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Publication
Journal: Die Pharmazie
March/27/2020
Abstract
Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae is commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Its traditional functions include treating hypofunction of the spleen with the loss of appetite, abdominal distension diarrhea, phlegm drink dizziness palpitation, edema, fetal movement restless. A literature search was conducted by systematic searching multiple electronic databases including Web of Science, PubMed, CNKI and Google Scholar. Chemical composition analysis of RAM showed that the main compositions were volatile oil, lactones, polysaccharides, amino acids, vitamins and resins. Pharmacological studies indicated that RAM possessed antitumor activities, neuroprotective effect, anti-hepatotoxicity, immune and anti-inflammatory activity, etc. This review gives a detailed description of the chemical constituents, pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of RAM and provides reliable basis for clinical development and application.
Publication
Journal: Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials
September/3/2009
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To establish HPLC fingerprint for the quality control of processed Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (PRAM).
METHODS
14 batches of PRAM were collected from different places and were analyzed with the developed HPLC fingerprints method. The HPLC separation was performed on a Kromasil C18 analytical column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm), and gradient elution was performed by mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the detection wavelength was at 242 nm. The temperature of column was 25 degrees C.
RESULTS
Sixteen mutual peaks were selected in chromatography. Among the obtained fingerprints, the most of the detected peaks were separated effectively. The methodological evaluation showed that the method had a good repeatability.
CONCLUSIONS
The RSD of relative retention time of mutual peaks which existed in all samples was less than 1.1%. The results of peak areas were in accordance with the request of fingerprint. The established fingerprint can be used for the quality control and species identifying of PRAM.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
January/13/2020
Abstract
The present study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying macrophage activation by total polysaccharides from Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (RAMPtp). The results showed that RAMPtp significantly promoted productions of NO, ROS, cytokines and chemokines, enhanced pinocytic and phagocytic activity, and upregulated expressions of accessory and costimulatory molecules. RNA-seq analysis presented 2868 DEGs and 737 GO terms. PPI network analysis in combination with KEGG pathways as well as the western blot and functional verification assays indicated that NF-κB and STATs were the key regulators modulating the expressions of core gene TNF-α and IL-6 individually, and the transposition activation of NF-κB was identified as an early event in macrophage activation induced by RAMPtp. The involvements of MAPKs and PI3K-Akt pathways were also determined. These results indicated that immune response and immune function were regulated in RAMPtp-stimulated macrophages via a complex interaction network, in which NF-κB and Jak-STAT signaling pathways played a pivotal role.
Publication
Journal: Phytotherapy Research
August/13/2012
Abstract
Excitotoxicity has been implicated in neurological disorders. This study investigated the neuroprotective effect of the extract from Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae on excitotoxicity-induced neuronal apoptosis in primary cultured cerebral cortical neurons. Excitotoxicity was induced by exposure of cortical neurons to glutamate. Neuronal apoptosis and the protective effect of Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae extract were examined by multi-indices including cell viability assay, morphological features, DNA fragmentation and flow cytometric analysis. After exposure of cultured neurons to glutamate for 24 h, the neurons exhibited marked apoptotic-like death. Co-treatment of the neurons with glutamate and Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae extract significantly elevated the cell viability, and reduced the number of apoptotic cells. These results demonstrate that Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae is an effective neuroprotective agent against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and may have therapeutic potential in excitotoxicity-mediated diseases.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
December/14/2016
Abstract
A homogeneous polysaccharide was isolated and purified from Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (RAM) and named PRAM2. Its average molecular weight was 19.6×10(3)Da and it was composed of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, glucose, mannose and galactose in a ratio of 1: 1.3: 1.5: 1.8: 2.1: 3.2. In vitro experiments confirmed that PRAM2 presented an obvious effect to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) (DPPH), superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical. In vivo experiments confirmed that PRAM2 could reduce the liver weight, liver index, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in the serum; meanwhile, PRAM2 could significantly reduce nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, and nitric oxide (NO) and malonaldehyde (MDA) contents in the liver tissues, and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. These results suggest that PRAM2 has a significant in vitro antioxidant activity and a protective effect on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice; the protective effect may be related to its anti-oxidation, its inhibition of NOS activity and NO level and its reduction of the production of free radicals.
