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Publication
Journal: Annual Review of Nutrition
November/17/2002
Abstract
Flavonoids comprise the most common group of plant polyphenols and provide much of the flavor and color to fruits and vegetables. More than 5000 different flavonoids have been described. The six major subclasses of flavonoids include the flavones (e.g., apigenin, luteolin), flavonols (e.g., quercetin, myricetin), flavanones (e.g., naringenin, hesperidin), catechins or flavanols (e.g., epicatechin, gallocatechin), anthocyanidins (e.g., cyanidin, pelargonidin), and isoflavones (e.g., genistein, daidzein). Most of the flavonoids present in plants are attached to sugars (glycosides), although occasionally they are found as aglycones. Interest in the possible health benefits of flavonoids has increased owing to their potent antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities observed in vitro. There is growing evidence from human feeding studies that the absorption and bioavailability of specific flavonoids is much higher than originally believed. However, epidemiologic studies exploring the role of flavonoids in human health have been inconclusive. Some studies support a protective effect of flavonoid consumption in cardiovascular disease and cancer, other studies demonstrate no effect, and a few studies suggest potential harm. Because there are many biological activities attributed to the flavonoids, some of which could be beneficial or detrimental depending on specific circumstances, further studies in both the laboratory and with populations are warranted.
Publication
Journal: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews
December/20/2010
Abstract
Almost 25 centuries ago, Hippocrates, the father of medicine, proclaimed "Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food." Exploring the association between diet and health continues today. For example, we now know that as many as 35% of all cancers can be prevented by dietary changes. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process involving the transformation, survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis of the tumor and may take up to 30 years. The pathways associated with this process have been linked to chronic inflammation, a major mediator of tumor progression. The human body consists of about 13 trillion cells, almost all of which are turned over within 100 days, indicating that 70,000 cells undergo apoptosis every minute. Thus, apoptosis/cell death is a normal physiological process, and it is rare that a lack of apoptosis kills the patient. Almost 90% of all deaths due to cancer are linked to metastasis of the tumor. How our diet can prevent cancer is the focus of this review. Specifically, we will discuss how nutraceuticals, such as allicin, apigenin, berberine, butein, caffeic acid, capsaicin, catechin gallate, celastrol, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, fisetin, flavopiridol, gambogic acid, genistein, plumbagin, quercetin, resveratrol, sanguinarine, silibinin, sulforaphane, taxol, gamma-tocotrienol, and zerumbone, derived from spices, legumes, fruits, nuts, and vegetables, can modulate inflammatory pathways and thus affect the survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis of the tumor. Various cell signaling pathways that are modulated by these agents will also be discussed.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
September/28/2008
Abstract
Significantly, much of the activity of Citrus flavonoids appears to impact blood and microvascular endothelial cells, and it is not surprising that the two main areas of research on the biological actions of Citrus flavonoids have been inflammation and cancer. Epidemiological and animal studies point to a possible protective effect of flavonoids against cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. Although flavonoids have been studied for about 50 years, the cellular mechanisms involved in their biological action are still not completely known. Many of the pharmacological properties of Citrus flavonoids can be linked to the abilities of these compounds to inhibit enzymes involved in cell activation. Attempts to control cancer involve a variety of means, including the use of suppressing, blocking, and transforming agents. Suppressing agents prevent the formation of new cancers from procarcinogens, and blocking agents prevent carcinogenic compounds from reaching critical initiation sites, while transformation agents act to facilitate the metabolism of carcinogenic components into less toxic materials or prevent their biological actions. Flavonoids can act as all three types of agent. Many epidemiological studies have shown that regular flavonoid intake is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. In coronary heart disease, the protective effects of flavonoids include mainly antithrombotic, anti-ischemic, anti-oxidant, and vasorelaxant. It is suggested that flavonoids decrease the risk of coronary heart disease by three major actions: improving coronary vasodilatation, decreasing the ability of platelets in the blood to clot, and preventing low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) from oxidizing. The anti-inflammatory properties of the Citrus flavonoids have also been studied. Several key studies have shown that the anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus flavonoids are due to its inhibition of the synthesis and biological activities of different pro-inflammatory mediators, mainly the arachidonic acid derivatives, prostaglandins E 2, F 2, and thromboxane A 2. The anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus flavonoids can play a key role in their activity against several degenerative diseases and particularly brain diseases. The most abundant Citrus flavonoids are flavanones, such as hesperidin, naringin, or neohesperidin. However, generally, the flavones, such as diosmin, apigenin, or luteolin, exhibit higher biological activity, even though they occur in much lower concentrations. Diosmin and rutin have a demonstrated activity as a venotonic agent and are present in several pharmaceutical products. Apigenin and their glucosides have been shown a good anti-inflammatory activity without the side effects of other anti-inflammatory products. In this paper, we discuss the relation between each structural factor of Citrus flavonoids and the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection activity of Citrus flavonoids and their role in degenerative diseases.
