Packaging cell line for diphtheria toxin expressing non-replicating adenovirus
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Pubmed
Journal: The American journal of pathology
June/19/1996
Abstract

Proteins encoded by bcl-2 family genes are important regulators of programmed cell death and apoptosis. Alterations in the expression of these apoptosis-regulating genes can contribute to the origins of cancer, as well as adversely influence tumor responses to chemo- and radiotherapy. Using antibodies specific for the Bcl-2, Bax, Bcl-X, and Mcl-1 proteins in combination with immunohistochemical methods, we examined for the first time the expression of these bcl-2 family genes in 64 cases of adenocarcinoma of the prostate, including 10 Gleason grade 2 to 4 tumors, 21 grade 5 to 7 tumors, 17 grade 8 to 10 tumors, 8 lymph node metastases, and 8 bone metastases. In addition, 24 cases of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) or PIN coexisting with carcinoma were also evaluated. All immunostaining results were scored with regard to approximate percentage of positive tumor cells and relative immunostaining intensity. Expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was present in 16 of 64 (25%) adenocarcinomas and tended to be more frequent in high grade tumors (Gleason grade 8 to 10; 41%) and nodal metastases (38%) than in lower grade (Gleason 2 to 7) primary tumors (16%; P < 0.05). Bcl-X was expressed in all 64 (100%) tumors evaluated. Bcl-X immunointensity was generally stronger in high grade primary tumors (grade 8 to 10) and metastases compared with PIN and low grade neoplasms (P < 0.0001). In addition, the proportion of specimens with > 50% Bcl-X-immunopositive tumor cells also was higher in advanced grade primary tumors (Gleason 8 to 10) and metastases than in PIN and low grade tumors (Gleason 2 to 7; P < 0.005). The anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 was expressed in 52 of 64 (81%) tumors, compared with only 9 of 24 (38%) cases of PIN (P < 0.001). In addition, the percentage of Mcl-1-positive cells was typically higher in Gleason grade 8 to 10 tumors and metastases than in PIN or lower grade tumors (P = 0.025). In contrast, the pro-apoptotic protein Bax was expressed in all prostate cancers evaluated, with high percentages of immunopositive cells and strong immunointensity typically occurring regardless of tumor grade. The findings suggest that expression of several anti-apoptotic members of the bcl-2 gene family, including bcl-2, bcl-X, and mcl-1 increases during progression of prostate cancers, a finding that may be relevant to the hormone-insensitive, metastatic phenotype of most advanced adenocarcinomas of the prostate.

Pubmed
Journal: Science translational medicine
September/29/2013
Abstract

Human cancers almost ubiquitously harbor epigenetic alterations. Although such alterations in epigenetic marks, including DNA methylation, are potentially heritable, they can also be dynamically altered. Given this potential for plasticity, the degree to which epigenetic changes can be subject to selection and act as drivers of neoplasia has been questioned. We carried out genome-scale analyses of DNA methylation alterations in lethal metastatic prostate cancer and created DNA methylation "cityscape" plots to visualize these complex data. We show that somatic DNA methylation alterations, despite showing marked interindividual heterogeneity among men with lethal metastatic prostate cancer, were maintained across all metastases within the same individual. The overall extent of maintenance in DNA methylation changes was comparable to that of genetic copy number alterations. Regions that were frequently hypermethylated across individuals were markedly enriched for cancer- and development/differentiation-related genes. Additionally, regions exhibiting high consistency of hypermethylation across metastases within individuals, even if variably hypermethylated across individuals, showed enrichment for cancer-related genes. Whereas some regions showed intraindividual metastatic tumor heterogeneity in promoter methylation, such methylation alterations were generally not correlated with gene expression. This was despite a general tendency for promoter methylation patterns to be strongly correlated with gene expression, particularly at regions that were variably methylated across individuals. These findings suggest that DNA methylation alterations have the potential for producing selectable driver events in carcinogenesis and disease progression and highlight the possibility of targeting such epigenome alterations for development of longitudinal markers and therapeutic strategies.

Pubmed
Journal: The Journal of clinical investigation
August/16/2011
Abstract

Dose-escalated radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer (PCa) has a clear therapeutic benefit; however, escalated doses may also increase injury to noncancerous tissues. Radiosensitizing agents can improve ionizing radiation (IR) potency, but without targeted delivery, these agents will also sensitize surrounding normal tissues. Here we describe the development of prostate-targeted RNAi agents that selectively sensitized prostate-specific membrane antigen-positive (PSMA-positive) cells to IR. siRNA library screens identified DNA-activated protein kinase, catalytic polypeptide (DNAPK) as an ideal radiosensitization target. DNAPK shRNAs, delivered by PSMA-targeting RNA aptamers, selectively reduced DNAPK in PCa cells, xenografts, and human prostate tissues. Aptamer-targeted DNAPK shRNAs, combined with IR, dramatically and specifically enhanced PSMA-positive tumor response to IR. These findings support aptamer-shRNA chimeras as selective sensitizing agents for the improved treatment of high-risk localized PCa.