Publication
Journal: Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials
January/22/2012
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To research the effect of processing with soils on the contents of Atractylode I, II, III of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae.
METHODS
Contents of Atractylode I, II, III were determined by HPLC. Hypersil-ODS C18 (200 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column was used; The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-water; The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min; The detection wavelength was 220 nm and 276 nm,the column temperature was 30 degrees C.
RESULTS
All the indexes of Atractylode I, II, III peak were qualified; The result of methodological study was met the requirement of HPLC; The average contents of Atractylode I , II , II in raw Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae were 0.4365, 0.2878, 0.4140 mg/g, the soil-processed Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae were 0.5503, 0.3013, 0.8403 mg/g, the processed Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae were 0.5386, 0.2958, 0.7399 mg/g.
CONCLUSIONS
The content of Atractylode II is no significant difference among the raw Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae and the Processed. The contents of both Atractylode I and III increased after processed. However, there is no significant difference between the soil-processed and the processed Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae with nothing.
Publication
Journal: Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy
June/7/2019
Abstract
To establish a fast, simple and reliable method for quality evaluation of decoction pieces of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (referred as BZ below) by near infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics.

METHOD
Twelve batches of raw medicinal materials of BZ were collected from three main producing location in China. According to the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, these raw decoction pieces were stir-fried in wheat bran using a stir-frying machine for 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 min, respectively. The resulted 60 samples were categorized into three classes (i.e., light, moderate and dark) by experienced pharmacists according to their surface color. After that, these slices were smashed to acquire near infrared spectra and to determine the contents of atractylenolide I, II and III by HPLC method. Qualitative and quantitative models were constructed to relate the spectra to the color labels and to the contents of three atractylenolides. Various chemometrics methods, including calibration methods like principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR), spectra pretreatment methods like standard normal variate, multiplicative scatter correction, derivation and smoothing, feature selection methods like particle swarm optimization, genetic algorithm (GA) and other fourteen methods were compared in detail. The PLS-DA models were evaluated by jackknife tests with calculating parameters such as error rate (ERR), true positive rate (TPR), true negative rate (TNR) and F1 score, meanwhile the PLSR models were evaluated by five fold cross-validation tests with calculating parameters such as coefficients of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and residual predictive deviation (RPD).

RESULTS
The PLS-DA models with spectra pretreated by 1D5S or 1D9S and wavelengths selected by InfFS, Relief-F, MutInfFS, fisher or CFS performed best, yielding 0.00 of ERR, 1.00 of TPR, 1.00 of TNR, and 1.00 of F1 for all three classes. As for quantitative models, the PLSR models by 1D5S spectra pretreatment and GA wavelengths selection performed best, where R2C and R2P were all >0.95, RMSEC and RMSEP were all <0.04%, MAEC and MAEP were all <0.04%, and RPD were all >5.

The present qualitative and quantitative models can be successfully used to distinguish the degree of suitability of processed BZ, and to determine the contents of three atractylenolides, which thus are of great help for quality evaluation and control of processed BZ and other decoction pieces.
Publication
Journal: Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials
July/16/2008
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To study the optimal extraction and clathration technology of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae oil in Heweilichang Pill.
METHODS
Orthogonal test was employed for selecting the optimum of extraction technology of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae oil and the oil extraction rate were used as a index. The optimum including technology was chosen by determining the oil-bearing rate and extract ratio of inclusion compound. The inclusion compound were identified with thin chromatogram.
RESULTS
The extraction technology was 10 volumes of water, extracted 6h with thick granula of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae. The optimum preparation conditions for clathrate were established as beta-CD: oil was 6: 1, 3. 5 times of water, triturated for 75 minutes.
CONCLUSIONS
The process is feasible and the method can be used for production.
