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Publication
Journal: Pathogens and Disease
March/2/2019
Abstract
Phage therapy has shown promising results in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections in animal studies and case reports. The aim of this study was to quantify effects of phage treatments on P. aeruginosa biofilm production and structure. Confocal scanning microscopy was used to follow the interaction between a cocktail of three virulent phages and P. aeruginosa flow-cell biofilms. The role of (i) biofilm age, (ii) repeated phage treatments, (iii) alginate production and (iv) the combination with sub-MIC levels of ciprofloxacin was investigated. Single phage treatment in the early biofilm stages significantly reduced P. aeruginosa PAO1 biovolume (85%-98% reduction). Repeated phage treatments increased the biovolume from 18.25 (untreated biofilm) to 22.24 and 31.07 µm3/µm2 for biofilms treated with phages twice and thrice, respectively. Alginate protected against the phage treatment as the live biovolume remained unaffected by the phage treatment in the mucoid biofilm (20.11 µm3/µm2 in untreated and 21.74 µm3/µm2 in phage-treated biofilm) but decreased in the PAO1 biofilm from 27.35 to 0.89 µm3/µm2. We show that the combination of phages with antibiotics at sub-MIC levels caused a ∼6 log units reduction in the abundance of P. aeruginosa cells in biofilms and that phage treatment increased the size of microcolonies in flow-cell system.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Dairy Science
September/4/2019
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes can survive and grow in a variety of environments, including refrigeration, making it difficult to control and highlighting the importance of optimizing control strategies against this pathogen. Listeria phages are attractive biocontrol agents because phages bind to specific wall teichoic acids (WTA) on the bacterial cell wall, inhibiting pathogens without disrupting the normal microbiota or structure of the food. Common stresses found on dairy products can affect cell wall composition and structure and subsequently affect the efficiency of control strategies that target the cell wall. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of a range of pH and temperatures on the effectiveness of a commercial phage cocktail treatment against several strains of L. monocytogenes in a cheese matrix. We developed a laboratory-scale cheese model that was made at different pH, treated with phage, and then inoculated with L. monocytogenes. Cheeses were incubated at 6, 14, or 22°C for 14 d, and bacterial counts were determined on d 1, 7, and 14. Our data show that phage treatment has a limited ability to reduce L. monocytogenes counts at each temperature tested; however, it was more effective on specific strains of L. monocytogenes when cheese was stored at higher temperatures. More specifically, the average counts of L. monocytogenes on phage-treated cheese stored at 22°C were significantly lower than those on phage-treated cheese stored at 6 or 14°C. Similarly, phage treatment was significantly more effective at inhibiting L. monocytogenes on cheese made at higher pH (6 and 6.5) compared with counts on cheese made at pH 5.5, where L. monocytogenes did not grow. Furthermore, serotype was found to affect the susceptibility of L. monocytogenes to phage treatment; serotype 1/2 strains showed significantly higher susceptibility to phage treatment than serotype 4b strains. Overall, our results suggest the importance of considering the efficacy of phage under conditions (i.e., temperature and pH) specific to a given food matrix when applying interventions against this important foodborne pathogen.
Publication
Journal: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
May/20/2011
Abstract
Salmonella is a foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes human illnesses and morbidity and mortality in swine. Bacteriophages are viruses that prey on bacteria and are naturally found in many microbial environments, including the gut of food animals, and have been suggested as a potential intervention strategy to reduce Salmonella levels in the live animal. The present study was designed to determine if anti-Salmonella phages isolated from the feces of commercial finishing swine could reduce gastrointestinal populations of the foodborne pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium in artificially inoculated swine. Weaned pigs (n = 48) were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (control or phage-treated). Each pig was inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium (2 × 10(10) colony forming units/pig) via oral gavage at 0 h and fecal samples were collected every 24 h. Swine were inoculated with a phage cocktail via oral gavage (3 × 10(9) plaque forming units) at 24 and 48 h. Pigs were humanely killed at 96 h, and cecal and rectal intestinal contents were collected for quantitative and qualitative analysis. Fecal Salmonella populations in phage-treated pigs were lower (p < 0.09) than controls after 48 h. Phage treatment reduced intestinal populations of inoculated Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs compared to controls at necropsy. Cecal populations were reduced (p = 0.07) by phage treatment >1.4 log(10) colony forming units/g digesta, and rectal populations were numerically reduced. The number of pigs that contained inoculated Salmonella Typhimurium was reduced by phage treatment, but a significant (p < 0.05) reduction was only observed in the rectum. We conclude that phages can be a viable tool to reduce Salmonella in swine. Further research needs to be performed to determine the most efficacious dosing regimens and the most effective combinations of phages targeting the diverse Salmonella population found in swine before they can enter the food supply.
