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Publication
Journal: Molecular Cancer
March/11/2007
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Many chemotherapeutic agents have been used to treat pancreatic cancer without success. Apigenin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been shown to inhibit growth in some cancer cell lines but has not been studied in pancreatic cancer. We hypothesized that apigenin would inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro.
RESULTS
Apigenin caused both time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in four pancreatic cancer cell lines. Apigenin induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Apigenin reduced levels of cyclin A, cyclin B, phosphorylated forms of cdc2 and cdc25, which are all proteins required for G2/M transition.
CONCLUSIONS
Apigenin inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer cells through suppression of cyclin B-associated cdc2 activity and G2/M arrest, and may be a valuable drug for the treatment or prevention of pancreatic cancer.
Publication
Journal: Neuroscience Letters
April/21/2005
Abstract
In case of injury or disease, microglia are recruited to the site of the pathology and become activated as evidenced by morphological changes and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Evidence suggests that microglia proliferate by cell division to create gliosis at the site of pathological conditions such as the amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease and the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease patients. The hyperactivation of microglia contributes to neurotoxicity. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that anti-inflammatory compounds modulate the progression of cell cycle and induce apoptosis of the activated cells. We investigated the effects of ibuprofen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) and apigenin (a flavonoid with anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties) on the cell cycle of the murine microglial cell line BV-2. The findings indicate that apigenin-induced cell cycle arrest preferentially in the G2/M phase and ibuprofen caused S phase arrest. The binding of annexin V-FITC to the membranes of cells which indicates the apoptotic process were examined, whereas the DNA was stained with propidium iodide. Both apigenin and ibuprofen induced apoptosis significantly in early and late stages. The induction of apoptosis by ibuprofen and apigenin was confirmed using TUNEL assay, revealing that 25 microM apigenin and 250 microM ibuprofen significantly increased apoptosis in BV-2 cells. The results from the present study suggest that anti-inflammatory compounds might inhibit microglial proliferation by modulating the cell cycle progression and apoptosis.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Oncology
May/18/2014
Abstract
In the present study, we investigated the effect of apigenin, a flavonoid widely present in fruits and vegetables, on a tongue oral cancer-derived cell line (SCC-25) and on a keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT), with the aim of unveiling its antiproliferative mechanisms. The effect of apigenin on cell growth was evaluated by MTT assay, while apoptosis was investigated by phosphatidyl serine membrane translocation and cell cycle distribution by propidium iodide DNA staining through flow cytometry. In addition the expression of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases was evaluated by western blotting. A reduction of apigenin-induced cell growth was found in both cell lines, although SCC-25 cells were significantly more sensitive than the immortalized keratinocytes, HaCaT. Moreover, apigenin induced apoptosis and modulated the cell cycle in SCC-25 cells. Apigenin treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest at both G0/G1 and G2/M checkpoints, while western blot analysis revealed the decreased expression of cyclin D1 and E, and inactivation of CDK1 upon apigenin treatment. These results demonstrate the anticancer potential of apigenin in an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line, suggesting that it may be a very promising chemopreventive agent due to its cancer cell cytotoxic activity and its ability to act as a cell cycle modulating agent at multiple levels.
Publication
Journal: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
September/18/2006
Abstract
Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone) is a promising chemopreventive agent abundantly present in fruits and vegetables that has been shown to promote cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in various malignant cell lines. To determine whether pharmacologic intervention with apigenin has a direct growth inhibitory effect on human prostate tumors implanted in athymic nude mice, we examined cell cycle regulatory molecules as precise molecular targets of apigenin action. Apigenin feeding by gavage to these mice at doses of 20 and 50 microg/mouse/d in 0.2 mL of a vehicle containing 0.5% methyl cellulose and 0.025% Tween 20 resulted in significant decreases in tumor volume and mass of androgen-sensitive 22Rv1 and androgen-insensitive PC-3-implanted cells. Oral intake of apigenin resulted in dose-dependent (a) increase in the protein expression of WAF1/p21, KIP1/p27, INK4a/p16, and INK4c/p18; (b) down-modulation of the protein expression of cyclins D1, D2, and E; and cyclin-dependent kinases (cdk), cdk2, cdk4, and cdk6; (c) decrease in retinoblastoma phosphorylation at serine 780; (d) increase in the binding of cyclin D1 toward WAF1/p21 and KIP1/p27; and (e) decrease in the binding of cyclin E toward cdk2 in both types of tumors. In addition, apigenin feeding resulted in stabilization of p53 by phosphorylation at serine 15 in 22Rv1 tumors, which seems to exhibit p53-dependent growth inhibitory responses. Apigenin intake by these mice also resulted in induction of apoptosis, which positively correlated with serum and tumor apigenin levels. Taken together, this is the first systematic in vivo study showing the involvement of cell cycle regulatory proteins as potential molecular targets of apigenin.
