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Publication
Journal: Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
November/17/2014
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Platycodin D (PD), a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Platycodonis radix, possesses anti-cancer effects in several cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate its anti- cancer activities in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
METHODS
MTT and colony formation assays were performed to evaluate cell proliferation, along with flow cytometry and Western blotting for apoptosis. Cell adhesion was tested by observing cellular morphology under a microscope, while the transwell assay was employed to investigate the cell migration and invasion.
RESULTS
PD concentration-dependently inhibited cell proliferation in both HepG2 and Hep3B cells, and significantly suppressed colony formation and induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The protein levels of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and Bax were up-regulated while that of survivin was down-regulated after treatment with PD. Moreover, PD not only obviously suppressed the adhesion of HepG2 cells to Matrigel, but also remarkably depressed their migration and invasion induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA).
CONCLUSIONS
PD presents anti-cancer potential in hepatocellular carcinoma cells via inducing apoptosis, and inhibiting cell adhesion, migration and invasion, indicating promising features as a lead compound for anti-cancer agent development.
Publication
Journal: European Journal of Pharmacology
November/15/2015
Abstract
Platycodin D (PD), isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb named Platycodonis Radix, is a triterpenoid saponin with well-known anti-tumor effects. In this study, we provided reliable evidence that PD triggered autophagy in a number of cell lines in vitro. PD-triggered autophagy was identified by observation of cytoplasmic vacuole, up-regulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 II (LC3-II), and accumulation of autophagosomes. The Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway may be not involved in PD-triggered autophagy, as evidenced by the increased phosphorylation of Akt (Thr308), mTOR (Ser2448), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (Ser371), and ULK1 (Ser757). However, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was activated after PD treatment. The decreased ERK phosphorylation caused by pretreatment with U0126, an inhibitor of MEK, suppressed the expression of LC3-II compared with PD treatment alone, suggesting that ERK pathway may have a critical function in PD-triggered autophagy. In addition, the PD-induced proliferative inhibition and apoptosis were enhanced when pretreatment with autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) or bafilomycin A1 (BAF), indicating that PD may trigger a protective autophagy in HepG2 cells. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to report that PD triggers autophagy in a series of cell lines and ERK activation is important for PD-triggered autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. The combined treatment with PD and CQ or BAF may be a promising regimen for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
June/23/2014
Abstract
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a complex chronic disease and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury ranging from steatosis and steatohepatitis to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Since effective therapies for ALD are still limited, Chinese herbal medicine is thought to be an important and alternative approach. This review focuses on the current scientific evidence of ALD by ten Chinese Materia Medica ( zhōng yào), including Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix ( dān shēn), Notoginseng Radix ( sān qī), Lycii Fructus ( gǒu qǐ zǐ), Cnidii Fructus ( shé chuáng zǐ), Gentianae Radix ( lóng dǎn), Puerariae Radix ( gé gēn), Puerariae Flos ( gé huā), Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex ( hòu pò), Platycodonis Radix ( jié gěng), and Trigonellae Semen ( hú lú bā). Potential mechanisms of these herbal medicines in ALD are involved in amelioration of enhanced inflammation, reduction of hepatic oxidative stress and lipogenesis, and enhancement of intestinal permeability in alcohol-induced liver injury models in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, the evidenced therapeutic potential suggests that these herbs are promising candidates for prevention and development of new drugs for ALD in the future.
Publication
Journal: Chinese Medicine
June/30/2014
Abstract
BACKGROUND
It has been demonstrated that platycodin D (PD) exhibits anti-cancer activities. This study aims to investigate the anti-proliferative effects of the combination of PD and doxorubicin (DOX) on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells).
