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Publication
Journal: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
September/1/2009
Abstract
Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS), a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula consisting of six herbal medicines (Paeonia lactiflora, Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum chuanxiong, Poria cocos, Atractylodis macrocephalae and Rhizoma Alismatis), has been used as a classical gynecological remedy in China for centuries. However, its active substances have remained unknown. In this paper, an HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS/MS method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents in DSS. The ESI-MS/MS fragmentation behavior of the reference compounds was proposed for aiding the structural identification of components in DSS extract. Forty-one compounds including monoterpene glycosides, phenolic acids, phathalides, sesquiterpenoids and triterpenes were identified or tentatively characterized by comparing their retention times, UV and MS spectra with those of authentic compounds or literature data, and 14 of them (gallic acid, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, benzoic acid, senkyunolide I, coniferyl ferulate, senkyunolide A, 3-butylphthalide, Z-ligustilide, Z-butylidenephthalide, atractylcnolide II, atractylcnolide I and levistolide A) were determined by HPLC-DAD using a C18 column and gradient elution of acetonitrile/water-formic acid (100:0.1, v/v). The linearity, precision, accuracy, LOD and LOQ were validated for the quantification method, which proved sensitive, accurate and reproducible. The study might provide a basis for the quality control of DSS extracts and preparations.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
July/1/2010
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Xiaoyaosan, a famous Chinese prescription, composed of Poria (Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf), Radix Paeoniae Alba (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.), Radix Glycyrrhizae (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.), Radix Bupleuri (Bupleurum chinense DC.), Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels), Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.), Herba Menthae (Mentha haplocalyx Briq.), and Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), has been widely used in the clinic for treating mental disorders. Behavior and biochemical analyses indicate xiaoyaosan has obvious anti-depression activity. However, there is no report on the effects of xiaoyaosan using a metabolomics approach.
OBJECTIVE
A urinary metabolomics method was applied to evaluate the efficacy of xiaoyaosan on rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress.
METHODS
Rats were divided into 6 groups and drugs were administered during the 21-day model building period. Urine was measured using GC-MS, processed with XCMS and Microsoft Excel and analyzed by SIMCA-P and SPASS software. Variable importance in projection statistics and loading plot were used to find biomarker ions.
RESULTS
Clear separation between model and each drug group was achieved. High dose group of xiaoyaosan was much closer to control group than middle dose group and amitriptyline group. The time-dependent recovery tendency in high dose group was obtained.
CONCLUSIONS
In term of anti-depression effect, high dose xiaoyaosan was the most effective and amitriptyline equaled middle dose xiaoyaosan as shown by metabolomics strategy and behavior tests. Some common and characteristic metabolites on the anti-depression of xiaoyaosan and amitriptyline were obtained. The work showed metabolomics is a valuable tool in studying the efficacy and potential biomarkers of therapeutic effect of complex prescriptions.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
December/27/2011
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Xiaoyaosan (XYS), a famous Chinese prescription, composed of Radix Bupleuri (Bupleurum chinense DC.), Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels), Radix Paeoniae Alba (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.), Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.), Poria (Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf), Radix Glycyrrhizae (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.), Herba Menthae (Mentha haplocalyx Briq.), and Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), has been widely used in the clinic for treating mental disorders. Behavior and biochemical analyses indicate XYS has obvious anti-depression activity. However, there is no report on the effects of XYS using a metabolomics approach.
OBJECTIVE
Depression is a prevalent complex psychiatric disorder and its pathophysiological mechanism is not yet well understood. This paper was designed to study metabonomic characters of the depression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and the therapeutic effects of XYS, classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in treating the depression.
METHODS
A plasma metabonomics method based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed. Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to classify and reveal the differences between the model group and control group. In turns, the concentration of these differences was analyzed with t-test to determine whether XYS was possible to influence the metabolic pattern induced by CUMS.
RESULTS
The significant difference in metabolic profiling was observed from model group compared with drug-dose group by using the PCA, indicating the recovery effect of XYS on CUMS rats. Some significantly changed metabolites like glycine, glucose and hexadecanoic acid have been identified. These biochemical changes are related to the disturbance in amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism and glycometabolism, which are helpful to further understand the CUMS and the therapeutic mechanism of XYS.