Publication
Journal: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
September/7/2016
Abstract
Bacteriophage can be used as a potential alternative agent for controlling Lactobacillus plantarum contamination during bioethanol production. However, how Saccharomyces cerevisiae respond against contaminative L. plantarum or added bacteriophage remains to be fully understood. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and a multivariate analysis were employed to investigate the intracellular biochemical changes in S. cerevisiae cells that were elicited by L. plantarum contamination or bacteriophage treatment. The intracellular metabolite profiles originating from different groups were unique and could be distinguished with the aid of principal component analysis. Moreover, partial least-squares-discriminant analysis revealed a group classification and pairwise discrimination, and 13 differential metabolites with variable importance in the projection value greater than 1 were identified. The metabolic relevance of these compounds in the response of S. cerevisiae to L. plantarum contamination or bacteriophage treatment was discussed. Besides generating lactic acid and competing for nutrients or living space, L. plantarum contamination might also inhibit the growth of S. cerevisiae through regulating the glycolysis in S. cerevisiae. Moreover, increased concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids secondary to bacteriophage treatment might lead to more membrane fluidity and promote the cell viability of S. cerevisiae.
Publication
Journal: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
October/26/1988
Abstract
In the years 1981-1986 bacteriophage therapy was applied in 550 cases (100 treated in 1986) of suppurative bacterial infections. Positive results were obtained in 508 cases (92.4%). In 38 cases (6.9%) a transient improvement was observed and in 4 cases (0.7%) phage treatment proved ineffective. Considering that majority of patients (518 cases, 94.2%) were resistant to antibiotic treatment, the results of phage therapy may be regarded as favorable.
Publication
Journal: Avian Diseases
August/28/2008
Abstract
Three different lyric bacteriophages (BPs) were isolated from the sewage system of commercial chicken flocks and used to reduce Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) colonization from experimental chickens. Ten-day-old chickens were challenged with 9.6 x 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml of a SE strain and treated by coarse spray or drinking water with a cocktail of the three phages at a multiplicity of infection (MO1) of 10(3) plaque-forming units (PFU) 24 hr prior to SE challenge. Chickens were euthanatized at day 20 of age for individual SE detection, quantitative bacteriology, and phage isolation from the intestine and from a pool of organs. SE detection was performed by both bacteriologic culture and genome detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Qualitative bacteriology showed that aerosol-spray delivery of BPs significantly reduced the incidence of SE infection in the chicken group (P = 0.0084) to 72.7% as compared with the control group (100%). In addition, SE counts showed that phage delivery both by coarse spray and drinking water reduced the intestinal SE colonization (P < 0.01; P < 0.05, respectively). BPs were isolated at 10 days postinfection from the intestine and from pools of organs from BP-treated chickens. We conclude that the phage treatment, either by aerosol spray or drinking water, may be a plausible alternative to antibiotics for the reduction of Salmonella infection in poultry.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Endodontics
January/21/2014
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Bacterial viruses (phages) have been used successfully in the treatment of animal and human bacterial infections. This study examined the potential use of phage therapy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 biofilms in a root canal model.
METHODS
Part 1: The 24-hour and 96-hour PA14 biofilms grown in microplates were treated with phages identified as possessing potential biofilm-degrading activities, and the post-treatment bacterial biomass was quantified by using crystal violet staining. Part 2: The 24-hour and 96-hour PA14 biofilms grown in prepared root canals of extracted human mandibular incisors were treated with phages identified with potential biofilm-degrading activities. Post-treatment intracanal samples were taken by using paper points and round burs to assess phage and bacterial counts.
RESULTS
Part 1: We identified 2 phages (JBD4 and JBD44a) with putative biofilm-degrading activities. Treatment of PA14 biofilms with these phages produced a significant reduction in the mean percentage of biomass in 24-hour (P< .05) and 96-hour (P= .08) biofilms. Part 2: In 24-hour and 96-hour PA14 biofilms in a root canal model, no significant difference was found in the number of colony-forming units after phage treatment (P> .05).
CONCLUSIONS
Phage application significantly reduced the biomass of 24-hour and 96-hour PA14 biofilms grown on microplates but did not produce significant reduction of 24-hour or 96-hour PA14 biofilms grown in the extracted tooth model.