METHODS
The anti-proliferative effects of different dosages of PD, DOX, and PD + DOX on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were determined by the MTT assay. The 10 μM PD, 5 μM DOX, and 10 μM PD + 5 μM DOX induced-protein expression of apoptosis-related molecules on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were detected by western blot. The 10 μM PD, 5 μM DOX and 10 μM PD + 5 μM DOX-induced mitochondrial membrane potential changes on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were stained with JC-1 before visual determination. The intracellular accumulations of DOX, induced by 10 μM PD, 5 μM DOX and 10 μM PD + 5 μM DOX, were detected by flow cytometry.
RESULTS
PD enhanced anti-cancer activities of DOX were observed in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Compared with mono treatment, the combined treatment increased the protein expression of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. The combined treatment with PD did not obviously increase the accumulation of DOX in MCF-7 cells (1.66 ± 0.13 in DOX-treated group, and 1.69 ± 0.06 in PD + DOX-treated group, P = 0.76), but it significantly increased the accumulation of DOX in MDA-MB-231 cells (1.76 ± 0.17 in DOX-treated group, 2.09 ± 0.02 in PD + DOX-treated group, P = 0.027).
CONCLUSIONS
The combined treatment of DOX and PD exhibited stronger anti-proliferative effects on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells than DOX and PD treatment did.
Publication
Journal: Molecules
August/2/2017
Abstract
Platycodonis radix is extensively used for treating cough, excessive phlegm, sore throat, bronchitis and asthma in the clinic. Meanwhile, the stems, leaves and seeds of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) have some pharmaceutical activities such as anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation effects, etc. These effects must be caused by the different metabolites in various parts of herb. In order to profile the different parts of PG, the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of- flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MSE) coupled with UNIFI platform and multivariate statistical analyses was used in this study. Consequently, for the constituent screening, 73, 42, 35, 44 compounds were characterized from the root, stem, leaf and seed, respectively. The stem, leaf and seed contain more flavonoids but few saponins that can be easily discriminated in the root. For the metabolomic analysis, 15, 5, 7, 11 robust biomarkers enabling the differentiation among root, stem, leaf and seed, were discovered. These biomarkers can be used for rapid identification of four different parts of PG grown in northeast China.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
January/6/2014
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Niuhuang Jiedu Tablet (NJT) is an effective prescription of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used in treating acute tonsillitis, pharyngitis, periodontitis and mouth ulcer. NJT is prepared from Xionghuang (Realgar, As2S2), Rengong Niuhuang (Bovis Calculus Artificialis), Bingpian (Borneolum Synthcticum), Shigao (Gypsum Fibrosum), Dahuang (Rhei Radix et Rhizoma), Huangqin (Scutellariae Radix), Jiegeng (Platycodonis Radix) and Gancao (Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma). In the prescription, significant level of realgar (As2S2) as a potentially toxic element is contained.
OBJECTIVE
In this study, (1)H NMR-based metabonomics approach has been used to investigate the toxicity of realgar (As2S2) after being counterbalanced by other TCMs in NJT.
METHODS
Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control, group I (treated with Realgar), group II (treated with Realgar, Bovis Calculus Artificialis, Borneolum Synthcticum, Gypsum Fibrosum, Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Platycodonis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma), group III (treated with Realgar, Bovis Calculus Artificialis, Borneolum Synthcticum and Gypsum Fibrosum) and group IV (treated with Realgar, Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Platycodonis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma). Based on (1)H-NMR spectra of urine and serum from rats, PCA and PLS-DA were performed to identify different metabolic profiles. Liver and kidney histopathology examinations and serum clinical chemistry analysis were also performed.
RESULTS
PLS-DA scores plots demonstrated that the cluster of group I was separated from that of control rats, while group II was located close to control rats, indicating that metabolic profiles of group II were restored toward those of control rats. The metabolic profiles of group III were similar to those of group I, while the metabolic profiles of group II were almost in line with those of group II. Statistics results were confirmed by the histopathological examination and biochemical assay.