Publication
Journal: Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy
September/1/2014
Abstract
Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (RAM) is a commonly used food and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which traditionally strengthens the spleen, benefits vital energy, eliminates dampness, and promotes hidroschesis. Its primary effective constituents are polysaccharides and volatile oil, whose main components are atractylenolide I and III. Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) is widely used in TCM research. However, determination of atractylenolides in RAM using FT-NIR has not been described. In this study, a new method for the determination of atractylenolides I and III in RAM by NIR was established. The spectral characteristics of atractylenolides I and III were obtained by second derivative multiple scattering correction, and its chart to the original absorbance spectra. Additionally, in combination with the partial least squares (PLS) algorithm, the calibration process was performed for the quantitation of the samples. The root mean square error of cross-validation of the PLS models for atractylenolides I and III was 0.0387 and 0.0358, and the determination coefficient of quantitative models was 96.63 and 96.16, respectively. This study demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy can be used to analyze quickly and efficiently the contents of atractylenolides I and III in RAM.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine
August/3/2020
Abstract
Objective: To investigate the antagonistic effect of the extract of Baizhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae) (RAM) on the intestinal absorption of brucine and strychnine in Strychnos nux-vomica (NUX) and propose the mechanism of these effects.
Methods: The apparent permeability value (Papp) and absorption rate constant (Ka) were chosen as indices. The everted intestinal sac model and in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion model were used to study the effects of the RAM extract on the absorption of brucine and strychnine. To confirm the results, the brucine and strychnine concentrations in hepatic portal venous blood were determined. Western blotting was used to study P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in the Caco-2 cell line.
Results: Papp and Ka of brucine and strychnine were significantly increased in the presence of a P-gp inhibitor, but no significant increase was noted in the presence of a tight junction regulator. The RAM extract inhibited the absorption of brucine and strychnine and enhanced P-gp expression.
Conclusion: The primary absorption mechanism for brucine and strychnine is passive transport, which is affected by P-gp.
Keywords: ATP binding cassette transporter, subfamily B, member1; Baizhu (RhizomaAtractylodisMacrocephalae); Brucine; Strychnine; Strychnos nux-vomica.
Publication
Journal: Scientific Reports
February/7/2016
Abstract
Accumulating evidence suggests the anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity activities of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (RAM). Here, we evaluated the anti-obesity impact of unfermented (URAM) versus fermented RAM (FRAM) using both in vitro and in vivo models. Both URAM and FRAM exhibited marked anti-inflammatory, anti-adipogenic, and anti-obesity activities, and modulation of the gut microbial distribution. However, FRAM, compared to URAM, resulted in more efficient suppression of NO production and normalization of transepithelial electrical resistance in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 and HCT 116 cells, respectively. Compared to URAM, FRAM more effectively reduced the adipose tissue weight; ameliorated the serum triglyceride and aspartate transaminase levels; restored the serum HDL level and intestinal epithelial barrier function in the LPS control group. The relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia as well as Bacteriodetes/Firmicutes ratio in the gut of the LPS control group was significantly enhanced by both URAM and FRAM. However, FRAM, but not URAM, resulted in a significant increase in the distribution of Bacteriodetes and Lactobacillus in the gut of the HFD + LPS group. Our results suggest that FRAM with probiotics can exert a greater anti-obesity effect than URAM, which is probably mediated at least in part via regulation of the intestinal microbiota and gut permeability.
Publication
Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
July/3/2013
Abstract
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent inducer of systemic inflammatory responses, is known to cause impairment of intestinal barrier function. Here, we evaluated the in vitro protective effect of an unfermented formulation of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (RAM), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine widely used in the treatment of many digestive and gastrointestinal disorders, and two fermented preparations of RAM, designated as FRAM-1 (prepared in Luria-Bertani broth) and FRAM-2 (prepared in glucose), on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) against LPS insult. In general, fermented formulations, especially FRAM-2, but not unfermented RAM, exerted an appreciable protective effect on IECs against LPS-induced perturbation of membrane resistance and permeability. Both fermented formulations exhibited appreciable anti-inflammatory activities in terms of their ability to inhibit LPS-induced gene expression and induced production of a number of key inflammatory mediators and cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. However, in most cases, FRAM-2 exhibited stronger anti-inflammatory effects than FRAM-1. Our findings also suggest that suppression of nuclear factor- κ β (NF- κ β ) activity might be one of the possible mechanisms by which the fermented RAM exerts its anti-inflammatory effects. Collectively, our results highlight the benefits of using fermented products of RAM to protect against LPS-induced inflammatory insult and impairment in intestinal barrier function.