CONCLUSIONS
Metabonomic approach is helpful to further understanding the pathophysiology of depression and assisting in clinical diagnosis of depression and is also a valuable tool for studying the essence of Chinese medicine's syndrome theory and therapeutic effect mechanism of TCM.
Publication
Journal: PLoS ONE
July/22/2014
Abstract
Yu Ping Feng San (YPFS), a Chinese herbal decoction, is composed of Astragali Radix (AR; Huangqi), Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (AMR; Baizhu) and Saposhnikoviae Radix (SR; Fangfeng) in a weight ratio of 1∶2∶1. Clinically, YPFS has been widely used to regulate immune functions; however, the action mechanism of it is not known. Here, we addressed this issue by providing detail analyses of chemical and biological properties of YPFS. By using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, fifteen chemicals deriving from different herbs of YPFS were determined, and which served as a control for the standardization of the herbal extract of YPFS. In general, the amounts of chosen chemical markers were higher in a preparation of YPFS as compared to that of single herb or two-herb compositions. In order to reveal the immune functions of YPFS, the standardized extract was applied onto cultured murine macrophages. The treatment of YPFS stimulated the mRNA and protein expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines via activation of NF-κB by enhancing IκBα degradation. In contrast, the application of YPFS suppressed the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chronic inflammation model. In addition, YPFS could up regulate the phagocytic activity in cultured macrophages. These results therefore supported the bi-directional immune-modulatory roles of YPFS in regulating the releases of cytokines from macrophages.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research
October/13/2016
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Atractylenolide I (ATR-1), an active component of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, possesses cytotoxicity against various carcinomas. However, little is known about the effects of ATR-1on bladder cancer. In the present study, the anti-tumor activity of ATR-1 was examined on bladder cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro.
METHODS
MTT assay was used to assess the cytotoxic effect of ATR-1. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis levels were evaluated using flow cytometry. Western blotting assay was applied to measure the levels of proteins associated with the apoptotic pathway, cell cycle progression and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Tumor models in nude mice were induced by injection of T-24 and 253J human bladder cancer cells.
RESULTS
ATR-1 inhibited bladder cancer cell proliferation, arrested cell cycle in G2/M phase through up-regulation of p21 and down-regulation of cyclin B1, CDK1 and Cdc25c. Meanwhile, ATR-1 also triggered cellular apoptosis depending on the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Mechanism investigation indicated that ATR-1 exerts its anti-tumor effect also relies on the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Finally, mice studies showed that ATR-1 blocked the T-24 or 253J-induced xenograft tumor growth without noticeable toxicity.
CONCLUSIONS
ATR-1 may be served as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of bladder cancer.
Publication
Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
July/4/2013
Abstract
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent inducer of systemic inflammatory responses, is known to cause impairment of intestinal barrier function. Here, we evaluated the in vitro protective effect of an unfermented formulation of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (RAM), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine widely used in the treatment of many digestive and gastrointestinal disorders, and two fermented preparations of RAM, designated as FRAM-1 (prepared in Luria-Bertani broth) and FRAM-2 (prepared in glucose), on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) against LPS insult. In general, fermented formulations, especially FRAM-2, but not unfermented RAM, exerted an appreciable protective effect on IECs against LPS-induced perturbation of membrane resistance and permeability. Both fermented formulations exhibited appreciable anti-inflammatory activities in terms of their ability to inhibit LPS-induced gene expression and induced production of a number of key inflammatory mediators and cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. However, in most cases, FRAM-2 exhibited stronger anti-inflammatory effects than FRAM-1. Our findings also suggest that suppression of nuclear factor- κ β (NF- κ β ) activity might be one of the possible mechanisms by which the fermented RAM exerts its anti-inflammatory effects. Collectively, our results highlight the benefits of using fermented products of RAM to protect against LPS-induced inflammatory insult and impairment in intestinal barrier function.