Publication
Journal: Pharmaceutical Research
August/16/2010
Abstract
Apigenin, a naturally occurring plant flavone, abundantly present in common fruits and vegetables, is recognized as a bioactive flavonoid shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer properties. Epidemiologic studies suggest that a diet rich in flavones is related to a decreased risk of certain cancers, particularly cancers of the breast, digestive tract, skin, prostate and certain hematological malignancies. It has been suggested that apigenin may be protective in other diseases that are affected by oxidative process, such as cardiovascular and neurological disorders, although more research needs to be conducted in this regard. Human clinical trials examining the effect of supplementation of apigenin on disease prevention have not been conducted, although there is considerable potential for apigenin to be developed as a cancer chemopreventive agent.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Oncology
January/30/2007
Abstract
Cancer is one of the major public health burdens in the United States and in other developed countries, causing approximately 7 million deaths every year worldwide. Cancer rates vary dramatically in different regions and populations around the globe, especially between developing and developed nations. Changes in cancer prevalence patterns occur within regions as their populations age or become progressively urbanized. Migration has also contributed to such variations as changes in dietary habits influence cancer rates. These epidemiologic findings strongly suggest that cancer rates are influenced by environmental factors including diet, which is largely preventable. Approaches to prevent cancer include overlapping strategies viz. chemoprevention or dietary cancer prevention. Chemoprevention aims at prevention or reversal of the initiation phase of carcinogenesis or arrest at progression of carcinogenesis through the administration of naturally occurring constituents or pharmacological agents. Cancer prevention through diet may be largely achievable by increased consumption of fruits and vegetables. Considerable attention has been devoted to identifying plant-derived dietary agents which could be developed as promising chemopreventives. One such agent is apigenin. A naturally occurring plant flavone (4', 5, 7,-trihydroxyflavone) abundantly present in common fruits and vegetables including parsley, onions, oranges, tea, chamomile, wheat sprouts and some seasonings. Apigenin has been shown to possess remarkable anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. In the last few years, significant progress has been made in studying the biological effects of apigenin at cellular and molecular levels. This review examines the cancer chemopreventive effects of apigenin in an organ-specificity format, evaluating its limitations and its considerable potential for development as a cancer chemopreventive agent.
Publication
Journal: PLoS ONE
June/15/2011
Abstract
BACKGROUND
The chemopreventive effect of green tea polyphenols, such as (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), has been well demonstrated in cell culture studies. However, a wide range of IC(50) concentrations has been observed in published studies of the anti-proliferative activity of EGCG from different laboratories. Although the susceptibility to EGCG treatment is largely dependent on cancer cell type, the particular cell viability and proliferation assays utilized may significantly influence quantitative results reported in the literature.
RESULTS
We compared five widely used methods to measure cell proliferation and viability after EGCG treatment using LNCaP prostate cancer cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Both methods using dyes to quantify adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and deoxynucleic acid (DNA) showed accuracy in the measurement of viable cells when compared to trypan blue assay and results showed good linear correlation (r = 0.95). However, the use of MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) as indicators of metabolically active mitochondria overestimated the number of viable cells by comparison with the ATP, DNA, or trypan blue determinations. As a result, the observed IC(50) concentration of EGCG was 2-fold higher using MTT and MTS compared to dyes quantifying ATP and DNA. In contrast, when cells were treated with apigenin MTT and MTS assays showed consistent results with ATP, DNA, or trypan blue assays.