Publication
Journal: Vaccine
May/18/2009
Abstract
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of a water extract made from the Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (RAM) on the immune responses in mice immunized with FMDV type O vaccine. Thirty-five ICR mice were randomly divided into five groups with seven animals in each group, and orally administered daily for 4 days at a dose equivalent to 0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25 or 0.5 g of dried RAM, respectively. After that, the animals were subcutaneously immunized twice with FMDV vaccine at 2-week intervals. Blood samples were collected 3 weeks after boosting for measurement of FMDV-specific IgG titers and the IgG subclasses, lymphocyte proliferation as well as production IL-5 and IFN-gamma. Results indicated that serum FMDV-specific IgG titers and the IgG subclass responses were significantly enhanced in mice orally administered RAM at the dose of 0.25 or 0.5 g when compared with the control group (P<0.05). Splenocyte proliferation in response to Con A and LPS and production of IL-5 and IFN-gamma by splenocytes were also significantly enhanced (P<0.05). Considering the immunomodulatory effect and safety of RAM demonstrated in this study, this herb deserves further investigation to evaluate its potential improvement of FMD vaccination in other animals such as pigs, goats and cattle.
Publication
Journal: Sensors
May/4/2019
Abstract
Hyperspectral data processing technique has gained increasing interests in the field of chemical and biomedical analysis. However, appropriate approaches to fusing features of hyperspectral data-cube are still lacking. In this paper, a new data fusion approach was proposed and applied to discriminate Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (RAM) slices from different geographical origins using hyperspectral imaging. Spectral and image features were extracted from hyperspectral data in visible and near-infrared (VNIR, 435-1042 nm) and short-wave infrared (SWIR, 898-1751 nm) ranges, respectively. Effective wavelengths were extracted from pre-processed spectral data by successive projection algorithm (SPA). Meanwhile, gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM) were employed to extract textural variables. The fusion of spectrum-image in VNIR and SWIR ranges (VNIR-SWIR-FuSI) was implemented to integrate those features on three fusion dimensions, i.e., VNIR and SWIR fusion, spectrum and image fusion, and all data fusion. Based on data fusion, partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and support vector machine (SVM) were utilized to establish calibration models. The results demonstrated that VNIR-SWIR-FuSI could achieve the best accuracies on both full bands (97.3%) and SPA bands (93.2%). In particular, VNIR-SWIR-FuSI on SPA bands achieved a classification accuracy of 93.2% with only 23 bands, which was significantly better than those based on spectra (80.9%) or images (79.7%). Thus it is more rapid and possible for industry applications. The current study demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging technique with data fusion holds the potential for rapid and nondestructive sorting of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs).
Publication
Journal: Annals of palliative medicine
September/13/2020
Abstract
Background: In China, Zhishi (Aurantii Fructus Immaturus) - Baizhu (Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma) is a well-known herb pair used to treat gastrointestinal motility disorders for thousands of years, and it has especially shown a definite advantage in the treatment of slow transit constipation (STC). However, the mechanism of Zhishi-Baizhu (ZSBZ) in the treatment of STC remains unclear. In this study, plasma metabolomics research combined with metabolic pathway analysis has been used to illuminate the potential mechanism of its effects against STC.
Methods: Parameters of intestinal transit ratio, plasma motilin (MTL), substance P (SP), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), histological alteration of the colon and MLCK expression in the colon were detected to evaluate the effects with respect to STC. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate the global metabolite alterations, while orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and t-test were used to filter potential metabolite markers. Moreover, metabolic pathway analysis was employed.
Results: Oral administration of ZSBZ significantly prevented the development of STC. It increased the expression of MTL and SP in serum, as well as the expression of ATP and MLCK in the colon. ZSBZ administration alleviated symptoms in loperamide-induced constipated rats, evidenced by the increase of intestinal transit ratio. Futhermore, 9 potential biomarkers of STC were screened, and the levels were all reversed to different degrees after ZSBZ administration. Metabolic pathway analysis showed that the improvement of STC by ZSBZ was mainly related to caffeine and vitamin B6 metabolism.
Conclusions: Our study identifies the metabolic networks of constipated rats and demonstrates the efficacy of this metabolomics approach to systematically study the therapeutic effects of ZSBZ on constipation.