CONCLUSIONS
Our results indicated that it was more secure and much less toxic for counterbalanced realgar (As2S2) in NJT. The effective material bases of toxicity alleviation to realgar (As2S2) were Dahuang (Rhei Radix et Rhizoma), Huangqin (Scutellariae Radix), Jiegeng (Platycodonis Radix) and Gancao (Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma), which regulated energy metabolism, choline metabolism, amino acid metabolism and gut flora disorder affected by realgar (As2S2) exposure.
Publication
Journal: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
August/17/2016
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Platycodin D, the main saponin isolated from Chinese herb Platycodonis Radix, exhibits anticancer activities against various cancer cell lines. Here we evaluated its anticancer action against human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo, and elucidated the relationship between platycodin D-induced apoptosis and autophagy.
METHODS
The viability of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402 cells was evaluated with MTT assay, and the apoptosis was examined using Annexin V/PI and Hoechst 33342 staining assays. Monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining was used to label autophagic vacuoles. The proteins were detected using Western blot analysis. For studying its anticancer action in vivo, platycodin D (5 and 10 mg· kg(-1)·d(-1)) was intraperitoneally injected to BEL-7402-bearing mice for 21 days.
RESULTS
Platycodin D (5-40 μmol/L) inhibited the cell proliferation in vitro with IC50 values of 37.70±3.99, 24.30±2.30 and 19.70±2.36 μmol/L at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Platycodin D (5-20 μmol/L) dose-dependently increased BEL-7402 cell apoptosis, increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the levels of cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3, and decreased the level of Bcl-2. Furthermore, platycodin D (5-20 μmol/L) induced autophagy in BEL-7402 cells, as evidenced by formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles, increased amounts of LC3-II, and increased numbers of MDC-positive cells. Pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (5 μmol/L) or BAF (50 nmol/L) significantly enhanced platycodin D-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis. Moreover, platycodin D (20 μmol/L) activated the ERK and JNK pathways in BEL-7402 cells, and simultaneous blockage of the two pathways effectively suppressed platycodin D-induced autophagy and enhanced platycodin D-induced apoptosis. In BEL-7402-bearing mice, platycodin D (10 mg·kg(-1)•d(-1)) significantly reduced relative tumor volume with decreased body weight.
CONCLUSIONS
Platycodin D not only inhibits the proliferation of BEL-7402 cells but also suppresses BEL-7402 xenograft tumor growth. Platycodin D-induced cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis are amplified by co-treatment with autophagy inhibitors.
Publication
Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
October/29/2013
Abstract
Obesity is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and dyslipidemia and is a strong predictor for the development of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. This study examined the antiobesity effect of an ethanol extract of Corni Fructus containing formulation (CDAP), which is a combination of four natural components: Corni Fructus, Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, and Platycodonis Radix. The cellular lipid content in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was assessed by Oil Red O staining. Expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- γ (PPAR- γ ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein- α (C/EBP- α ), and lipin-1 were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Western blot was used to determine the protein levels of PPAR- γ , C/EBP- α , and AMP-activated protein kinase- α (AMPK- α ). The CDAP extract suppressed the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes by downregulating cellular induction of PPAR- γ , C/EBP- α , and lipin-1. The CDAP extract also significantly upregulated phosphorylation of AMPK- α . An in vivo study showed that CDAP induced weight loss in mice with high-fat-diet-induced obesity. These results indicate that CDAP has a potent anti-obesity effect due to the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis.
Publication
Journal: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
August/13/2017
Abstract
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a critically conserved molecular chaperone protein and promising therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In this study, platycodin D (PD), a saponin isolated from traditional Chinese herb Platycodonis Radix, was identified as a novel Hsp90 inhibitor. We verified that PD did not affect the ATPase activity of Hsp90. However, PD disrupted the co-chaperone interaction of Hsp90/cell division cycle protein 37 (Cdc37) and subsequently degraded multiple Hsp90 client proteins without the feedback increase of Hsp70. In different genotypes of non-small cell lung cancer cells, co-treatment with the mTOR inhibitor Everolimus and PD enhanced antiproliferation activity and apoptotic effect. The feedback survival signal upon mTOR inhibition was fully terminated by the co-administration with PD through reduced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and insulin growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) expression, suppressed AKT activity, and reinforced 4E-BP1 inhibition. Our results not only identified PD as a novel Hsp90 inhibitor by disrupting the protein-protein interaction of Hsp90/Cdc37 complex, but also provided mechanistic insights into the ineffectiveness of mTOR inhibitors and identified therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment.