CONCLUSIONS
These results demonstrate that MTT and MTS -based assays will provide an underestimation of the anti-proliferative effect of EGCG, and suggest the importance of careful evaluation of the method for in vitro assessment of cell viability and proliferation depending on the chemical nature of botanical supplements.
Publication
Journal: European Journal of Cancer
March/1/2000
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of flavonoid-induced apoptosis in HL-60 leukaemic cells. Thus, the effect of structurally related flavonoids on cell viability, DNA fragmentation and caspase activity was assessed. Loss of membrane potential and reactive oxygen species generation were also monitored by flow cytometry. The structurally related flavonoids, such as apigenin, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were able to induce apoptosis in human leukaemia HL-60 cells. Treatment with flavonoids (60 microM) caused a rapid induction of caspase-3 activity and stimulated proteolytic cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Furthermore, these flavonoids induced loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol, and subsequent induction of procaspase-9 processing. The potency of these flavonoids on these features of apoptosis were in the order of: apigenin>> quercetin>> myricetin>> kaempferol in HL-60 cells treated with 60 microM flavonoids. These results suggest that flavonoid-induced apoptosis is stimulated by the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol, by procaspase-9 processing, and through a caspase-3-dependent mechanism. The induction of apoptosis by flavonoids may be attributed to their cancer chemopreventive activity. Furthermore, the potency of flavonoids for inducing apoptosis may be dependent on the numbers of hydroxyl groups in the 2-phenyl group and on the absence of the 3-hydroxyl group. This provides new information on the structure-activity relationship of flavonoids.
Publication
Journal: Biochemical Pharmacology
June/7/2005
Abstract
It has been shown that proteasome activity is required for cancer cell survival and consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with decreased cancer risk. Previously, we reported that grape extract could inhibit proteasome activity and induce apoptosis in tumor cells. In this study, we examined the flavonoids apigenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin for their proteasome-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing abilities in human tumor cells. We report that apigenin and quercetin are much more potent than kaempferol and myricetin at: (i) inhibiting chymotrypsin-like activity of purified 20S proteasome and of 26S proteasome in intact leukemia Jurkat T cells; (ii) accumulating putative ubiquitinated forms of two proteasome target proteins, Bax and Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappabeta-alpha in Jurkat T cells and (iii) inducing activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in Jurkat T cells. The proteasome-inhibitory abilities of these compounds correlated with their apoptosis-inducing potencies. Results from computational modeling of the potential interactions of these flavonoids to the chymotrypsin site (beta5 subunit) of the proteasome were consistent with the obtained proteasome-inhibitory activities. We found that the C(4) carbon may be a site of nucleophilic attack by the OH group of N-terminal threonine of proteasomal beta5 subunit and that the C(3) hydroxyl may alter the ability of these flavonoids to inhibit the proteasome. Finally, apigenin neither effectively inhibited the proteasome activity nor induced apoptosis in non-transformed human natural killer cells. Our results suggested that the proteasome may be a target of these dietary flavonoids in human tumor cells and that inhibition of the proteasome by flavonoids may be one of the mechanisms responsible for their cancer-preventive effects.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Biological Chemistry
April/17/2005
Abstract
The consumption of food products containing high amounts of flavonoids has been reported to lower the risk of various cancers. The mechanisms underlying the cancer-protective effects of these naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds, however, remain elusive. Based on our previous finding that the cytotoxic effect of the flavanol epigallocatechin-3-gallate on prostate cancer cells correlates with its ability to inhibit fatty acid synthase (FAS, a key lipogenic enzyme overexpressed in many human cancers), we examined the anti-lipogenic effects of a panel of 18 naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds. In addition to epigallocatechin-3-gallate, five other flavonoids, more particularly luteolin, quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, and taxifolin, also markedly inhibited cancer cell lipogenesis. Interestingly, in both prostate and breast cancer cells, a remarkable dose-response parallelism was observed between flavonoid-induced inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, inhibition of cell growth, and induction of apoptosis. In support for a role of fatty acid synthesis in these effects, the addition of exogenous palmitate, the end product of FAS, markedly suppressed the cytotoxic effects of flavonoids. Taken together, these findings indicate that the potential of flavonoids to induce apoptosis in cancer cells is strongly associated with their FAS inhibitory properties, thereby providing a new mechanism by which polyphenolic compounds may exert their cancer-preventive and antineoplastic effects.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Cancer