Publication
Journal: Xi bao yu fen zi mian yi xue za zhi = Chinese journal of cellular and molecular immunology
April/1/2010
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To study the effect of Apigenin (AP) on the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of mouse T cells in vitro.
METHODS
The lymphocytes were prepared from lymph nodes and thymus of mice. The effect of AP on the proliferation of T in response to ConA at different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 150, 200 micromol/L) was detected by MTT. Cell cycle was measured by PI staining and FCM. The effect of Apigenin and Apigenin with DEX on T cell apoptosis was measured by Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and FCM. The effect of different concentrations of AP cytotoxicity to T cells was measured by MTT.
RESULTS
25-200 micromol/L of AP didn't have cytotoxicity to T cells, but it had some inhibitory effect on T cells in response to ConA(P<0.01), arresting cell cycle at G0/G1 in a dose-dependent manner. Different concentrations of AP inhibited the apoptosis of T cells, especially those induced by DEX(P<0.01).
CONCLUSIONS
AP can inhibit the proliferation of mouse T cells in response to ConA, arrest cell cycle at G0/G1 and inhibit the apoptosis of T cells.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Oncology
May/1/2005
Abstract
Apigenin, a common dietary flavonoid, has been shown to induce cell growth-inhibition and cell cycle arrest in many cancer cell lines. One important effect of apigenin is to increase the stability of the tumor suppressor p53 in normal cells. Therefore, apigenin is expected to play a large role in cancer prevention by modifying the effects of p53 protein. However, the mechanisms of apigenin's effects on p53-mutant cancer cells have not been revealed yet. We assessed the influence of apigenin on cell growth and the cell cycle in p53-mutant cell lines. Treatment with apigenin resulted in growth-inhibition and G2/M phase arrest in two p53-mutant cancer cell lines, HT-29 and MG63. These effects were associated with a marked increase in the protein expression of p21/WAF1. We have shown that p21/WAF1 mRNA expression was also markedly increased by treatment with apigenin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, we could not detect p21/WAF1 promoter activity following treatment with apigenin. Similarly, promoter activity from pG13-Luc, a p53-responsive promoter plasmid, was not activated by treatment with apigenin with or without p53 protein expression. These results suggest that there is a p53-independent pathway for apigenin in p53-mutant cell lines, which induces p21/WAF1 expression and growth-inhibition. Apigenin may be a useful chemopreventive agent not only in wild-type p53 status, but also in cancer with mutant p53.
Publication
Journal: Molecular Carcinogenesis
July/22/1997
Abstract
Apigenin is a plant flavonoid that has been shown to significantly inhibit ultraviolet-induced mouse skin tumorigenesis when applied topically and may be an alternative sunscreen agent for humans. A long-term goal of our laboratory is to elucidate the molecular mechanism or mechanism by which apigenin inhibits skin tumorigenesis. In a previous publication, we characterized the mechanism by which apigenin induced G2/M arrest in keratinocytes. More recent studies in our laboratory have provided evidence that apigenin can induce G1 arrest in addition to arresting cells at G2/M. Here we describe the mechanism of the apigenin-induced G1 arrest in human diploid fibroblasts (HDF). Treatment of asynchronous HDF for 24 h with 10-50 microM apigenin resulted in dose-dependent cell-cycle arrest at both the G0/G1 and G2/M phases as measured by flow cytometry. The G0/G1 arrest was more clearly defined by using HDF that were synchronized in G0 and then released from quiescence by replating at subconfluent densities in medium containing 10-70 microM apigenin. The cells were analyzed for cell-cycle progression or cyclin D1 expression 24 h later. A dose of apigenin as low as 10 microM reduced the percentage of cells in S phase by 20% compared with control cultures treated with solvent alone. Western blot analysis of apigenin-treated HDF indicated that cyclin D1 was expressed at higher levels than in untreated cells, which signifies that they were arrested in G1 phase rather than in a G0 quiescent state. The G1 arrest was further studied by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (cdk2) immune complex-kinase assays of apigenin-treated asynchronous HDF, which demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of cdk2 by apigenin. Inhibition of cdk2 kinase activity in apigenin-treated cells was associated with the accumulation of the hypophosphorylated form of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein as measured by western blot analysis. The cdk inhibitor p21/WAF1 was also induced in a dose-dependent manner, with a 22-fold induction of p21/WAF1 in 70 microM apigenin-treated cells. In conclusion, apigenin treatment produced a G1 cell-cycle arrest by inhibiting cdk2 kinase activity and the phosphorylation of Rb and inducing the cdk inhibitor p21/WAF1, all of which may mediate its chemopreventive activities in vivo. To our knowledge this is the first report of a chemopreventive agent inducing p21/WAF1, a known downstream effector of the p53 tumor suppressor protein.