Pubmed
Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
August/31/2014
Abstract

The expression of immune checkpoint molecules on T cells represents an important mechanism that the immune system uses to regulate responses to self-proteins. Checkpoint molecules include cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4, programmed death-1, lymphocyte activation gene-3, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin protein-3, and several others. Previous studies have identified individual roles for each of these molecules, but more recent data show that coexpression of checkpoint molecules occurs frequently on cancer-specific T cells as well as on pathogen-specific T cells in chronic infections. As the signaling pathways associated with each checkpoint molecule have not been fully elucidated, blocking multiple checkpoints with specific monoclonal antibodies results in improved outcomes in several chronic viral infections as well as in a wide array of preclinical models of cancer. Recent clinical data suggest similar effects in patients with metastatic melanoma. These findings support the concept that individual immune checkpoint molecules may function through nonoverlapping molecular mechanisms. Here, we review current data regarding immune checkpoint molecule signaling and coexpression, both in cancer and infectious disease, as well as the results of preclinical and clinical manipulations of checkpoint proteins.

Pubmed
Journal: Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases
August/8/2013
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Pomegranate juice has been associated with PSA doubling time (PSADT) elongation in a single-arm phase II trial. This study assesses biological activity of two doses of pomegranate extract (POMx) in men with recurrent prostate cancer, using changes in PSADT as the primary outcome.

METHODS

This randomized, multi-center, double-blind phase II, dose-exploring trial randomized men with a rising PSA and without metastases to receive 1 or 3 g of POMx, stratified by baseline PSADT and Gleason score. Patients (104) were enrolled and treated for up to 18 months. The intent-to-treat (ITT) population was 96% white, with median age 74.5 years and median Gleason score 7. This study was designed to detect a 6-month on-study increase in PSADT from baseline in each arm.

RESULTS

Overall, median PSADT in the ITT population lengthened from 11.9 months at baseline to 18.5 months after treatment (P < 0.001). PSADT lengthened in the low-dose group from 11.9 to 18.8 months and 12.2 to 17.5 months in the high-dose group, with no significant difference between dose groups (P = 0.554). PSADT increases >100% of baseline were observed in 43% of patients. Declining PSA levels were observed in 13 patients (13%). In all, 42% of patients discontinued treatment before meeting the protocol-definition of PSA progression, or 18 months, primarily due to a rising PSA. No significant changes occurred in testosterone. Although no clinically significant toxicities were seen, diarrhea was seen in 1.9% and 13.5% of patients in the 1- and 3-g dose groups, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

POMx treatment was associated with ≥ 6 month increases in PSADT in both treatment arms without adverse effects. The significance of this on-study slowing of PSADT remains unclear, reinforcing the need for placebo-controlled studies in this patient population.

Pubmed
Journal: Nature cell biology
October/17/2013
Abstract

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common inherited muscular dystrophy of childhood, leads to death due to cardiorespiratory failure. Paradoxically, mdx mice with the same genetic deficiency of dystrophin exhibit minimal cardiac dysfunction, impeding the development of therapies. We postulated that the difference between mdx and DMD might result from differences in telomere lengths in mice and humans. We show here that, like DMD patients, mice that lack dystrophin and have shortened telomeres (mdx/mTR(KO)) develop severe functional cardiac deficits including ventricular dilation, contractile and conductance dysfunction, and accelerated mortality. These cardiac defects are accompanied by telomere erosion, mitochondrial fragmentation and increased oxidative stress. Treatment with antioxidants significantly retards the onset of cardiac dysfunction and death of mdx/mTR(KO) mice. In corroboration, all four of the DMD patients analysed had 45% shorter telomeres in their cardiomyocytes relative to age- and sex-matched controls. We propose that the demands of contraction in the absence of dystrophin coupled with increased oxidative stress conspire to accelerate telomere erosion culminating in cardiac failure and death. These findings provide strong support for a link between telomere length and dystrophin deficiency in the etiology of dilated cardiomyopathy in DMD and suggest preventive interventions.