Publication
Journal: Neural Regeneration Research
November/13/2018
Abstract
Houshiheisan, a classic prescription in traditional Chinese medicine, contains Flos Chrysanthemi, Radix Saposhnikoviae, Ramulus Cinnamomi, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Radix et Rhizoma Asari, Radix Platycodonis, Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae, Poria, Rhizoma Zingiberis, Radix Angelicae sinensis, Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng, Radix Scutellariae and Concha Ostreae. According to traditional Chinese medicine theory, Flos Chrysanthemi, Radix Saposhnikoviae, Ramulus Cinnamomi, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Radix et Rhizoma Asari and Radix Platycodonis are wind-dispelling drugs; Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae, Poria, Rhizoma Zingiberis, Radix Angelicae sinensis and Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng are deficiency-nourishing drugs. A large number of randomized controlled trials have shown that Houshiheisan is effective in treating stroke, but its mechanism of action is unknown. Axonal remodeling is an important mechanism in neural protection and regeneration. Therefore, this study explored the effect and mechanism of action of Houshiheisan on the repair of axons after cerebral ischemia. Rat models of focal cerebral ischemia were established by ligating the right middle cerebral artery. At 6 hours after model establishment, rats were intragastrically administered 10.5 g/kg Houshiheisan or 7.7 g/kg wind-dispelling drug or 2.59 g/kg deficiency-nourishing drug. These medicines were intragastrically administered as above every 24 hours for 7 consecutive days. Houshiheisan, and its wind-dispelling and deficiency-nourishing components reduced the neurological deficit score and ameliorated axon and neuron lesions after cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, Houshiheisan, and its wind-dispelling and deficiency-nourishing components decreased the expression of proteins that inhibit axonal remodeling: amyloid precursor protein, neurite outgrowth inhibitor protein A (Nogo-A), Rho family small GTPase A (RhoA) and Rho-associated kinase 2 (Rock2), and increased the expression of growth associated protein-43, microtubule-associated protein-2, netrin-1, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) and cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42). The effect of Houshiheisan was stronger than wind-dispelling drugs or deficiency-nourishing drugs alone. In conclusion, Houshiheisan, and wind-dispelling and deficiency-nourishing drugs promote the repair of axons and nerve regeneration after cerebral ischemia through Nogo-A/RhoA/Rock2 and Netrin-1/Rac1/Cdc42 signaling pathways. These effects are strongest with Houshiheisan.
Publication
Journal: Food Chemistry
May/25/2020
Abstract
Platycodonis Radix, the root of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC., is a well-known edible herbal medicine. It is a common vegetable used for the preparation of side dish, kimchi, dessert, and tea. Besides, it has been used to treat respiratory disease including cough, excessive phlegm, and sore throat for a long history. In the past decades, the bioactive components and the pharmacological activities of Platycodonis Radix have been widely investigated. Thereinto, platycodins, the oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins were demonstrated to be the main bioactive components in Platycodonis Radix, and more than 70 platycodins have been identified up to date. This paper mainly reviewed the phytochemistry, pharmacological activities (apophlegmatic, anti-tussive, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, immunomodulatory, cardiovascular protective, and hepatoprotective activities, etc.), toxicology and pharmacokinetics of platycodins isolated from Platycodonis Radix, aiming to promote further investigation on therapeutic potential of these platycodins.