Publication
Journal: Cancer Cell International
June/6/2013
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone) was recently shown effective in inhibiting several cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of apigenin in the human bladder cancer cell line T24 for the first time.
METHODS
T24 cells were treated with varying concentrations and time of apigenin. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Cell motility and invasiveness were assayed by Matrigel migration and invasion assay. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis were used to detect cell apoptosis, cell cycle and signaling pathway.
RESULTS
The results demonstrated that apigenin suppressed proliferation and inhibited the migration and invasion potential of T24 bladder cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was associated with induced G2/M Phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The mechanism of action is like to involve PI3K/Akt pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins. Apigenin increased caspase-3 activity and PARP cleavage, indicating that apigenin induced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent way.
CONCLUSIONS
These findings suggest that apigenin may be an effective way for treating human bladder cancer.
Publication
Journal: Oncology Reports
April/16/2017
Abstract
Malignant melanoma is the most invasive and fatal form of cutaneous cancer. Moreover it is extremely resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Apigenin, a non-mutagenic flavonoid, has been found to exhibit chemopreventive and/or anticancerogenic properties in many different types of human cancer cells. Therefore, apigenin may have particular relevance for development as a chemotherapeutic agent for cancer treatment. In the present study, we investigated the effects of apigenin on the viability, migration and invasion potential, dendrite morphology, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in human melanoma A375 and C8161 cell lines in vitro. Apigenin effectively suppressed the proliferation of melanoma cells in vitro. Moreover, it inhibited cell migration and invasion, lengthened the dendrites, and induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, apigenin promoted the activation of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP proteins and decreased the expression of phosphorylated (p)‑ERK1/2 proteins, p-AKT and p-mTOR. Consequently, apigenin is a novel therapeutic candidate for melanoma.
Publication
Journal: Toxicological Research
April/24/2019
Abstract
Ovarian cancer is the fifth main cause of pre-senescent death in women. Although chemotherapy is generally an efficient treatment, its side effects and the occurrence of chemotherapeutic resistance have prompted the need for alternative treatments. In this study, α-mangostin and apigenin were evaluated as possible anticancer alternatives to the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin, used herein as a positive control. The ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line SKOV-3 (ATCC No. HTB77) was used as model ovarian cancer cells, whereas the skin fibroblast line CCD-986Sk (ATCC No. CRL-1947) and lung fibroblast line WI-38 (ATCC No. CCL-75) were used as model untransformed cells. Apigenin and doxorubicin inhibited the growth of SKOV-3 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After 72 hr exposure, doxorubicin was mostly toxic to SKOV-3 cells, whereas apigenin was toxic to SKOV-3 cells but not CCD-986Sk and WI-38 cells. α-Mangostin was more toxic to SKOV-3 cells than to CCD-986Sk cells. A lower cell density, cell shrinkage, and more unattached (floating round) cells were observed in all treated SKOV-3 cells, but the greatest effects were observed with α-mangostin. With regard to programmed cell death, apigenin caused early apoptosis within 24 hr, whereas α-mangostin and doxorubicin caused late apoptosis and necrosis after 72 hr of exposure. Caspase-3 activity was significantly increased in α-mangostin-treated SKOV-3 cells after 12 hr of exposure, whereas only caspase-9 activity was significantly increased in apigenin-treated SKOV-3 cells at 24 hr. Both α-mangostin and apigenin arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase, but after 24 and 48 hr, respectively. Significant upregulation of BCL2 (apoptosis-associated gene) and COX2 (inflammation-associated gene) transcripts was observed in apigenin- and α-mangostin-treated SKOV-3 cells, respectively. α-Mangostin and apigenin are therefore alternative options for SKOV-3 cell inhibition, with apigenin causing rapid early apoptosis related to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, and α-mangostin likely being involved with inflammation.