Publication
Journal: Scientific Reports
February/8/2016
Abstract
Accumulating evidence suggests the anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity activities of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (RAM). Here, we evaluated the anti-obesity impact of unfermented (URAM) versus fermented RAM (FRAM) using both in vitro and in vivo models. Both URAM and FRAM exhibited marked anti-inflammatory, anti-adipogenic, and anti-obesity activities, and modulation of the gut microbial distribution. However, FRAM, compared to URAM, resulted in more efficient suppression of NO production and normalization of transepithelial electrical resistance in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 and HCT 116 cells, respectively. Compared to URAM, FRAM more effectively reduced the adipose tissue weight; ameliorated the serum triglyceride and aspartate transaminase levels; restored the serum HDL level and intestinal epithelial barrier function in the LPS control group. The relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia as well as Bacteriodetes/Firmicutes ratio in the gut of the LPS control group was significantly enhanced by both URAM and FRAM. However, FRAM, but not URAM, resulted in a significant increase in the distribution of Bacteriodetes and Lactobacillus in the gut of the HFD + LPS group. Our results suggest that FRAM with probiotics can exert a greater anti-obesity effect than URAM, which is probably mediated at least in part via regulation of the intestinal microbiota and gut permeability.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
December/27/2011
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Xiaoyaosan (XYS), composed of Radix Bupleuri, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, Poria, Herba Menthae, Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens and Radix Glycyrrhizae, is a valuable traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which is used for the treatment of depression in China. In the formula, Radix Bupleuri usually serves as the principal drug, Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Radix Paeoniae Alba serve as the ministerial drugs, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, Poria, Herba Menthae and Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens serve as adjunctive drugs, Radix Glycyrrhizae serves as messenger drug, they coordinate with each other and enhance the effect of the formula. In our previous experiments, the antidepressant effect of XYS was revealed. However, the antidepressant part (or component) of this prescription was still obscure. We divided the XYS into five different polar fractions, and explored the antidepressant activity of five different polar fractions to identify the active fraction.
METHODS
Behavior research and metabonomics method based on (1)H NMR were used for efficacy study of different fractions in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression. Rats were divided into 8 groups and drugs were administered during the 21 days model building period. The urine samples of rats were collected overnight (12h) on 21 day and the metabolic profiling of the urine was measured using NMR. Multivariate analysis was also utilized to evaluate the active fraction of XYS.
RESULTS
In the behavior research, there were significant difference between the lipophilic fraction group (XY-A) and the model group. In addition, with pattern recognition analysis of urinary metabolites, the results showed a clear separation of the model group and control group, while XY-A group was much closer to the control group in the OSC-PLS score plot. Seven endogenous metabolites contributing to the separation of the model group and control group were detected, while XY-A group regulated the 5 perturbed metabolites showing a tendency of recovering to control group.
CONCLUSIONS
The present work suggested that petroleum ether fraction was the most effective fraction, implying that lipophilic components contribute to the antidepressant effect of XYS.
Publication
Journal: Zhong xi yi jie he xue bao = Journal of Chinese integrative medicine
March/6/2012
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To analyze the relationships among syndrome, therapeutic method and Chinese herbal medicine in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
METHODS
Using cross-sectional survey, we collected the clinical information of hospitalized CAD patients through individualized Information Acquisition Platform of CAD. The relationships among syndrome, therapeutic treatment and Chinese herbs were excavated by means of complex networks based on theory of correspondence between prescription and syndrome.
RESULTS
The fundamental syndrome factors were blood stasis, qi deficiency, phlegm-turbid, yin deficiency, yang deficiency, qi stagnation, and blood deficiency. The therapeutic treatment mainly included activating blood circulation, clearing heat, invigorating qi, resolving turbid and phlegm, nourishing yin, warming yang qi, and dispersing obstruction. These methods constituted an association with major syndrome factors. The major syndrome factors constituted an association with the following Chinese herbal medicines: Huangqi (Radix Astragali Mongolici), Chenpi (Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae), Dihuang (Radix Rehmanniae), Chuanxiong (Rhizoma Chuanxiong), Baizhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae), Taoren (Semen Persicae), Fuling (Poria), Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Banxia (Rhizoma Pinelliae), Zexie (Rhizoma Alismatis), Chishao (Radix Paeoniae Rubra), Danggui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis), Danshen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae), Zhiqiao (Fructus Aurantii Submaturus.), Guizhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi) and Maidong (Radix Ophiopogonis Japonici). The efficacy of Chinese berbal medicines constituting association with syndrome factors mainly included alleviating pain, resolving turbid and phlegm, clearing heat, activating blood circulation, invigorating qi, cooling blood, promoting urination, resolving stagnation, removing toxic material, nourishing blood, regulating qi, quieting spirit, invigorating spleen, regulating menstruation, promoting defecation, moistening dryness, and resolving stasis.