Pubmed
Journal: Cancer biology & therapy
May/18/2005
Abstract

Resistance to the cytotoxic actions of antineoplastic drugs, whether intrinsic or acquired, remains a barrier to the establishment of curative chemotherapy regimens for advanced breast cancer. Over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by the MDR1 gene and known to mediate resistance to many antineoplastic drugs, may contribute to poor breast cancer treatment outcome. Nonetheless, the precise molecular mechanisms responsible for high or low level P-gp expression in breast cancer cells have not been established. We assessed the role of DNA hypermethylation near the MDR1 transcriptional regulatory region in MDR1 expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, which fail to express MDR1 mRNA, and MCF-7/ADR cells, known to express high MDR1 mRNA levels. When compared to MCF-7/ADR cells, MCF-7 cells manifested markedly diminished MDR1 transcription rates by nuclear run-off assay, but equivalent MDR1 promoter trans-activation activity in transient transfection experiments, indicating that cis factors were most likely responsible for the differences in MDR1 transcription between MCF-7/ADR cells and MCF-7 cells. Bisulfite genomic sequencing analyses revealed substantially less extensive MDR1 promoter methylation in MCF-7/ADR cells than in MCF-7 cells, suggesting that CpG dinucleotide methylation might contribute to the observed MDR1 transcription differences. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses indicated an inactive MDR1 chromatin conformation in MCF-7 cells, with a paucity of acetylated histones and the presence of 5-mC-binding proteins MeCP2 and MBD2, and an active MDR1 chromatin conformation in MCF-7/ADR cells, with an abundance of acetylated histones and the presence of the transcriptional trans-activator YB-1. Stable MCF-7 sublines which had been treated with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine, exhibited a reduction in MDR1 promoter methylation and a complex MDR1 chromatin configuration, characterized by the simultaneous presence of transcriptional activators and repressors. In this state, MDR1 expression was markedly sensitive to treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A.

Pubmed
Journal: Cancer research
August/1/2001
Abstract

Radiation is an effective means of treating localized prostate cancer. However, up to 40% of men with certain risk factors will develop biochemical failure 5 years after radiotherapy. CV706, a prostate cell-specific adenovirus variant, is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of recurrent organ-confined prostate cancer. We demonstrated previously that a single administration of CV706 at 5 x 10(8) particles/mm3 of tumor eliminated established tumors within 6 weeks in nude mouse xenografts (Rodriguez et al., Cancer Res. 57: 2559-2563, 1997). We now demonstrate that CV706-mediated cytotoxicity is synergistic with radiation. In vitro, addition of radiation to CV706 resulted in a synergistic increase of cytotoxicity toward the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and a significant increase of virus burst size, with no reduction in specificity of CV706-based cytopathogenicity for prostate cancer cells. In vivo, prostate-specific antigen (+) LNCaP xenografts of human prostate cancer were treated with CV706 (1 x 10(7) particles/mm3 of tumor), 10 Gy of single fraction local tumor radiation, or both. Tumor volumes of the group treated with CV706 or radiation was 97% or 120% of baseline 6 weeks after treatment. However, when the same dose of CV706 was followed 24 h later with the same dose of radiation, the tumor volume dropped to 4% of baseline at this time point and produced antitumor activity that was 6.7-fold greater than a predicted additive effect of CV706 and radiation. Histological analyses of tumors revealed that, compared with CV706 or radiation alone, combination treatment with two agents increased necrosis by 180% and 690%, apoptosis by 330% and 880%, and decreased blood vessel number by 1290% and 600%, respectively. Importantly, no increase in toxicity was observed after combined treatment when compared with CV706 or radiation alone. These data demonstrate that CV706 enhances the in vivo radioresponse of prostate tumors and support the clinical development of CV706 as a neoadjuvant agent with radiation for localized prostate cancer.

Authors
Pubmed
Journal: Translational andrology and urology
February/19/2017
Abstract

In the past five years, multiple structurally and functionally distinct androgen receptor (AR) splice variants have been decoded and characterized. The mature transcripts for the majority of the fully decoded AR splice variants contain a transcribed "intronic" sequence, capable of encoding a short variant-specific peptide to replace the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD). Functionally, AR splice variants represent a diverse group of molecules often demonstrating cell context-specific genomic functions that may or may not be coupled with the functions of the canonical full-length AR (AR-FL). However, the full spectrum of their functional diversity and the underlying mechanistic basis remains very poorly characterized. In clinical specimens derived from men treated with a variety of hormone therapy regimens, AR splice variants are almost always expressed at detectable, yet lower levels when compared to that of AR-FL. In spite of the collective in vitro data supporting the putative role of AR splice variants in therapeutic resistance to hormone therapies, the extent to which AR splice variants mediate resistance to each individual regimen is not known and awaits thorough investigations in a clinically relevant setting using specimens from men undergoing treatments. Among the AR splice variants, AR-V7 is more abundantly and frequently expressed in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and remains the most important variant identified so far. The relative importance of different AR molecules, including AR-FL, should be functionally dissected in the setting of castration-resistant prostate cancer, particularly in tumors resistant to more potent inhibitors of AR-FL recently approved by the FDA. In this review, we will focus on the discovery and characterization of AR splice variants, their putative functions and roles in mediating constitutively active AR signaling, and key areas of investigation that are necessary to establish their clinical relevance.