Publication
Journal: Molecular Carcinogenesis
August/1/2000
Abstract
<em>Apigenin</em>, a common dietary flavonoid, has been shown to induce <em>cell</em> <em>cycle</em> arrest in both epidermal and fibroblast <em>cells</em> and inhibit skin tumorigenesis in murine models. The present study assessed the influence of <em>apigenin</em> on <em>cell</em> growth and the <em>cell</em> <em>cycle</em> in the human colon carcinoma <em>cell</em> lines SW480, HT-29, and Caco-2. Treatment of each <em>cell</em> line with <em>apigenin</em> (0-80 microM) resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in both <em>cell</em> number and <em>cell</em>ular protein content, compared with untreated control cultures. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that treatment with <em>apigenin</em> resulted in G2/M arrest in all three <em>cell</em> lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner. <em>Apigenin</em> treatment (80 microM) for 48 h produced maximum G2/M arrest of 64%, 42%, and 26% in SW480 <em>cells</em>, HT-29 <em>cells</em>, and Caco-2 <em>cells</em>, respectively, in comparison with control <em>cells</em> (15%). The proportion of S-phase <em>cells</em> was not altered by <em>apigenin</em> treatment in each of the three <em>cell</em> lines. The G2/M arrest was reversible after 48 h of <em>apigenin</em> treatment in the most sensitive <em>cell</em> line SW480. The degree of G2/M arrest by <em>apigenin</em> was inversely correlated with the corresponding inhibition of <em>cell</em> growth measurements in all three <em>cell</em> lines (r = -0.626 to -0.917, P</=0. 005). Moreover, an immune complex kinase assay demonstrated an inhibition of p34(cdc2) kinase activity, a critical enzyme in G2/M transition, in each <em>cell</em> line after treatment with <em>apigenin</em> (50-80 microM). Western blot analyses indicated that both p34(cdc2) and cyclin B1 proteins were also decreased after <em>apigenin</em> treatment. These results indicate that <em>apigenin</em> inhibits colon carcinoma <em>cell</em> growth by inducing a reversible G2/M arrest and that this arrest is associated, at least in part, with inhibited activity of p34(cdc2) kinase and reduced accumulation of p34(cdc2) and cyclin B1 proteins. Differences in induction of G2/M arrest by <em>apigenin</em> in the three colon carcinoma <em>cell</em> lines suggest that dietary <em>apigenin</em> may be differentially effective against tumors with specific mutational spectra. Mol. Carcinog. 28:102-110, 2000.
Publication
Journal: Molecular Carcinogenesis
March/9/2004
Abstract
Development of effective agents for treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer has become a national medical priority. We have reported recently that apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone), found in many common fruits and vegetables, has shown remarkable effects in inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis in many human prostate carcinoma cells. Here we demonstrate the molecular mechanism of inhibitory action of apigenin on androgen-refractory human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells that have mutations in the tumor suppressor gene p53 and pRb. Treatment of cells with apigenin resulted in a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of growth, colony formation, and G1 phase arrest of the cell cycle. This effect was associated with a marked decrease in the protein expression of cyclin D1, D2, and E and their activating partner, cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)2, 4, and 6, with concomitant upregulation of WAF1/p21, KIP1/p27, INK4a/p16, and INK4c/p18. The induction of WAF1/p21 and its growth inhibitory effects by apigenin appears to be independent of p53 and pRb status of these cells. Apigenin treatment also resulted in alteration in Bax/Bcl2 ratio in favor of apoptosis, which was associated with the release of cytochrome c and induction of apoptotic protease-activating factor-1 (Apaf-1). This effect was found to result in a significant increase in cleaved fragments of caspase-9, -3, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Further, apigenin treatment resulted in downmodulation of the constitutive expression of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)/p65 and NF-kappaB/p50 in the nuclear fraction that correlated with an increase in the expression of IkappaB-alpha (IkappaBalpha) in the cytosol. Taken together, we concluded that molecular mechanisms during apigenin-mediated growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in DU145 cells was due to (1) modulation in cell-cycle machinery, (2) disruption of mitochondrial function, and (3) NF-kappaB inhibition.