CONCLUSIONS
The therapeutic methods for CAD are based on consistency in theory, method, formula and medicines. Therapeutic methods for clearing heat and removing toxical material should be further studied.
Publication
Journal: Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
April/5/2007
Abstract
Ginseng Radix, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Poria, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Angelicae Gigantis Radix, Ligusticum Rhizoma, Rehmanniae Radix, Paeoniae Radix, Acori Graminei Rhizoma, and Polygalae Radix have been widely used as herbal medicine against ischemia. In order to test the neuroprotective effect of a novel prescription, the present study examined the effects of Palmul-Chongmyeong-Tang (PMCMT) consisting of these ten herbs on learning and memory in the Morris water maze task and the central cholinergic system of rats with cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal and cognitive impairments. After middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h, rats were administered with saline or PMCMT (200 mg/kg, p.o.) daily for 2 weeks, followed by their training to the tasks. In the water maze test, the animals were trained to find a platform in a fixed position during 6 d and then received a 60 s probe trial on the 7th day following removal of the platform from the pool. Rats with ischemic insults showed impaired learning and memory of the tasks and treatment with PMCMT produced a significant improvement in escape latency to find the platform in the Morris water maze. Consistent with behavioral data, treatment with PMCMT also reduced the loss of cholinergic immunoreactivity in the hippocampus induced by cerebral ischemia. These results demonstrated that PMCMT has a protective effect against ischemia-induced neuronal and cognitive impairments. The present study suggested that PMCMT might be useful in the treatment of vascular dementia.
Publication
Journal: Molecular Medicine Reports
January/5/2015
Abstract
Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae have an important role in treating cerebrovascular diseases in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The purpose of the present study was to determine the neuroprotective effect of Atractylodis macrocephalaon polysaccharides (AMPS) on hypoxia-induced apoptosis of cerebral cortical neurons. Neuronal cells obtained from neonatal rats were divided into the following groups: Normal control (group C); apoptosis positive induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation culture of rat primary cerebral cortical neurons (group A); treated with 0.025 g/l AMPS prior to hypoxia culture of neurons (AMPS1); treated with 0.05 g/l AMPS (AMPS2); treated with 0.1 g/l AMPS (AMPS3); and treated with 0.25 g/l AMPS (AMPS4). Neuronal apoptosis was examined with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide, Hoechst 33342 fluorescent staining, Rhodamine 123 staining, polymerase chain reaction assay and immunocytochemical staining. The results showed that the AMPS significantly prevented the growth inhibition, mitochondrial injury and apoptosis of neurons induced by hypoxia. The levels of Caspase-3 and Bax mRNAs and proteins were significantly downregulated by AMPS in neurons exposed to hypoxia, and the levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein was significantly upregulated by AMPS in neurons exposed to hypoxia, as compared with group A (P<0.05). The ratio of Bcl-2/Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) mRNA and protein was significantly increased by AMPS in neurons exposed to hypoxia as compared with group A (P<0.05). The observed improved neuronal growth and inhibition neuronal apoptosis by AMPS may be due to a decrease in the levels of Bax and Caspase-3 and an increase in the levels of Bcl-2 and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax in hypoxic neurons.
Publication
Journal: Vaccine
May/19/2009
Abstract
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of a water extract made from the Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (RAM) on the immune responses in mice immunized with FMDV type O vaccine. Thirty-five ICR mice were randomly divided into five groups with seven animals in each group, and orally administered daily for 4 days at a dose equivalent to 0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25 or 0.5 g of dried RAM, respectively. After that, the animals were subcutaneously immunized twice with FMDV vaccine at 2-week intervals. Blood samples were collected 3 weeks after boosting for measurement of FMDV-specific IgG titers and the IgG subclasses, lymphocyte proliferation as well as production IL-5 and IFN-gamma. Results indicated that serum FMDV-specific IgG titers and the IgG subclass responses were significantly enhanced in mice orally administered RAM at the dose of 0.25 or 0.5 g when compared with the control group (P<0.05). Splenocyte proliferation in response to Con A and LPS and production of IL-5 and IFN-gamma by splenocytes were also significantly enhanced (P<0.05). Considering the immunomodulatory effect and safety of RAM demonstrated in this study, this herb deserves further investigation to evaluate its potential improvement of FMD vaccination in other animals such as pigs, goats and cattle.