November/29/2007
Abstract
Flavonoids are antioxidant compounds found in plants, including fruits, vegetables and tea. No prior prospective studies have examined the association between intake of flavonoids in the flavonol and flavone subclasses and ovarian cancer risk. We analyzed the association between intake of 5 common dietary flavonoids and incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer among 66,940 women in the Nurses' Health Study. We calculated each participant's intake of myricetin, kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin and apigenin from dietary data collected at multiple time points, and used Cox proportional hazards regression to model the incidence rate ratio (RR) of ovarian cancer for each quintile of intake. Our analysis included 347 cases diagnosed between 1984 and 2002, and 950,347 person-years of follow-up. There was no clear association between total intake of the 5 flavonoids examined and incidence of ovarian cancer (RR = 0.75 for the highest versus lowest quintile, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.51-1.09). However, there was a significant 40% decrease in ovarian cancer incidence for the highest versus lowest quintile of kaempferol intake (RR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.42-0.87; p-trend = 0.002), and a significant 34% decrease in incidence for the highest versus lowest quintile of luteolin intake (RR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.91; p-trend = 0.01). There was evidence of an inverse association with consumption of tea (nonherbal) and broccoli, the primary contributors to kaempferol intake in our population. These data suggest that dietary intake of certain flavonoids may reduce ovarian cancer risk, although additional prospective studies are needed to further evaluate this association. If confirmed, these results would provide an important target for ovarian cancer prevention.
Publication
Journal: Environmental Health Perspectives
March/1/2004
Abstract
Chemoprotective phytochemicals exhibit multiple activities and interact with several cellular receptors, including the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor (AhR). In this study we investigated the AhR agonist/antagonist activities of the following flavonoids: chrysin, phloretin, kaempferol, galangin, naringenin, genistein, quercetin, myricetin, luteolin, baicalein, daidzein, apigenin, and diosmin. We also investigated the AhR-dependent activities of cantharidin and emodin (in herbal extracts) in Ah-responsive MCF-7 human breast cells, HepG2 human liver cancer cells, and mouse Hepa-1 cells transiently or stably transfected with plasmids expressing a luciferase reporter gene linked to multiple copies of a consensus dioxin-responsive element. The AhR agonist activities of the compounds (1 and 10 micro M) were as high as 25% of the maximal response induced by 5 nM 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and their potencies were dependent on cell context. Galangin, genistein, daidzein, and diosmin were active only in Hepa-1 cells, and cantharidin induced activity only in human HepG2 and MCF-7 cells. Western blot analysis confirmed that baicalein and emodin also induced CYP1A1 protein in the human cancer cell lines. The AhR antagonist activities of four compounds inactive as agonists in MCF-7 and HepG2 cells (kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, and luteolin) were also investigated. Luteolin was an AhR antagonist in both cell lines, and the inhibitory effects of the other compound were dependent on cell context. These data suggest that dietary phytochemicals exhibit substantial cell context-dependent AhR agonist as well as antagonist activities. Moreover, because phytochemicals and other AhR-active compounds in food are present in the diet at relatively high concentrations, risk assessment of dietary toxic equivalents of TCDD and related compounds should also take into account AhR agonist/antagonist activities of phytochemicals.
Publication
Journal: Pharmacognosy Reviews
August/14/2014
Abstract
Flavonoids are ubiquitous in nature. They are also in food, providing an essential link between diet and prevention of chronic diseases including cancer. Anticancer effects of these polyphenols depend on several factors: Their chemical structure and concentration, and also on the type of cancer. Malignant cells from different tissues reveal somewhat different sensitivity toward flavonoids and, therefore, the preferences of the most common dietary flavonoids to various human cancer types are analyzed in this review. While luteolin and kaempferol can be considered as promising candidate agents for treatment of gastric and ovarian cancers, respectively, apigenin, chrysin, and luteolin have good perspectives as potent antitumor agents for cervical cancer; cells from main sites of flavonoid metabolism (colon and liver) reveal rather large fluctuations in anticancer activity probably due to exposure to various metabolites with different activities. Anticancer effect of flavonoids toward blood cancer cells depend on their myeloid, lymphoid, or erythroid origin; cytotoxic effects of flavonoids on breast and prostate cancer cells are highly related to the expression of hormone receptors. Different flavonoids are often preferentially present in certain food items, and knowledge about the malignant tissue-specific anticancer effects of flavonoids could be purposely applied both in chemoprevention as well as in cancer treatment.