Publication
Journal: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
December/3/2001
Abstract
Agents that are capable of inducing selective apoptosis of cancer cells are receiving considerable attention in developing novel cancer-preventive approaches. In the present study, employing normal human prostate epithelial cells (NHPE), virally transformed normal human prostate epithelial cells (PZ-HPV-7), and human prostate adenocarcinoma (CA-HPV-10) cells, we evaluated the growth-inhibitory effects of apigenin, a flavonoid abundantly present in fruits and vegetables. Apigenin treatment to NHPE and PZ-HPV-7 resulted in almost similar growth inhibitory responses of low magnitude. In sharp contrast, apigenin treatment resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability of CA-HPV-10 cells. Similar selective growth inhibitory effects were also observed for human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells compared to normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Apigenin treatment resulted in significant apoptosis of CA-HPV-10 cells as evident from (i) DNA ladder assay, (ii) fluorescence microscopy, and (iii) TUNEL assay, whereas the NHPE and PZ-HPV-7 cells did not undergo apoptosis but showed exclusive necrotic staining only at a high dose of 40 microM. Apigenin (1-10 microM) also resulted in a dose-dependent G2-M phase cell cycle arrest of CA-HPV-10 cells but not of PZ-HPV-7 cells. The growth-inhibitory and apoptotic potential of apigenin was also observed in a variety of prostate carcinoma cells representing different stage and androgen responsiveness. Apigenin may be developed as a promising chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent against prostate cancer.
Publication
Journal: Nutrition and Cancer
December/1/2004
Abstract
Apigenin has been previously shown to induce G2/M cell-cycle arrest in human colon cancer cell lines. The present study assessed the individual and interactive influence of seven apigenin analogs on cell cycle, cell number, and cell viability in human SW480 and Caco-2 colonic carcinoma cells. Cellular concentration of selected apigenin analogs was further assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography to assess cellular availability. The apigenin analogs studied were acacetin, chrysin, kampherol, luteolin, myricetin, naringenin, and quercetin. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that treatment with either chrysin or acacetin at 0 to 80 microM for 48 h resulted in cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner in the SW480 cells but not in the Caco-2 cells. The percentage of SW480 cells at G2/M also increased when cells were treated with kampherol, luteolin, or quercetin between 5 and 30 microM, but the percentage of cells in G2/M decreased at doses greater than 40 microM. Cell number was significantly decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner following the treatments with each analog except for naringenin and myricetin. The interactive effects of these analogs with apigenin were further assessed by combining each analog at doses from 0 to 80 microM with apigenin at 20 microM, a dose at which apigenin was found to double the proportion of SW480 cells in G2/M. When either acacetin, chrysin, luteolin, kampherol, or quercetin at doses between 5 and 30 microM were combined with apigenin at 20 microM, there was an increase of 22% in the proportion of G2/M cells over that observed with 20 microM apigenin alone (P < 0.05). At doses higher than 40 microM, however, the interaction became antagonistic, and the proportion of cells in G2/M decreased below that observed with apigenin alone. Cell viability, as assessed by Trypan blue exclusion assay, significantly decreased by treatments with high doses of each agent or each agent combined with apigenin. Cellular concentration of apigenin, chrysin, or naringenin in SW480 cells significantly increased at doses of 40 microM or greater, but it was not correlated with their impact on G2/M cell-cycle arrest. The induction of cell-cycle arrest by five of seven tested apigenin analogs and the additive induction by the combination of flavonoids at low doses suggest that apigenin-related flavonoids may cooperatively protect against colorectal cancer through conjoint blocking of cell-cycle progression.
Publication
Journal: Gene
February/11/2020
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver tumors. There is only one chemodrug for treatment called sorafenib that is an effective multikinase inhibitor. However, most of the patients gain resistance to sorafenib treatment in six months. Thus, there is a limitation for treatment of HCC. Apigenin is a natural flavonoid that has been used for many years as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. The aim of this study is to investigate the combined therapeutic effects of sorafenib and apigenin upon apoptosis and cell cycle on HepG2 cell line. Cytotoxic effects of sorafenib and apigenin on HepG2 cells were determined by XTT assay. Effects of single and combined treatment on cell migration, invasion and colony formation were analysed by wound healing, transwell matrigel invasion assay and colony formation assay, respectively. TUNEL assay was performed for analyse apoptosis rates. Expression changes of genes related with apoptosis and cell cycle were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Combined treatment of sorafenib and apigenin has more decreasing effects on cell viability than single treatment groups. Also, combination group caused significant increase of apoptotic cells. Migration and invasion capability of cells in combined treatment group are decreased. Lastly, quantitative real-time PCR results showed that combination of both drugs arrested cell cycle and increased apoptotic gene expressions more than single treatment groups. This is the first study that investigating the combined treatment of sorafenib and apigenin on HCC in vitro. By combined treatment, apigenin potentiates sorafenib cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells. Effects of combined treatment on migration, invasion, apoptosis and gene expressions showed that may sorafenib and apigenin have synergistic effect.