Keywords: Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma; Aurantii Fructus Immaturus; herb pair; slow transit constipation (STC).
Publication
Journal: Molecular Biology Reports
January/13/2013
Abstract
This study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae on heart function in aged rats. Polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae was administered to aged rats. Results showed that thymus, spleen and cardiac indexs were significantly increased, whereas caspase-3 activity ratio, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi protein expression, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi mRNA expression levels were markedly reduced. It can be concluded that polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae may enhance immunity and improve heart function in aged rats.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
December/8/2021
Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: In China, Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is often used as the main therapy for cancer-related fatigue (CRF). However, there is limited evidence to prove its therapeutic effect and mechanism.
Aim of the study: We aimed to provide a basis for the therapeutic effect of TCM for CRF.
Materials and methods: We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of TCM treatment for CRF. Through frequency statistics and association rule mining, we screened the core Chinese medicine components, Astragalus mongholicus Bunge., root (Radix astragali, Huangqi) and Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz., rhizome (Rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae, Baizhu). We then used animal experiments to verify the effectiveness of these two TCMs and changes in related indicators in mice. Relevant molecular mechanisms were explored through network pharmacological analysis.
Results: Twenty-four randomised control trials (RCTs) involving 1865 patients were included in the meta-analysis. TCM produced more positive effects on CRF than standard therapy alone. Radix astragali and Rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae, as the core drug pair for the treatment of CRF, enhanced the physical fitness of mice; reduced abdominal circumference, level of inflammatory factors, and tumour weight; and increased body weight and blood sugar. Network pharmacology analysis showed that the mechanism of action of Radix astragali and Rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae on CRF mainly involved compounds, such as quercetin, kaempferol and luteolin, acting through multiple targets, such as Protein kinase B α (AKT1), Tumour necrosis factor (TNF), and Interleukin-6 (IL-6). These molecules regulate cytokines, cancer signalling, and metabolic pathways and confer an anti-CRF effect.
Conclusions: TCM may be a promising therapy to relieve CRF in cancer patients. Our research may provide a reference for the clinical application of TCM for treating CRF.
Keywords: Cancer; Fatigue; Mechanism; Traditional Chinese medicine; meta-Analysis.
Publication
Journal: Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi
October/13/2014
Abstract
Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Atractylodis Rhizoma were widely used in strengthening spleen under different disease conditions, and were easily and often misused each other. Therefore, DNA barcode was used to distinguish Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Atractylodis Rhizoma from their adulterants to ensure the safe use. The sequence lengths of ITS2 of Atractylodes macrocephala, Atractylodis Rhizoma (A. lancea, A. japonica and A. coreana) were both 229 bp. Among the ITS2 sequences of A. macrocephala, only one G/C transversion was detected at site 98, and the average GC content was 69.42%. No variable site was detected in the ITS2 sequences of A. lancea. The maximum K2P intraspecific genetic distances of both A. japonica and A. coreana were 0.013. The maximum K2P intraspecific genetic distances of A. macrocephala, A. lancea, A. japonica and A. coreana were less than the minimum interspecific genetic distance of adulterants. The ITS2 sequences in each of these polytypic species were separated into pairs of divergent clusters in the NJ tree. DNA barcoding could be used as a fast and accurate identification method to distinguish Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Atractylodis Rhizoma, from their adulterants to ensure its safe use.
Publication
Journal: Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials
December/11/2013
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To establish an HPLC fingerprint analysis method for Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (warm dried).
METHODS
Took methanol extract of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma as sample by ultrasonic processing, HPLC analysis was carried out on Sinochrom ODS-BP (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) chromatographic column with mobile phase of acetonitrile (A)-water (B), gradient elution with a flow at 1.0 mL/min, ultraviolet detection wavelength at 242 nm and column temperature at 30 degrees C.
RESULTS
An HPLC fingerprint analysis method for Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma was developed. Eight common peaks were obtained and three peaks were identified.
CONCLUSIONS
The method is accurate and credible which can be used for quality control of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (warm dried).