Authors
Publication
Journal: Free Radical Biology and Medicine
February/23/2003
Abstract
Fruits and vegetables protect against cancer by so far not well-characterized mechanisms. One likely explanation for this effect is that dietary plants contain substances able to control basic cellular processes such as the endogenous defense against oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is pivotal in many pathological processes and reduced oxidative stress is implicated in prevention of disease. Our results demonstrate that extract from onion and various flavonoids induce the cellular antioxidant system. Onion extract and quercetin were able to increase the intracellular concentration of glutathione by approximately 50%. Using a reporter construct where reporter expression is driven by the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS) heavy subunit (GCS(h)) promoter we show that onion extract, quercetin, kaempferol, and apigenin increased reporter gene activity, while a fourth flavonoid, myricetin and sugar conjugates of quercetin were unable to increase reporter expression. Quercetin was also able to induce a distal part of the GCS(h) promoter containing only two antioxidant-response/electrophile-response elements (ARE/EpRE). Our data strongly suggest that flavonoids are important in the regulation of the intracellular glutathione levels. This effect may be exerted in part through GCS gene regulation, and may also contribute to the disease-preventing effect of fruits and vegetables.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Cancer
August/17/2000
Abstract
Flavonoids are a class of polyphenolic compounds widely distributed in the plant kingdom, which display a variety of biological activities, including chemoprevention and tumor growth inhibition. Our aim was to investigate the effects of several polyphenols on the growth and metastatic potential of B16-BL6 melanoma cells in vivo. Intraperitoneal administration of quercetin, apigenin, (-)-epigallocathechin-3-gallate (EGCG), resveratrol, and the anti-estrogen tamoxifen, at the time of i.m. injection of B16-BL6 cells into syngeneic mice, resulted in a significant, dose-dependent delay of tumor growth, without toxicity. The relative descending order of potency was EGCG>> apigenin = quercetin = tamoxifen>> resveratrol>> control. Furthermore, polyphenols significantly potentiated the inhibitory effect of a non-toxic dose of cisplatin. When tested for the ability to inhibit lung colonization, quercetin, apigenin, and tamoxifen (but not EGCG or resveratrol) significantly decreased the number of B16-BL6 colonies in the lungs in a dose-dependent manner, with quercetin and apigenin being more effective than tamoxifen. Interestingly, quercetin, apigenin, and tamoxifen (but not EGCG or resveratrol) significantly decreased the invasion of B16-BL6 cells in vitro, with quercetin and apigenin being more effective than tamoxifen. This suggests that anti-invasive activity is one of the mechanisms underlying inhibition of lung colonization by quercetin and apigenin. In conclusion, quercetin and apigenin inhibit melanoma growth and invasive and metastatic potential; therefore, they may constitute a valuable tool in the combination therapy of metastatic melanoma.
Publication
Journal: Cancer Research
August/6/1997
Abstract
Consumption of a plant-based diet can prevent the development and progression of chronic diseases associated with extensive neovascularization, including solid malignant tumors. In previous studies, we have shown that the plant-derived isoflavonoid genistein is a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation and in vitro angiogenesis. In the present study, we report that certain structurally related flavonoids are more potent inhibitors than genistein. Indeed, 3-hydroxyflavone, 3',4'-dihydroxyflavone, 2',3'-dihydroxyflavone, fisetin, apigenin, and luteolin inhibited the proliferation of normal and tumor cells, as well as in vitro angiogenesis, at half-maximal concentrations in the low micromolar range. We have previously demonstrated that genistein concentrations in the urine of subjects consuming a plant-based diet is 30-fold higher than in subjects consuming a traditional Western diet. The wider distribution and the more abundant presence of flavonoids in the plant kingdom, together with the present results, suggest that flavonoids may contribute to the preventive effect of a plant-based diet on chronic diseases, including solid tumors.
Publication
Journal: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
December/7/2005
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Flavonoids, as antioxidants, may prevent the progressive impairment of pancreatic beta-cell function due to oxidative stress and may thus reduce the occurrence of type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of dietary flavonol and flavone intake with type 2 diabetes, and biomarkers of insulin resistance and systemic inflammation.