Pubmed
Journal: JAMA
October/21/1997
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Approximately 9% of prostate cancer cases have been estimated to result from inheritance of mutated prostate cancer susceptibility genes. Few data exist as to whether there are clinical differences between prostate cancers that are inherited and those that occur in the general population.

OBJECTIVE

To investigate phenotypic characteristics of families potentially linked to the hereditary prostate cancer 1 (HPC1) locus on chromosome 1q24-25.

METHODS

Retrospective case study in which clinical data were extracted from medical and pathological records. FAMILIES: A total of 74 North American families with hereditary prostate cancer. Prostate cancer cases from the National Cancer Data Base were used as a reference population for comparison.

METHODS

The families were divided into 2 groups: either potentially linked (33 families with 133 men with prostate cancer), and thus likely to be carrying an altered HPC1 gene, or potentially unlinked (41 families with 172 men with prostate cancer), on the basis of haplotype analysis in the region of HPC1. The age at diagnosis of prostate cancer, serum prostate-specific antigen levels, digital rectal examination status, stage, grade, primary treatment of prostate cancers, and occurrence of other cancers were compared between the groups.

RESULTS

The mean age at diagnosis of prostate cancer for men in potentially linked families was significantly lower than for men in potentially unlinked families (63.7 vs 65.9 years, respectively, P=.01; mean age at diagnosis in the reference population was 71.6 years). Higher-grade cancers (grade 3) were more common in potentially linked families, and advanced-stage disease was found in 41% of the case patients in potentially linked families compared with 31% in both the potentially unlinked families and the reference groups (P=.03 for the latter comparison). In the other clinical parameters, we found no significant differences between the groups. A modest excess of breast cancer and colon cancer was found in potentially linked families in comparison with potentially unlinked families, but this difference was not statistically significant.

CONCLUSIONS

Families that provide evidence for segregation of an altered HPC1 gene are characterized by multiple cases of prostate cancer that, in most respects, are indistinguishable from nonhereditary cases. However, 3 characteristics were observed: younger age at diagnosis, higher-grade tumors, and more advanced-stage disease. Our study shows that a significant fraction of hereditary prostate cancers are diagnosed in advanced stages, emphasizing the clinical importance of early detection in men potentially carrying prostate cancer susceptibility genes. These findings support the current recommendations to screen men with a positive family history of prostate cancer beginning at age 40 years.

Pubmed
Journal: The Prostate
August/20/2014
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Physiologic testosterone continuously stimulates prostate stromal cell secretion of paracrine growth factors (PGFs), which if unopposed would induce hyperplastic overgrowth of normal prostate epithelial cells (PrECs).

METHODS

Lentiviral shRNA stable knock down of c-MYC, β-catenin, or TCF-4 completely inhibits normal (i.e., non-transformed) human PrECs growth. c-MYC enhancer driven reporter expression and growth is inhibited by two chemically distinct molecules, which prevent β-catenin signaling either by blocking TCF-4 binding (i.e., toxoflavin) or by stimulating degradation (i.e., AVX939). Recombinant DKK1 protein at a dose, which inhibits activation of canonical Wnt signaling does not inhibit PrEC growth. Nuclear β-catenin translocation and PrEC growth is prevented by both lack of PGFs or Akt inhibitor-I. Growth inhibition induced by lack of PGFs, toxoflavin, or Akt inhibitor-I is overcome by constitutive c-MYC transcription.

RESULTS

In the presence of continuous PGF signaling, PrEC hyperplasia is prevented by androgen binding to AR suppressing c-MYC transcription, resulting in G0 arrest/terminal differentiation independent of Rb, p21, p27, FoxP3, or down regulation of growth factors receptors and instead involves androgen-induced formation of AR/β-catenin/TCF-4 complexes, which suppress c-MYC transcription. Such suppression does not occur when AR is mutated in its zinc-finger binding domain.