Publication
Journal: Phytomedicine
June/10/2013
Abstract
Weikang Keli (constitutes of Root of Codonopsis pilosula, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, Rhizoma Curcumae Aeruginosae, Rhizoma Pinelliae, Actinidia chinensis Planch, and Rhodiola rosea) is a well known Chinese herbal formula for gastric cancer therapy in clinical treatment. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms involved are still not fully understood. In this study, we found that Weikang Keli could induce patterns of autophagy in SGC-7901 cells, including intracellular vacuole formation, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) conversion. Hoechst 33258 staining and Western blot analysis of apoptosis-related proteins showed that WK induced SGC-7901 cell death was not through apoptosis. In vivo study also revealed that i.g. administration of Weikang Keli once a day for 25 days could significantly reduce tumor volumes by about 50%. Collectively, the current data indicated that Weikang Keli induced gastric cancer cell death by autophagy effects.
Publication
Journal: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
September/21/2014
Abstract
Atractylenolide I (AT-I), one of the main naturally occurring compounds of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, has remarkable anti-cancer effects on various cancers. However, its effects on the treatment of gastric cancer remain unclear. Via multiple cellular and molecular approaches, we demonstrated that AT-I could potently inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis through inactivating Notch pathway. AT-I treatment led to the reduction of expressions of Notch1, Jagged1, and its downstream Hes1/ Hey1. Our results showed that AT-I inhibited the self-renewal capacity of gastric stem-like cells (GCSLCs) by suppression of their sphere formation capacity and cell viability. AT-I attenuated gastric cancer stem cell (GCSC) traits partly through inactivating Notch1, leading to reducing the expressions of its downstream target Hes1, Hey1 and CD44 in vitro. Collectively, our results suggest that AT-I might develop as a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of gastric cancer.
Publication
Journal: Phytotherapy Research
August/14/2012
Abstract
Excitotoxicity has been implicated in neurological disorders. This study investigated the neuroprotective effect of the extract from Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae on excitotoxicity-induced neuronal apoptosis in primary cultured cerebral cortical neurons. Excitotoxicity was induced by exposure of cortical neurons to glutamate. Neuronal apoptosis and the protective effect of Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae extract were examined by multi-indices including cell viability assay, morphological features, DNA fragmentation and flow cytometric analysis. After exposure of cultured neurons to glutamate for 24 h, the neurons exhibited marked apoptotic-like death. Co-treatment of the neurons with glutamate and Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae extract significantly elevated the cell viability, and reduced the number of apoptotic cells. These results demonstrate that Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae is an effective neuroprotective agent against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and may have therapeutic potential in excitotoxicity-mediated diseases.
Publication
Journal: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
February/18/2020
Abstract
Since December 2019, an outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, and rapidly spread to almost all parts of China. This was followed by prevention programs recommending Chinese medicine (CM) for the prevention. In order to provide evidence for CM recommendations, we reviewed ancient classics and human studies.Historical records on prevention and treatment of infections in CM classics, clinical evidence of CM on the prevention of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and H1N1 influenza, and CM prevention programs issued by health authorities in China since the COVID-19 outbreak were retrieved from different databases and websites till 12 February, 2020. Research evidence included data from clinical trials, cohort or other population studies using CM for preventing contagious respiratory virus diseases.The use of CM to prevent epidemics of infectious diseases was traced back to ancient Chinese practice cited in Huangdi's Internal Classic (Huang Di Nei Jing) where preventive effects were recorded. There were 3 studies using CM for prevention of SARS and 4 studies for H1N1 influenza. None of the participants who took CM contracted SARS in the 3 studies. The infection rate of H1N1 influenza in the CM group was significantly lower than the non-CM group (relative risk 0.36, 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.52; n=4). For prevention of COVID-19, 23 provinces in China issued CM programs. The main principles of CM use were to tonify qi to protect from external pathogens, disperse wind and discharge heat, and resolve dampness. The most frequently used herbs included Radix astragali (Huangqi), Radix glycyrrhizae (Gancao), Radix saposhnikoviae (Fangfeng), Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (Baizhu), Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (Jinyinhua), and Fructus forsythia (Lianqiao).Based on historical records and human evidence of SARS and H1N1 influenza prevention, Chinese herbal formula could be an alternative approach for prevention of COVID-19 in high-risk population. Prospective, rigorous population studies are warranted to confirm the potential preventive effect of CM.