METHODS
In 38,018 women aged>> or =45 y and free of cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes with an average 8.8 y of follow-up, we calculated relative risks (RRs) of incident type 2 diabetes (1,614 events) according to dietary intake of total or individual flavonols and flavones and flavonoid-rich foods. We also measured and examined plasma concentrations of insulin, HbA(1C), CRP, and IL-6 in relation to total flavonol and flavone intake among 344 nondiabetic women.
RESULTS
During 332,905 person-years of follow-up, none of total flavonols and flavones, quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, apigenin, and luteolin was significantly associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. Among flavonoid-rich foods, apple and tea consumption was associated with diabetes risk. Women consuming>> or =1 apple/d showed a significant 28% reduced risk of type 2 diabetes compared with those who consumed no apples (the multivariate-adjusted RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.92; p = 0.006 for trend). Tea consumption was also inversely associated with diabetes risk but with a borderline significant trend >> or =4 cups/d vs. none: RR 0.73, 95% CI: 0.52-1.01; p for trend = 0.06). In 344 nondiabetic women, total intake of flavonols and flavones was not significantly related to plasma concentrations of fasting insulin, HbA(1C), CRP, or IL-6.
CONCLUSIONS
These results do not support the hypothesis that high intake of flavonols and flavones reduces the development of type 2 diabetes, although we cannot rule out a modest inverse association with intake of apples and tea.
Publication
Journal: FASEB Journal
October/24/2005
Abstract
Apigenin is a nontoxic dietary flavonoid that has been shown to possess anti-tumor properties and therefore poses special interest for the development of a novel chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent for cancer. Ovarian cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death among women. Here we demonstrate that apigenin inhibits expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human ovarian cancer cells. VEGF plays an important role in tumor angiogenesis and growth. We found that apigenin inhibited VEGF expression at the transcriptional level through expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha). Apigenin inhibited expression of HIF-1alpha and VEGF via the PI3K/AKT/p70S6K1 and HDM2/p53 pathways. Apigenin inhibited tube formation in vitro by endothelial cells. These findings reveal a novel role of apigenin in inhibiting HIF-1 and VEGF expression that is important for tumor angiogenesis and growth, identifying new signaling molecules that mediate this regulation.
Publication
Journal: Journal of biomedicine & biotechnology
October/5/2009
Abstract
Honey has been used since long time both in medical and domestic needs, but only recently the antioxidant property of it came to limelight. The fact that antioxidants have several preventative effects against different diseases, such as cancer, coronary diseases, inflammatory disorders, neurological degeneration, and aging, led to search for food rich in antioxidants. Chemoprevention uses various dietary agents rich in phytochemicals which serve as antioxidants. With increasing demand for antioxidant supply in the food, honey had gained vitality since it is rich in phenolic compounds and other antioxidants like ascorbic acid, amino acids, and proteins. Some simple and polyphenols found in honey, namely, caffeic acid (CA), caffeic acid phenyl esters (CAPE), Chrysin (CR), Galangin (GA), Quercetin (QU), Kaempferol (KP), Acacetin (AC), Pinocembrin (PC), Pinobanksin (PB), and Apigenin (AP), have evolved as promising pharmacological agents in treatment of cancer. In this review, we reviewed the antiproliferative and molecular mechanisms of honey and above-mentioned polyphenols in various cancer cell lines.
Publication
Journal: Cancer Letters
June/23/2013
Abstract
The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) uses a combination of different natural products based on practical experiences. To better understand the therapeutic functions of TCM, large efforts have been made to identify the principle constituents of TCM and to unravel the molecular mechanisms behind the efficacy observed. This review aims to summarize research results obtained from the most intensively studied TCM phytochemical compounds namely the alkaloids Berberine, Evodiamine; anthraquinones Emodin, Aloe-emodin, Rhein; the terpenoids Artemisinin, Celastrol, Triptolide; the flavones Apigenin, Chrysin, Wogonin, Baicalein; and the cyclopenta[b]benzofuran derivatives Rocaglamide. Most of them have been originally identified as anti-inflammatory and anti-viral reagents and are now known to also possess anti-tumor activities by targeting the apoptosis pathways in cancer. This review also intends to give an overview of the mechanisms of action identified so far. These breakthrough findings may have important implications for targeted-cancer therapy and for modernization of TCM.