Publication
Journal: AIMS Microbiology
April/1/2020
Abstract
The p-traps of hospital handwashing sinks represent a potential reservoir for antimicrobial-resistant organisms of major public health concern, such as carbapenemase-producing KPC+ Klebsiella pneumoniae (CPKP). Bacteriophages have reemerged as potential biocontrol agents, particularly against biofilm-associated, drug-resistant microorganisms. The primary objective of our study was to formulate a phage cocktail capable of targeting a CPKP strain (CAV1016) at different stages of colonization within polymicrobial drinking water biofilms using a CDC biofilm reactor (CBR) p-trap model. A cocktail of four CAV1016 phages, all exhibiting depolymerase activity, were isolated from untreated wastewater using standard methods. Biofilms containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Elizabethkingia anophelis, Cupriavidus metallidurans, and Methylobacterium fujisawaense were established in the CBR p-trap model for a period of 28 d. Subsequently, CAV1016 was inoculated into the p-trap model and monitored over a period of 21 d. Biofilms were treated for 2 h at either 25 °C or 37 °C with the phage cocktail (109 PFU/ml) at 7, 14, and 21 d post-inoculation. The effect of phage treatment on the viability of biofilm-associated CAV1016 was determined by plate count on m-Endo LES agar. Biofilm heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) were determined using R2A agar. Phage titers were determined by plaque assay. Phage treatment reduced biofilm-associated CAV1016 viability by 1 log10 CFU/cm2 (p < 0.05) at 7 and 14 d (37 °C) and 1.4 log10 and 1.6 log10 CFU/cm2 (p < 0.05) at 7 and 14 d, respectively (25 °C). No significant reduction was observed at 21 d post-inoculation. Phage treatment had no significant effect on the biofilm HPCs (p > 0.05) at any time point or temperature. Supplementation with a non-ionic surfactant appears to enhance phage association within biofilms. The results of this study suggest the potential of phages to control CPKP and other carbapenemase-producing organisms associated with microbial biofilms in the healthcare environment.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Food Microbiology
March/27/2017
Abstract
Bacteriophages are potentially useful in controlling foodborne pathogens on minimally processed products since phage application is a non-destructive treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a newly isolated environmental bacteriophage against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on fresh produce, and optimize the treatment with consideration for potential application. Seven anti E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 bacteriophages were isolated from various sources; the most promising was isolated from municipal wastewater. This isolate (designated as E. coli phage OSY-SP) was propagated with the host, in a growth medium, to a titer of 10(8) PFU/ml. Before inoculation into fresh produce, E. coli phage OSY-SP was incubated with the host bacterium, spent medium was filter-sterilized, and the resulting crude lysate was used as a source of phage inocula for preliminary experiments. For optimized testing, phage in the crude lysate was purified by ultra-centrifugation and resuspension in phosphate-buffered saline. Efficacy of phage treatments was determined as a function of fresh produce type (cut green pepper or spinach leaves), treatment time (2 or 5min rinsing), and temperature of holding treated produce (4°C, 25°, or a combination of both temperatures). Cut green pepper was treated with UV light, to eliminate background microbiota, then spot-inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 on cut edges, and the inoculum was allowed to dry. Because of its susceptibility to damage, baby spinach leaves were not subjected to a decontamination treatment. These leaves were inoculated with the green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli O157:H7 B6-914 to facilitate inoculum enumeration in the presence of background microbiota. Phage suspension was applied to the inoculated fresh produce that was subsequently held for three days under variable storage conditions. The optimized phage treatment decreased the populations of pathogenic E. coli by 2.4-3.0logCFU/g on cut green pepper (5-min rinse) and 3.4-3.5logCFU/g on spinach leaves (2-min rinse), during 72h storage. The majority of this decline was caused by the antimicrobial action of the phage. These findings suggest the utility of bacteriophage to selectively control pathogens on fresh produce.