Publication
Journal: Cancer Cell International
April/9/2015
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Apigenin is a nontoxic dietary flavonoid, and it may have chemopreventive and therapeutic potential as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer agent. However, its role in bladder cancer remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-proliferative activity of apigenin in human bladder cancer T-24 cells.
RESULTS
Apigenin inhibited T-24 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. We demonstrated that apigenin-induced early and mid-apoptotic cell could be identified by Annexnin V-Alexa Fluor 488/PI apoptosis detection and TUNEL assay. Moreover, using a JC-1 staining assay, we found that apigenin may induce the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential. By performing flow cytometry and Western blotting, apigenin-mediated subG1 phase acculmulation was also associated with an increase in the phospho-p53, p53, p21, and p27 levels, and with a decrease in the Cyclin A, Cyclin B1, Cyclin E, CDK2, Cdc2, and Cdc25C levels, thereby blocking cell cycle progression. ELISA showed that the subG1 phase acculmulation was due to the increase in the p53, p21, and p27 levels. In addition, apigenin increased the Bax, Bad, and Bak levels, but reduced the Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 levels, and subsequently triggered the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway (release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-9, caspase-3, caspase-7, and PARP). Further analysis demonstrated that apigenin increased the ROS levels and depleted GSH in T-24 cells at 12 h.
CONCLUSIONS
The results suggested that apigenin inhibits T-24 cells proliferation via blocking cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis. In addition, we discovered a potential anticancer activity of apigenin against T-24 cells.
Publication
Journal: Molecular Carcinogenesis
November/12/2007
Abstract
This research assessed the importance of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor mutation in the ability of apigenin to induce cell cycle arrest using HT29-APC cells, which contain inducible wild-type APC under the metallothionein promoter. HT29-GAL cells, containing beta-galactosidase (GAL), were included as control. Treatment with apigenin (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 microM) for 48 h resulted in reduction in the cell number (P < 0.05) concurrent with flow cytometry results showing a dose-dependent accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase in both HT29-APC and HT29-GAL cells without ZnCl(2) treatment. Flow cytometric analysis showed an increase (P < 0.05) in the percentage of cells in G2/M when HT29-APC cells were treated with 80 microM apigenin for 120 h. This increase was not present in HT29-APC cells when treated with both 80 microM apigenin and 100 microM ZnCl(2) for 120 h. Western blot analysis verified the induction of APC protein expression in ZnCl(2)-treated HT29-APC cells but not in ZnCl(2)-treated HT29-GAL cells. Apigenin plus ZnCl(2) treatment increased the expression of APC protein in HT29-APC cells by 50 fold above expression observed with ZnCl(2) alone. Upon induction of the APC gene with ZnCl(2) in HT29-APC cells, the percentage of apoptotic cells increased significantly (P < 0.05) after 120-h treatment. Additionally, apigenin treatment (80 microM) further increased the percentage of apopototic HT29-APC following ZnCl(2) treatment to induce wild-type APC expression. These results suggest that APC dysfunction may be critical for apigenin to induce cell cycle arrest in human colon cancer cell lines and furthermore, apigenin enhances APC expression and apoptosis in cells with wild-type APC.
Publication
Journal: Oncogene
June/13/2002
Abstract
Apigenin, a common dietary flavonoid abundantly present in fruits and vegetables, may have the potential for prevention and therapy for prostate cancer. Here, we report for the first time that apigenin inhibits the growth of androgen-responsive human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells and provide molecular understanding of this effect. The cell growth inhibition achieved by apigenin treatment resulted in a significant decrease in AR protein expression along with a decrease in intracellular and secreted forms of PSA. These effects were also observed in DHT-stimulated cells. Further, apigenin treatment of LNCaP cells resulted in G1 arrest in cell cycle progression which was associated with a marked decrease in the protein expression of cyclin D1, D2 and E and their activating partner cdk2, 4 and 6 with concomitant induction of WAF1/p21 and KIP1/p27. The induction of WAF1/p21 appears to be transcriptionally upregulated and is p53 dependent. In addition, apigenin inhibited the hyperphosphorylation of the pRb protein in these cells. Apigenin treatment also resulted in induction of apoptosis as determined by DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. These effects were found to correlate with a shift in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio more towards apoptosis. Apigenin treatment also resulted in down-modulation of the constitutive expression of NF-kappaB/p65. Taken together, these findings suggest that apigenin has strong potential for development as an agent for prevention against prostate cancer.