Publication
Journal: Oncogene
June/13/2002
Abstract
Apigenin, a common dietary flavonoid abundantly present in fruits and vegetables, may have the potential for prevention and therapy for prostate cancer. Here, we report for the first time that apigenin inhibits the growth of androgen-responsive human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells and provide molecular understanding of this effect. The cell growth inhibition achieved by apigenin treatment resulted in a significant decrease in AR protein expression along with a decrease in intracellular and secreted forms of PSA. These effects were also observed in DHT-stimulated cells. Further, apigenin treatment of LNCaP cells resulted in G1 arrest in cell cycle progression which was associated with a marked decrease in the protein expression of cyclin D1, D2 and E and their activating partner cdk2, 4 and 6 with concomitant induction of WAF1/p21 and KIP1/p27. The induction of WAF1/p21 appears to be transcriptionally upregulated and is p53 dependent. In addition, apigenin inhibited the hyperphosphorylation of the pRb protein in these cells. Apigenin treatment also resulted in induction of apoptosis as determined by DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. These effects were found to correlate with a shift in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio more towards apoptosis. Apigenin treatment also resulted in down-modulation of the constitutive expression of NF-kappaB/p65. Taken together, these findings suggest that apigenin has strong potential for development as an agent for prevention against prostate cancer.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Biological Chemistry
September/6/2000
Abstract
Protein kinase CK2 (formerly casein kinase II) is a serine/threonine kinase overexpressed in many human tumors, transformed cell lines, and rapidly proliferating tissues. Recent data have shown that many cancers involve inappropriate reactivation of Wnt signaling through ectopic expression of Wnts themselves, as has been seen in a number of human breast cancers, or through mutation of intermediates in the Wnt pathway, such as adenomatous polyposis coli or beta-catenin, as described in colon and other cancers. Wnts are secreted factors that are important in embryonic development, but overexpression of certain Wnts, such as Wnt-1, leads to proliferation and transformation of cells. We report that upon stable transfection of Wnt-1 into the mouse mammary epithelial cell line C57MG, morphological changes and increased proliferation are accompanied by increased levels of CK2, as well as of beta-catenin. CK2 and beta-catenin co-precipitate with the Dvl proteins, which are Wnt signaling intermediates. A major phosphoprotein of the size of beta-catenin appears in in vitro kinase reactions performed on the Dvl immunoprecipitates. In vitro translated beta-catenin, Dvl-2, and Dvl-3 are phosphorylated by CK2. The selective CK2 inhibitor apigenin blocks proliferation of Wnt-1-transfected cells, abrogates phosphorylation of beta-catenin, and reduces beta-catenin and Dvl protein levels. These results demonstrate that endogenous CK2 is a positive regulator of Wnt signaling and growth of mammary epithelial cells.
Publication
Journal: Cancer Research
April/27/2010
Abstract
Many botanical compounds have been proposed to prevent cancer. We investigated the cancer treatment and prevention abilities of apigenin, baicalein, curcumin, epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), genistein, quercetin, and resveratrol both in vivo in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice as well as in vitro in prostate cancer cell lines. In our experiments, these seven compounds act similarly to the Hedgehog antagonist cyclopamine, a teratogenic plant alkaloid, which had been previously shown to "cure" prostate cancer in a mouse xenograft model. With IC(50) values ranging from <1 to 25 mumol/L, these compounds can inhibit Gli1 mRNA concentration by up to 95% and downregulate Gli reporter activity by 80%. We show that four compounds, genistein, curcumin, EGCG, and resveratrol, inhibit Hedgehog signaling as monitored by real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis of Gli1 mRNA concentration or by Gli reporter activity. Three compounds, apigenin, baicalein, and quercetin, decreased Gli1 mRNA concentration but not Gli reporter activity. Our results show that these compounds are also able to reduce or delay prostate cancer in vivo in TRAMP mice. All seven compounds, when fed in combination as pure compounds or as crude plant extracts, inhibit well-differentiated carcinoma of the prostate by 58% and 81%, respectively. In vitro, we show that all seven compounds also inhibit growth in human and mouse prostate cancer cell lines. Mechanistically, we propose the Hedgehog signaling pathway to be a direct or indirect target of these compounds. These botanicals at pharmacologic concentrations are potentially safer and less expensive alternatives to cyclopamine and its pharmaceutical analogues for cancer therapy.