Keywords: Pharmacokinetics; Pharmacological activities; Phytochemistry; Platycodins; Platycodonis Radix; Toxicology.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
July/2/2017
Abstract
BACKGROUND
The traditional Chinese medicine Niubeixiaohe (NBXH) is an effective anti-tuberculosis prescription, which is made up of Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae, Rhizoma Bletillae, Radix Platycodonis, Fructus Arctii, Herba Houttuyniae and Glutinous rice. In this study, NBXH powder (I) and three kinds of NBXH extracts (II, III, and IV) were prepared. The water decoction of NBXH had been used to treat TB in clinic sixteen years suggested that it was effective to treat TB.
OBJECTIVE
This study evaluated the effects of different processing products of NBXH on mouse TB model in vivo and provide a new Chinese medicine for the clinical treatment of TB.
METHODS
In this study, 120 female BALB/c mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, were treated with distilled water, M. vaccae vaccine, the low, middle and high doses of NBXH I, the low, middle and high doses of NBXH II, the low, middle and high doses of NBXH III, the low, middle and high doses of NBXH IV for 12 weeks, respectively.
RESULTS
The body weights of mice in all NBXH groups were higher than that in the water group. The weight indexes of the spleens in M. vaccae group, the middle dose of NBXH II group, the low dose of NBXH IV group and in the high dose of NBXH IV group were significantly lower than that in the water group(P<0.05). Compared with the water group, the spleen colony counts in the low dose of NBXH I group, the high dose of NBXH II group, the low dose of NBXH III group and the high dose of NBXH IV group reduced by 0.43, 0.46, 0.73, 0.58 logs (P<0.05), respectively. But the lung colony counts had no significant difference between each group. Pulmonary general pathology and histopathology displayed that the lung lesions in treatment groups were improved at certain degree, especially in the low dose of NBXH IIIand IV groups, in which their areas of the lesions were less than 50%, and the half normal lung structure in half of the mice could be observed.
CONCLUSIONS
Powder and three extracts of traditional Chinese medicine NBXH all had anti-tuberculosis therapeutic effects on mouse tuberculosis model, and this study provided a base for the further development of Chinese patent medicine NBXH. Also, this is the first report on comprehensive experimental research of NBXH extracts coming from six kinds of traditional Chinese medicine.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
November/27/2014
Abstract
BACKGROUND
To investigate the synergistic property of Platycodonis radix (PG) in a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription Shengxian decoction (SXT) by combining chemical profile with pharmacokinetic analysis strategy. The synergized prescription consisted of Astragali radix, Anemarrhenae rhizoma, Bupleuri radix, and Cimicifuage rhizoma.
METHODS
Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was employed to investigate the chemical fingerprints of SXT and decreased SXT (SXT that removed Platycodonis radix, SXT-PG). A reliable LC-MS/MS method was developed to examine the pharmacokinetics of 9 marker compounds (including formononetin, calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, ononin, caffeic acid, isoferulic acid, mangiferin, timosaponin E1, timosaponin B-II and timosaponin B) following oral administration of SXT and SXT-PG in rats. Both in vitro chemical profiles and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters differences between SXT and SXT-PG were conducted.
RESULTS
By using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS method, a total of 25 compounds identified from SXT, including 13 triterpenoids, 5 caffeinic derivatives, 4 isoflavonoids and 3 xanthone glycosides. Comparing the chemical fingerprints between SXT and decreased SXT did not reveal significant difference in the chemical profile of other four TCMs. The improved pharmacokinetic profiles of mangiferin, timosaponin E1, timosaponin B-II and timosaponin B were found in SXT group, suggesting the quicker distribution and more effective absorption, when compared with those in the SXT-PG group.
CONCLUSIONS
These results indicated that PG did not increase the dissolution of synergized prescription when co-decocting, but guided the synergized prescription to target location, reflecting the courier role of PG, which was in line with the clinical principle of TCM. It also established a useful method for TCM synergistic property research.