Publication
Journal: Cell Cycle
August/6/2007
Abstract
Apigenin, a dietary plant-flavonoid has shown anti-proliferative and anticancer properties, however the molecular basis of this effect remains to be elucidated. We studied the molecular events of apigenin action in human prostate cancer cells. Treatment of LNCaP and PC-3 cells with apigenin causes G0-G1 phase arrest, decrease in total Rb protein and its phosphorylation at Ser780 and Ser807/811 in dose- and time-dependent fashion. Apigenin treatment caused increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 and this sustained activation resulted in decreased ELK-1 phosphorylation and c-FOS expression thereby inhibiting cell survival. Use of kinase inhibitors induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, albeit at different levels, and did not contribute to cell cycle arrest in comparison to apigenin treatment. Despite activation of MAPK pathway, apigenin caused a significant decrease in cyclin D1 expression that occurred simultaneously with the loss of Rb phosphorylation and inhibition of cell cycle progression. The reduced expression of cyclin D1 protein correlated with decrease in expression and phosphorylation of p38 and PI3K-Akt, which are regulators of cyclin D1 protein. Interestingly, apigenin caused a marked reduction in cyclin D1, D2 and E and their regulatory partners CDK 2, 4 and 6, operative in G0-G1 phase of the cell cycle. This was accompanied by a loss of RNA polymerase II phosphorylation, suggesting the effectiveness of apigenin in inhibiting transcription of these proteins. This study provides an insight into the molecular mechanism of apigenin in modulating various tyrosine kinases and perturbs cell cycle progression, suggesting its future development and use as anticancer agent in humans.
Publication
Journal: Biochemical Pharmacology
January/24/2013
Abstract
Apigenin, an abundant plant flavonoid, exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-carcinogenic activities through mechanisms yet not fully defined. In the present study, we show that the treatment of leukemia cells with apigenin resulted in the induction of DNA damage preceding the activation of the apoptotic program. Apigenin-induced DNA damage was mediated by p38 and protein kinase C-delta (PKCδ), yet was independent of reactive oxygen species or caspase activity. Treatment of monocytic leukemia cells with apigenin induced the phosphorylation of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase and histone H2AX, two key regulators of the DNA damage response, without affecting the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Rad-3-related (ATR) kinase. Silencing and pharmacological inhibition of PKCδ abrogated ATM and H2AX phosphorylation, whereas inhibition of p38 reduced H2AX phosphorylation independently of ATM. We established that apigenin delayed cell cycle progression at G1/S and increased the number of apoptotic cells. In addition, genome-wide mRNA analyses showed that apigenin-induced DNA damage led to down-regulation of genes involved in cell-cycle control and DNA repair. Taken together, the present results show that the PKCδ-dependent activation of ATM and H2AX define the signaling networks responsible for the regulation of DNA damage promoting genome-wide mRNA alterations that result in cell cycle arrest, hence contributing to the anti-carcinogenic activities of this flavonoid.
Publication
Journal: Translational Oncology
July/27/2020
Abstract
Background: With 9.6 million deaths in 2018, cancer remains the second leading cause of death worldwide. Breast cancer is the most deadly type of cancer among females, with 55.2% of crude incidence rate and 16.6% of crude mortality rate.
Purpose: The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-breast cancer potential of natural dietary flavonoid, apigenin isolated from Clerodendrum viscosum leaves.
Methods: Apigenin was evaluated for in-depth anticancer activity in MCF-7 cells using cell viability assay, cell cycle analysis, Annexin-V-FLUOS staining, ROS induction, morphological analysis, and western blot analysis.
Results: Apigenin showed selective cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cells with an IC50-56.72 ± 2.35 µM, while negligible cytotoxicity was observed on WI-38 cells. Further, the flow cytometer-based analysis showed that apigenin halted MCF-7 cells in the G2/M phase arrest followed by dose-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, the FACS and confocal microscopy results confirmed the elevation of intracellular ROS and nuclear fragmentation in apigenin-treated MCF-7 cells. Western blots showed up-regulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins, increased p53 expression, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activation of caspases, and cleavage of PARP. Finally, apigenin treatment in the presence of Pifithrin-µ showed decreased apoptotic population and it was further confirmed through western blotting study. The results revealed the vital role of p53 in apigenin-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.
Conclusions: In the present findings, treatment of apigenin-induced intracellular ROS in MCF-7 cells followed by induction of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and further apoptosis through the regulation of p53 and caspase-cascade signaling pathway.