Publication
Journal: Molecular Carcinogenesis
August/1/2000
Abstract
<em>Apigenin</em>, a common dietary flavonoid, has been shown to induce cell cycle arrest in both epidermal and fibroblast cells and inhibit skin tumorigenesis in murine models. The present study assessed the influence of <em>apigenin</em> on cell growth and the cell cycle in the human colon carcinoma cell lines SW480, HT-29, and Caco-2. Treatment of each cell line with <em>apigenin</em> (0-80 microM) resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in both cell number and cellular protein content, compared with untreated control cultures. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that treatment with <em>apigenin</em> resulted in G2/M arrest in all three cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner. <em>Apigenin</em> treatment (80 microM) for 48 h produced maximum G2/M arrest of 64%, 42%, and 26% in SW480 cells, HT-29 cells, and Caco-2 cells, respectively, in comparison with control cells (15%). The proportion of S-phase cells was not altered by <em>apigenin</em> treatment in each of the three cell lines. The G2/M arrest was reversible after 48 h of <em>apigenin</em> treatment in the most sensitive cell line SW480. The degree of G2/M arrest by <em>apigenin</em> was inversely correlated with the corresponding inhibition of cell growth measurements in all three cell lines (r = -0.626 to -0.917, P</=0. 005). Moreover, an immune complex kinase assay demonstrated an inhibition of p34(cdc2) kinase activity, a critical enzyme in G2/M transition, in each cell line after treatment with <em>apigenin</em> (50-80 microM). Western blot analyses indicated that both p34(cdc2) and cyclin B1 proteins were also decreased after <em>apigenin</em> treatment. These results indicate that <em>apigenin</em> inhibits colon carcinoma cell growth by inducing a reversible G2/M arrest and that this arrest is associated, at least in part, with inhibited activity of p34(cdc2) kinase and reduced accumulation of p34(cdc2) and cyclin B1 proteins. Differences in induction of G2/M arrest by <em>apigenin</em> in the three colon carcinoma cell lines suggest that dietary <em>apigenin</em> may be differentially effective against <em>tumors</em> with specific mutational spectra. Mol. Carcinog. 28:102-110, 2000.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Biological Chemistry
March/31/2004
Abstract
Apigenin is a low toxicity and non-mutagenic phytopolyphenol and protein kinase inhibitor. It exhibits anti-proliferating effects on human breast cancer cells. Here we examined several human breast cancer cell lines having different levels of HER2/neu expression and found that apigenin exhibited potent growth-inhibitory activity in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells but was much less effective for those cells expressing basal levels of HER2/neu. Induction of apoptosis was also observed in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, the one or more molecular mechanisms of apigenin-induced apoptosis in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells remained to be elucidated. A cell survival pathway involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and Akt is known to play an important role in inhibiting apoptosis in response to HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells, which prompted us to investigate whether this pathway plays a role in apigenin-induced apoptosis in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Our results showed that apigenin inhibits Akt function in tumor cells in a complex manner. First, apigenin directly inhibited the PI3K activity while indirectly inhibiting the Akt kinase activity. Second, inhibition of HER2/neu autophosphorylation and transphosphorylation resulting from depleting HER2/neu protein in vivo was also observed. In addition, apigenin inhibited Akt kinase activity by preventing the docking of PI3K to HER2/HER3 heterodimers. Therefore, we proposed that apigenin-induced cellular effects result from loss of HER2/neu and HER3 expression with subsequent inactivation of PI3K and AKT in cells that are dependent on this pathway for cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis. This implies that the inhibition of the HER2/HER3 heterodimer function provided an especially effective strategy for blocking the HER2/neu-mediated transformation of breast cancer cells. Our results also demonstrated that apigenin dissociated the complex of HER2/neu and GRP94 that preceded the depletion of HER2/neu. Apigenin-induced degradation of mature HER2/neu involves polyubiquitination of HER2/neu and subsequent hydrolysis by the proteasome.
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