Publication
Journal: Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie
September/26/2018
Abstract
The root of Platycodon grandiflorus (Jacq.) A. DC. (P. grandiflorus), Platycodonis Radix, has been commonly applied to prevent and treat human diseases including bronchitis, asthma and excessive phlegm. Platycodin D (PD), one of the most important therapeutic components of P. grandiflorus, has been reported to possess protective effect against alcohol and carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. In this study, we examined the protective efficacy of PD on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury and possible underlying mechanisms in C57BL/6J mice. Administration of PD prior to APAP intoxication significantly ameliorated the increase in serum transferases, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and the depletion of glutathione (GSH) in mice. PD pretreatment decreased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in presence of APAP. Moreover, PD treatment noticeably reduced APAP-induced hepatocyte necrosis and apoptosis evidenced by evaluating physiological and histological hepatocyte changes in mice. Finally, PD pretreatment significantly diminished c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and p38 phosphorylation induced by APAP. Collectively, PD pretreatment effectively protects hepatocytes against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice through ameliorating oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and hepatocyte apoptosis.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
May/7/2020
Abstract
Two polysaccharides (PRP1 and PRP2) were isolated from Platycodonis Radix. Preliminary structural analysis indicated that PRP1 was composed of glucose, fructose, and arabinose in a molar ratio of 1:1.91:1.59 with a molecular weight of 440 kDa, whereas PRP2 was composed of arabinose, fructose, and galactose in a molar ratio of 1:1.39:1.18 with a molecular weight of 2.85 kDa. Compared with PRP2, PRP1 exerted stronger anticancer activity in vitro. Treatment with 5-30 μg/ml of PRP1 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in vitro, and oral administration at the doses of 75-300 mg/kg also reduced the tumor growth in vivo. The miRNA expression patterns of human liver cancer cells HepG2 in vivo under PRP1 treatment were established, and microRNA-21 (miR-21) as the onco-miRNA was appreciably downregulated. PRP1 repressed the expression of miR-21, which directly targeted and suppressed PTEN (a negative regulator of the PI3K/Akt signaling cascade), and subsequently upregulated the expression of PTEN but downregulated the PI3K/AKT pathway, thereby promoting liver cancer cell apoptosis. These findings indicated that PRP1 inhibited the proliferation and induced the apoptosis of HepG2 mainly via inactivating the miR-21/PI3K/AKT pathway. Therefore, PRP1 could be used as a food supplement and candidate for the treatment of liver cancer.
Publication
Journal: African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM
August/16/2017
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Xuefu Zhuyu Tang (XFZYT), first recorded in Correction of Errors in Medical Works by Qing-ren Wang, has been proven reliable and effective for curing various diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and angina pectoris. It consists of 11 herbs and two of them, Radix platycodonis and Radix cyathulae, have been traditionally considered as guiding herbs and deeply valued by tens of millions of Chinese medicine practitioners. Do Radix platycodonis and Radix cyathulae affect the pharmacokinetics of the effective constituent-paeoniflorin of XFZYT? If yes, in what way? This study aims to answer these questions.
METHODS
The medicinal solutions of XFZYT, XFZYT without Radix platycodonis (XFZYT-JG), XFZYT without Radix cyathulae (XFZYT-NX), and XFZYT without Radix platycodonis and Radix cyathulae (XFZYT-JG-NX) were prepared and administrated to rats in the normal group and the blood-stasis model group by gavage, respectively. The blood samples of rats in the normal group were obtained 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after gavage; whereas the blood samples of rats in the blood-stasis model group were obtained 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 90, 150, and 240 minutes after gavage. Biological samples were processed; the assays of specificity, precision, linearity, intra-day and inter-day precisions, recovery and stability were conducted; high performance liquid chromatography was performed to detect paeoniflorin content; and DAS software was adopted to generate pharmacokinetic parameters. Mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile and water (16:84), detection wavelength was 230 nm, and riboflavin was set as internal standard substance.
