology
August/15/2007
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To study the (functional) relevance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-1, -2, -3, -9, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1, -2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in the etiopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), that may enhance susceptibility and/or disease severity.
METHODS
Genomic DNA from 134 Crohn' s disease (CD), 111 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and 248 control subjects was isolated from resected intestinal tissue or blood. Allelic composition at SNP loci was determined by PCR-RFLP or tetra primer ARMS PCR.
RESULTS
The TIMP-1 genotype TT in women and T in men at SNP +372 T/C was found to increase CD susceptibility (39% vs 23.8%, P = 0.018 and 67.9% vs 51.6%, P = 0.055, respectively), while women with this genotype were less prone to development of fistulae during follow-up (41.4% vs 68.3%, P = 0.025). Male IBD or CD patients carrying the TIMP-1 +372 T-allele expressed lower levels of TIMP-1 in surgically resected macroscopically inflamed tissue (0.065 < P < 0.01). The 5T5T genotype at MMP-3 SNP -1613 5T/6T increased the chance of stenotic complications in CD during follow-up (91.2% vs 71.8%, P = 0.022) but seemed to protect against colonic involvement of this disease at first endoscopic/radiologic examination (35.3% vs 59.5%, P = 0.017).
CONCLUSIONS
Allelic composition at the examined SNPs in genes coding for TIMP-1 and MMP-3 affect CD susceptibility and/or phenotype, i.e., fistulizing disease, stricture pathogenesis and first disease localisation. These findings reinforce the important role of these proteins in IBD.
Publication
Journal: mAbs
June/10/2010
Abstract
Since their introduction, monoclonal antibodies have found an ever expanding role in the treatment of a wide number of disorders. However, the perturbation of the immune system that attends their use may also increase the risk for the development of disorders that arise in the setting of immunosuppressive conditions, such as, opportunistic infection and malignancy. In this paper, we address the association between some monoclonal antibodies and the development of a rare demyelinating disease of the brain, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML results from infection with a ubiquitous polyoma virus, JC virus, and typically occurs in the setting of impaired immunity, most commonly, AIDS. It was first recognized as a potential complication of monoclonal antibody therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis and Crohn disease being treated with natalizumab, an alpha 4 beta1 and alpha 4 beta 7 integrin inhibitor. Subsequently, efalizumab, a monoclonal antibody used in the treatment of psoriasis, was also demonstrated to be associated with PML. An increased risk has been suggested for rituximab, although most of the patients developing PML with that monoclonal antibody have been treated for B-cell disorders that predispose to the development of PML. Based on our current understanding of the biology of JC virus and the pathogenesis of PML, we propose an explanation for the increased risk for PML that is observed with natalizumab and certain other monoclonal antibodies.
Publication
Journal: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
May/25/1998
Abstract
Malnutrition is observed frequently and is an important complication in patients with Crohn disease (CD). The pathophysiology of malnutrition in this disorder is complex. To obtain a comprehensive picture of nutritional status in patients with long-standing CD that was clinically in remission, we assessed four measures of nutritional status in 32 patients (18 women and 14 men) and 32 matched healthy control subjects: 1) body composition, 2) dietary intake, 3) biochemical indexes of nutrition, and 4) and muscle strength (as a functional index). Mean daily intakes of fiber and phosphorus were significantly lower in CD patients than in control subjects. Serum concentrations of several nutrients (beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and zinc) and activity of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase were also significantly lower in CD patients, as were antioxidant status and serum concentrations of magnesium and vitamin D. Percentage body fat and hamstring muscle strength were significantly lower in male CD patients than in control subjects, whereas muscle strength of the quadriceps was preserved. In conclusion, this study showed a variety of nutritional and functional deficiencies in patients with long-standing CD in remission, especially in male patients with a high lifetime prednisone dose. A comprehensive nutritional assessment seems superior to the assessment of a single dimension of nutritional status.
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