Publication
Journal: Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy
September/2/2014
Abstract
Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (RAM) is a commonly used food and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which traditionally strengthens the spleen, benefits vital energy, eliminates dampness, and promotes hidroschesis. Its primary effective constituents are polysaccharides and volatile oil, whose main components are atractylenolide I and III. Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) is widely used in TCM research. However, determination of atractylenolides in RAM using FT-NIR has not been described. In this study, a new method for the determination of atractylenolides I and III in RAM by NIR was established. The spectral characteristics of atractylenolides I and III were obtained by second derivative multiple scattering correction, and its chart to the original absorbance spectra. Additionally, in combination with the partial least squares (PLS) algorithm, the calibration process was performed for the quantitation of the samples. The root mean square error of cross-validation of the PLS models for atractylenolides I and III was 0.0387 and 0.0358, and the determination coefficient of quantitative models was 96.63 and 96.16, respectively. This study demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy can be used to analyze quickly and efficiently the contents of atractylenolides I and III in RAM.
Publication
Journal: Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
December/21/2012
Abstract
Molecules that enhance chondrogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were identified and isolated using an in vitro Gli reporter gene assay in MSCs incorporating a Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) target. Atractylenolide III, which promoted Gli1-mediated transcriptional activity, was isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the Rhizoma, Atractylodis macrocephalae. After dehydration, atractylenolide III was transformed to atractylenolide I. Both atractylenolides were confirmed by MS, UV, IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra. Atractylenolide III (which contains -OH at the 8-position) and atractylenolide I (which lacks -OH at the 8-position) were found to effectively promote the activity of the Gli promoter. While the hydroxyl group of atractylenolide III was not essential for the effect of atractylenolide, its effect was dependent on Shh signaling. Phenotypic cellular analysis indicated that atractylenolides induced MSCs to differentiate into chondrocytes, as shown by increased expression of specific chondrogenic markers including collagen II, aggrecan and the cartilage related transcription factor, Sox9. Atractylenolides significantly increased the expression of Shh and its target gene Gli-1, indicating that Shh signaling was activated by atractylenolides. Moreover, inhibition of Shh signaling reduced the effect of atractylenolides on the chondrogenic phenotype. The discovery that atractylenolides induce chondrocytes from MSCs is promising for bony disease therapy.
Publication
Journal: Molecular Biology Reports
January/14/2013
Abstract
This study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae on heart function in aged rats. Polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae was administered to aged rats. Results showed that thymus, spleen and cardiac indexs were significantly increased, whereas caspase-3 activity ratio, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi protein expression, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi mRNA expression levels were markedly reduced. It can be concluded that polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae may enhance immunity and improve heart function in aged rats.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
August/9/2005
Abstract
With regards to the applications of three Chinese herbs poria, rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae, and radix angelicae sinensis to vascular dementia (VD), the work was performed to assess the nootropic action and explore neuroprotective mechanisms of three herbs combinations (FBD) on mice injured by cerebral repetitive ischemia-reperfusion (IR). Aqueous extracts from FBD (115-460 mg/kg) administered p.o. significantly improved cognitive function through elongating latency and reducing number of errors in step-through test. Aqueous extracts from FBD inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO), elevated activity in (Na+)-(K+)-ATPase and (Ca2+)-ATPase, reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) in cortical tissue after IR, and artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) containing aqueous extracts from FBD (ACSF-FBD) (0.01-10 mg/L) protected also primary cortical cortex neurons (PCCN) from hypoxic and excitotoxic insult induced by sodium dithionite (1 mM) and monosodium glutamate (MSG) (0.5 mM) in vitro. Multiple anti-IR properties contributed probably FBD to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction shown in this murine model for VD.
Publication