RESULTS
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the rats in the normal group after oral gavage of XFZYT, XFZYT-JG, XFZYT-NX, and XFZYT-JG-NX were Cmax = (0.363±0.248, 0.065±0.020, 0.099±0.033, 0.099±0.020) mg/L, Tmax = (0.276±0.084, 0.583±0.342, 0.555±0.228, 0.317±0.033)h, t1/2 = (0.501±0.241, 1.021±0.522, 0.853±0.377, 1.227±0.402) h; and AUC0-∞ = (0.381±0.415, 0.13±0.085, 0.166±0.066, 0.185±0.059) mg/L·h.; whereas the pharmacokinetic parameters for the rats in the blood-stasis model group after oral gavage of XFZYT, XFZYT-JG, XFZYT-NX, and XFZYT-JG-NX were Cmax = (0.315±0.153, 0.215±0.044, 0.228±0.056, 0.248±0.09) mg/L, Tmax = (0.5±0, 0.667±0.129, 0.5±0, 0.542±0.102) h, t1/2 = (0.408±0.146, 0.813±0.135, 0.708±0.383, 0.741±0.173) h, and AUC0-∞ = (0.306±0.157, 0.408±0.136, 0.368±0.159, 0.381±0.246) mg/L·h.
CONCLUSIONS
The guiding herbs, Radix platycodonis and Radix cyathulae, significantly increased the absorption amount and rate of paeoniflorin in XFZYT, and accelerated its elimination from the blood.
Publication
Journal: Scientific Reports
February/19/2017
Abstract
AKT is the frequently overexpressed and constitutively active kinase within NSCLC cells and recognized as a promising target for NSCLC treatment. However, AKT inhibition relieves the feedback inhibition of upstream receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that may weaken the efficiency of AKT inhibitors. Platycodin D (PD), isolated from widely-used traditional Chinese medicine Platycodonis Radix, is now found to remarkably enhance the anti-proliferative effect of AKT inhibitors. In this study, combinatorial activity of AKT inhibitor MK2206 and PD on cell proliferation, apoptosis and related signaling were disclosed. Long-term AKT inhibition induced up-regulation of RTKs, including EGFR and HER-2. Co-treatment of MK2206 with PD could abolish this feedback survival through decrease of EGFR, HER-2, and p-AKT, and profound inhibition of 4E-BP1, leading to an amplified anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity in NSCLC cells. Similarly, feedback activation in response to reduction of AKT expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) was also blocked by PD and apoptotic effect was further enhanced. Thus, PD potentiated proliferative inhibition and apoptotic induction of both AKT inhibitor and siRNA. These findings also reveal the limitations of suppressing feedback-regulated pathways by monotherapy and establish a mechanistic rationale for a novel combination approach targeting AKT for the treatment of NSCLC.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
January/8/2015
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Niuhuang Jiedu Tablet (NJT), composed of Realgar (As₂S₂), Bovis Calculus Artificialis, Borneolum Synthcticum, Gypsum Fibrosum, Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (RR), Scutellariae Radix (SR), Platycodonis Radix (PR) and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (GR), is an effective formula of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used in treating acute tonsillitis, pharyngitis, periodontitis and mouth ulcer. In the formula, significant level of realgar (As₂S₂) as a potentially toxic element is contained. In our pervious experiments, NJT was significantly less toxic than realgar (As₂S₂), and the material bases of toxicity alleviation effect to realgar (As₂S₂) were RR, SR, PR and GR. However, the toxicity alleviation effect of each above mentioned four herbs to realgar (As₂S₂) and their synergistic detoxification effects to realgar (As₂S₂) were still obscure.