Publication
Journal: Food Chemistry
March/9/2021
Abstract
As one of the medicine homologous foods in China, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (AMR) is usually distributed after thermal processing, which raised the possibility of acrylamide pollution and a potential carcinogenic risk. In this study, a method was developed for the determination of the acrylamide in AMR using graphited multiwalled carbon nanotubes as the dispersive solid phase extraction sorbent and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The concentration of acrylamide was investigated at processing conditions of 80℃-210℃ and 5 min-100 min. Method validation results demonstrated the reliability of the method with good linearity, accuracy and precision. Significant increment of acrylamide was found in AMR after thermal processing with the highest concentration at 9826 μg/kg, which led to a margin of exposure at 90.83-181.7 according to the BMDL10 of carcinogenicity at 0.17 mg/kg, indicating a high health risk of taking thermally processed AMR, and monitoring and controlling should be considered.
Keywords: Acrylamide; Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma; GMWCNTs; Thermal processing.
Related with
Publication
Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
September/18/2016
Abstract
Biatractylolide was isolated from ethyl acetate extract of dried Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma root by multistep chromatographic processing. Structure of biatractylolide was confirmed by (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. The IC50 on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was 6.5458 μg/mL when the control IC50 value of huperzine A was 0.0192 μg/mL. Molecular Docking Software (MOE) was used to discover molecular sites of action between biatractylolide and AChE protein by regular molecular docking approaches. Moreover, biatractylolide downregulated the expression of AChE of MEF and 293T cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms of inhibitory activities of biatractylolide on AChE are not only through binding to AChE, but also via reducing AChE expression by inhibiting the activity of GSK3β.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Natural Medicines
July/25/2016
Abstract
Ancient Chinese medicine treatises on Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (AMR), the rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz, indicated that it possessed an expectorant effect. However, in modern times, it is commonly used as a tocolytic agent. In this study, the components of AMR that are responsible for its expectorant and tocolytic effects were evaluated in order to clarify the differences in its application between ancient and modern times. A decoction of AMR was separated into five fractions, namely, volatile oil (VO), petroleum ether (PE), alcohol eluate from macroporous resin (AE), water eluate from macroporous resin (WE), and polysaccharides (PS), using various separation methods. The expectorant experiment indicated that the VO fraction, which mainly contains atractylone, produced an obvious expectorant effect. The experiment that assessed the irritability of uterine smooth muscle (USM) showed that the PE, which is mainly composed of atractylenolides, and the PS, which is mainly composed of inulin-type polysaccharides, were the active fractions for tocolysis, but the VO fraction had the opposite action. These data suggested that volatile oils are the key components responsible for the usage change of AMR in both ancient and current usage.
Publication
Journal: Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi
September/27/2015
Abstract
To study the effect of the combined administration of different doses of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma on the proliferation of DFMO-treated intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) and p53, p21 mRNA and protein expressions, in order to define the molecular basis for the effect of the combined administration of different doses of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma on the cell proliferation. The effect of the drugs on the cell division rate and cell cycle of IEC-6 cells was detected by FCM. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze the effect of the drugs on mRNA of p2l and p53 related to IEC-6 proliferation. Western blot was used to analyze the effect of the drugs on p2l and p53 protein expressions of IEC-6 cells. Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma could increase p53, p21 mRNA and proteins expression in DFMO-treated IEC-6 cells. The combined administration of different ratios of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma could significantly down-regulate Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma's effect on p53, p21 mRNA and proteins expression in DFMO-treated IEC-6 cells and promote the proliferation of IEC-6 cells. The combined administration of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma could down-regulate Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma's effect on DFMO-treated intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6).
Publication
Journal: Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi
December/2/2013
Abstract
To establish a fingerprint spectrum for Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma stir-fried with wheat bran based on UFLC/Q-TOF-MS, and make a principal component analysis (PCA) with Markview software, in order to compare the changes of components between raw and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma with raw wheat bran as the blank. The results showed that the changed in components raw Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma stir-fried with wheat bran were apparently observed by PCA. Six compounds were identified to have significant changes in mass fraction before and after being stir-fried, namely atractylenolide-I, atractylenolide-II, atractylenolide-III, atractylentrid, atractylon and an unknown compound. Among them, atractylenolide-I and atractylenolide-II generated from dehydration and dehydrogenation of atractylenolide-III may be the material base of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma stir-fried with wheat bran for strengthening spleen.
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