Publication
Journal: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
November/16/2018
Abstract
Phages, the most abundant species in the mammalian gut, have numerous advantages as biocontrol agent over antibiotics. In this study, mice were orally treated with the lytic gut phage PA13076 (group B), the temperate phage BP96115 (group C), no phage (group A), or streptomycin (group D) over 31 days. At the end of the experiment, fecal microbiota diversity and composition was determined and compared using high-throughput sequencing of the V3-V4 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA gene and virus-like particles (VLPs) were quantified in feces. There was high diversity and richness of microbiota in the lytic and temperate gut phage-treated mice, with the lytic gut phage causing an increased alpha diversity based on the Chao1 index (p < 0.01). However, the streptomycin treatment reduced the microbiota diversity and richness (p = 0.0299). Both phage and streptomycin treatments reduced the abundance of Bacteroidetes at the phylum level (p < 0.01) and increased the abundance of the phylum Firmicutes. Interestingly, two beneficial genera, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, were enhanced by treatment with the lytic and temperate gut phage. The abundance of the genus Escherichia/Shigella was higher in mice after temperate phage administration than in the control group (p < 0.01), but lower than in the streptomycin group. Moreover, streptomycin treatment increased the abundance of the genera Klebsiella and Escherichia/Shigella (p < 0.01). In terms of the gut virome, fecal VLPs did not change significantly after phage treatment. This study showed that lytic and temperate gut phage treatment modulated the composition and diversity of gut microbiota and the lytic gut phage promoted a beneficial gut ecosystem, while the temperate phage may promote conditions enabling diseases to occur.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Animal Science
December/10/2014
Abstract
Escherichia coli O157:H7 remains a foodborne pathogen of concern with infections associated with products ranging from ground beef to produce to processed foods. We previously demonstrated that phage-based technologies could reduce foodborne pathogen colonization in live animals. Here, we examined if a 3-phage cocktail could reduce E. coli O157:H7 in experimentally contaminated ground beef, spinach, and cheese. The 3 phages were chosen from our E. coli O157:H7 phage library based on their distinct origins of isolation, lytic ranges, and rapid growth (40- to 50-min life cycle). Two phages belonged to the Myoviridae family and the other phage belonged to the Siphoviridae family. The phage cocktail was added to ground beef, spinach leaves, and cheese slices contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) cfu) at a multiplicity of infection of 1. Phage treatment reduced (P < 0.05) the concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 by 1.97 log10 cfu/mL in ground beef when stored at room temperature (24 °C) for 24 h, 0.48 log10 cfu/mL at refrigeration (4 °C), and 0.56 log10 cfu/mL in undercooked condition (internal temperature of 46 °C). Likewise, phage treatment reduced (P < 0.05) E. coli O157:H7 by 3.28, 2.88, and 2.77 log10 cfu/mL in spinach when stored at room temperature for 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Phage treatment, however, did not reduce E. coli O157:H7 concentrations in contaminated cheese. Additionally, 3 phage-resistant E. coli O157:H7 strains (309-PR [phage resistant] 1, 309-PR4, and 502-PR5) were isolated and characterized to test if phage resistance could limit long-term use of phages as biocontrol agents. Growth kinetics and adsorption assays indicated that phage resistance in strains 309-PR4 and 502-PR5 was mediated, at least in part, by prevention of phage adsorption. Phage resistance in strain 309-PR1 was the result of limited phage proliferation. Phage resistance was stably maintained in vitro throughout a 4-d subculture period in the absence of phage. No significant reductions in bacterial growth or cell adhesion were observed in resistant strains. Taken together, our results provide additional support for the use of phage to control E. coli O157:H7 in food products; however, the emergence of phage-resistant bacteria could limit the efficacy of phage products. Therefore, further studies are needed to develop resistance mitigation strategies to optimize phage-based technologies.
Publication
Journal: Poultry Science
August/26/2005
Abstract
Bacteriophages represent a group of viruses that specifically infect and replicate in bacteria and could potentially be used to reduce recovery of Salmonella from poultry carcasses. Bacteriophages were isolated from municipal wastewater in the presence of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 13A (SE). In the first 2 experiments, commercially processed broiler carcass rinse water was pooled and divided. The addition of 10(10) pfu/mL of a single bacteriophage (PHL 4) with selected concentrations of SE reduced (P < 0.05) frequency of SE recovered as compared with the control rinse water sample. In experiments 3 and 4, broiler carcasses were intentionally inoculated with SE, sprayed with selected concentrations of PHL 4, and rinsed for SE enrichment and isolation. Application of 5.5 mL of 10(8) or 10(10) pfu/mL of PHL 4 reduced (P < 0.05) the frequency of SE recovery as compared with controls. In experiments 5 and 6, commercially processed turkeys were rinsed with water containing 72 wild-type bacteriophages isolated against SE, which were amplified in SE, or the Salmonella isolated antemortem from drag swabs from the flock selected for in-plant treatment, or a combination of bacteriophages amplified by each bacterial host. All bacteriophage treatments reduced (P < 0.05) frequency of Salmonella recovery as compared with controls. Sufficient concentrations of an appropriate bacteriophage, or a bacteriophage mixture, can significantly reduce recoverable Salmonella from carcass rinses.