METHODS
Male Wistar rats were divided into 11 groups: control, group R (treated with Realgar), group RRSPG (treated with Realgar, RR, SR, PR and GR), group RRSP (treated with Realgar, RR, SR and PR), group RRSG (treated with Realgar, RR, SR and GR), group RRPG (treated with Realgar, RR, PR and GR), group RSPG (treated with Realgar, SR, PR and GR), group RR (treated with Realgar and RR), group RS (treated with Realgar and SR), group RP (treated with Realgar and PR) and group RG (treated with Realgar and GR). Based on (1)H NMR spectra of urine and serum from rats, PCA and PLS-DA were performed to identify different metabolic profiles. Liver and kidney histopathology examinations and serum clinical chemistry analysis were also performed.
RESULTS
The metabolic profiles of groups RR, RS, RP and RG were similar to those of group R, while the metabolic profiles of groups RRSPG, RRSP, RRSG, RRPG and RSPG were almost in line with those of control group. Statistics results were confirmed by the histopathological examination and biochemical assay.
CONCLUSIONS
The present work suggested that the toxicity alleviation effects of RR, SR, PR and GR to realgar (As₂S₂) were not obvious when combined with realgar (As₂S₂) respectively, but they had synergistic detoxification effects on realgar (As₂S₂) mutually.
Publication
Journal: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
July/5/2016
Abstract
Platycodin D (PD), a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Platycodonis Radix, is a famous Chinese herbal medicine that has been shown to have anti-proliferative effects in several cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in cellular proteins after the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells with PD using proteomics approaches. The cell viability was determined using the MTT assay. The proteome was analyzed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Western blot analysis was used to confirm the expression of changed proteins. Our results showed that PD inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Sixteen proteins were identified to be up-regulated in PD-treated HepG2 cells, including ATP5H, OXCT1, KRT9, CCDC40, ERP29, RCN1, ZNF175, HNRNPH1, HSP27, PA2G4, PHB, BANF1, TPM3, ECH1, LGALS1, and MYL6. Three proteins (i.e., RPS12, EMG1, and KRT1) decreased in HepG2 cells after treatment with PD. The changes in HSP27 and PHB were further confirmed by Western blotting. In conclusion, our results shed new lights on the mechanisms of action for the anti-cancer activity of PD.
Publication
Journal: Chinese Medicine
July/6/2016
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Over recent decades, sulfur fumigation is becoming abused in processing some freshly harvested herbs used as both medicine and food, although it has been questioned whether sulfur fumigation will change the efficacy and safety of the herbs. One of the herbs commonly processed by sulfur fumigation is Platycodonis Radix (Jiegeng in Chinese). Glycosides are the main bioactive components of Jiegeng. Up to the present, no study has been carried out to evaluate the impact of sulfur fumigation on glycoside profile of Jiegeng.
METHODS
A rapid and versatile ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC UHD Q-TOF MS/MS) method was developed for comprehensive analysis of the glycoside profiles of sulfur-fumigated and air-dried Jiegeng samples.
RESULTS
Twenty-three glycosides were detected in air-dried and sulfur-fumigated Jiegeng samples. After sulfur fumigation, the peak heights of eight glycosides, namely platycogenin A, platycodin D, platycodin D2, platycodin D3, polygalacin D, polygalacin D2, deapio-platycodin D and 3″-O-acetylplatycodin D2, remarkably decreased; while peak heights of five glycosides, namely syringin, lobetyolin, platycoside E, deapio-platycodin D2 and deapio-platycoside E, slightly increased; in addition, peaks of ten glycosides, platycodin A, platycodin C, platycodin V, platycoside C, 16-oxoplatycodin D, 2″-O-acetylpolygalacin D, 2″-O-acetylpolygalacin D2, 3″-O-acetylpolygalacin D, 3″-O-acetylpolygalacin D2, and platycogenic acid B, disappeared.
CONCLUSIONS
Sulfur fumigation caused significant changes of glycoside components of Jiegeng. Further investigations are warranted to explore how these chemical changes occurred and whether these changes would affect the efficacy and safety of Jiegeng.