Keywords: Anticancer activity; Apigenin; Caspase-cascade pathway; ROS induction; p53.
Publication
Journal: Phytotherapy Research
June/15/2021
Abstract
Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) has high nutritional value, containing bioactive compounds such as betalains and flavonoids. Scientific evidence points to the use of these natural compounds in the treatment of several types of cancer, such as prostate cancer, one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in men. Here, we compared beet roots and leaves extracts, and their main compounds, apigenin, and betanin, respectively, in DU-145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. Both cells presented the proliferation decreased for beetroot and beet leaves extracts. The apigenin treatment also reduced the proliferation of both cell lines. Regarding cell migration, beet leaves extract was able to decrease the scratch area in both cell lines, whereas apigenin affected only PC-3 cells' migration. In colony formation assay, both extracts were effective in reducing the number of colonies formed. Besides, the beet leaves extracts and apigenin presented strong inhibition of growth-related signaling pathways in both cell lines, and the beetroot extract and betanin presented effects only in DU-145 cells. Furthermore, the extracts and isolated compounds were able to reduce the levels of apoptotic and cell cycle proteins. This study reveals that beet extracts have important anti-cancer effects against prostate cancer cells.
Keywords: Beta vulgaris; apigenin; cell cycle; mTOR; prostate cancer.
Publication
Journal: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects
May/9/2012
Abstract
Pancreatic cancer is an exceedingly lethal disease with a five-year survival that ranks among the lowest of gastrointestinal malignancies. Part of its lethality is attributable to a generally poor response to existing chemotherapeutic regimens. New therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. We aimed to elucidate the anti-neoplastic mechanisms of apigenin-an abundant, naturally-occurring plant flavonoid-with a particular focus on p53 function. Pancreatic cancer cells (BxPC-3, MiaPaCa-2) experienced dose and time-dependent growth inhibition and increased apoptosis with apigenin treatment. p53 post-translational modification, nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and upregulation of p21 and PUMA were all enhanced by apigenin treatment despite mutated p53 in both cell lines. Transcription-dependent p53 activity was reversed by pifithrin-α, a specific DNA binding inhibitor of p53, but not growth inhibition or apoptosis suggesting transcription-independent p53 activity. This was supported by immunoprecipitation assays which demonstrated disassociation of p53/BclXL and PUMA/BclXL and formation of complexes with Bak followed by cytochrome c release. Treated animals grew smaller tumors with increased cellular apoptosis than those fed control diet. These results suggest that despite deactivating mutation, p53 retains some of its function which is augmented following treatment with apigenin. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction may be mediated by transcription-independent p53 function via interactions with BclXL and PUMA. Further study of flavonoids as chemotherapeutics is warranted.
Publication
Journal: Phytomedicine
June/26/2021
Abstract
Background: Apigenin (API) is a naturally occurring plant-derived flavone, which is abundantly present in common fruits and vegetables, and shows little or no toxicity of daily diet. The treatment of colorectal cancer is limited by high recurrence rate and multidrug resistance.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the potential therapeutic effect and possible mechanisms of API on colorectal cancer cells.
Methods: Cell proliferation and apoptosis of human colon cancer cell line HCT116 was assessed after API treatment. A comprehensive transcriptome profile of API-treated HCT116 cells was acquired by high-throughput sequencing. The regulation of miRNA215-5p and E2F1/3 were identified by bioinformatics analyses. An inhibitor of miRNA215-5p, inhibitor 215, was applied to confirm the role of this microRNA played in the anti-cancer effect of API. Luciferase reporter gene assay was performed to identify targeting relationship between miRNA215-5p and E2F1/3.
Result: API significantly promoted cell apoptosis and anti-proliferation of HCT116 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Bioinformatics analyses identified several altered miRNAs among which the expression of miRNA-215-5p showed markedly increased. Meanwhile, the expression of E2F1 and E2F3 was decreased by API, which was associated with miRNA215-5p. Luciferase reporter gene assay showed miRNA-215-5p could directly bind to 3' UTR of E2F1/3. Inhibition of miRNA-215-5p significantly inhibited apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase induced by API.
Conclusions: The result of this study confirmed the anti-cancer effect of API on human colorectal cancer cells and investigated the underlying mechanism by a comprehensive transcriptome profile of API-treated cells.
Keywords: Apigenin; Cell cycle; Colorectal cancer; E2F1; High-throughput sequencing; miRNA-215-5p.
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