CONCLUSIONS

Proliferation of non-transformed human PrECs is dependent upon c-MYC transcription via formation/binding of β-catenin/TCF-4 complexes at both 5' and 3' c-MYC enhancers stimulated by Wnt-independent, PGF induced Akt signaling. In the presence of continuous PGF signaling, PrEC hyperplasia is prevented by androgen-induced formation of AR/β-catenin/TCF-4 complexes, which retains binding to 3' c-MYC enhancer, but now suppresses c-MYC transcription.

Pubmed
Journal: Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada
May/14/2013
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The TAX 327 trial was pivotal in establishing docetaxel in castration refractory metastatic prostate cancer. Various commonly prescribed and over-the-counter co-administered medications are thought to exhibit anti-neoplastic properties and/or could potentially have pharmacokinectic interactions with docetaxel lessening the effectiveness of chemotherapy.

METHODS

To examine the effect of on prostate cancer outcomes within this trial, we examined overall survival, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response, percent PSA reduction, pain response and QOL responses for 14 families of medications including metformin, digoxin, verapamil, proton pump inhibitors, nitrates, statins, cox-2 inhibitors, warfarin, heparins, ascorbic acid, selenium, tocopherol, antidepressants and erythropoietin.

RESULTS

Our findings did not reveal any medication that had a significant additive or synergistic effect with docetaxel. We did note, however, that patients on digoxin or verapamil had poorer overall survival, possibly due to a trend of fewer cycles of administered chemotherapy being administered to the verapamil group, consistent with a pharmacokinectic interaction.

CONCLUSIONS

These data are only hypothesis-generating given the statistical limitations, but may form a basis for similar future analysis in other malignancies. The data suggest the need to be aware of pharmacokinectic interactions with medications that may interact with docetaxel.

Pubmed
Journal: Urology
October/3/2010
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the long-term outcomes of patients with high Gleason sum 8-10 at radical prostatectomy (RP) and to identify the predictors of prostate cancer-specific survival (CSS) in this cohort.

METHODS

The institutional RP database was queried. A total of 9381 patients with complete follow-up underwent RP from 1982 to 2008. Of these 9381 patients, 1061 had pathologic Gleason sum 8-10 cancer. The patient and prostate cancer characteristics were evaluated. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate proportional hazard regression models were created to evaluate the pertinent predictors of CSS (death from, or attributed to, prostate cancer).

RESULTS

The median preoperative prostate-specific antigen level was 7.6 ng/mL; 435 men had clinical Stage T1 tumor, 568 had Stage T2, and 36 had Stage T3. The biopsy Gleason sum was <7, 7, and >7 in 244 (22.3%), 406 (37.2%), and 425 (38.9%) patients, respectively. The median follow-up was 5 years (range 1-23). The actuarial 15-year recurrence-free survival, CSS, and overall survival rate was 20.7%, 57.4%, and 45.4%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, the predictors of poor CSS were pathologic Gleason sum 9-10 and seminal vesicle and lymph node involvement. Patients with pathologic Gleason sum 8 and organ-confined disease had a CSS rate of 89.9% at 15 years.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of our study have shown that 80% of the men with Gleason sum 8-10 who undergo RP will have experienced biochemical recurrence by 15 years. However, the CSS rate approached 90% for men with pathologic organ-confined disease. Higher pathologic Gleason sum 9-10 and seminal vesicle and lymph node involvement were independent predictors of worse CSS.

Pubmed
Journal: Cytometry
July/27/1998
Abstract

Detection of functional, circulating T cells and NK cells may serve as a clinical test for the selection of individuals who can benefit from immunotherapy. Incidence of the T-cell receptor zeta (TCRdelta) chain within these populations appears to correlate with adequate effector cell function. In patients with advanced malignancy, the absence or reduced expression of delta chain has been documented. Flow cytometric analysis in the present study revealed a significant reduction in delta chain expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 14 of 22 prostate cancer patients (P < 0.000001) as compared to normal donors, apparent in both T cells (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+), and NK (CD16+) cells. Compared to normal donor PBL, patient PBL cultured in the presence of CD3 and CD28, also demonstrated reduced expression of CD69 and/or CD25, and in some cases, failed to activate at all. Furthermore, evidence of cell proliferation in activation-stimulated patient PBL was muted: average PCNA positivity equaled 14%, a marked difference from what was observed in normal donors (P < 0.0002). In 8 of 16 samples of PBL, where delta expression was originally low, delta levels returned to the normal range after 48 hour culture in serum-free medium, suggesting that the loss of delta is reversible and may be caused by a tumor-derived substance. These data support the premise that monitoring the expression of delta in a cancer patient may provide a unique insight into the immune status and functionality of the individual, with the potential to redirect or augment therapies and ultimately alter prognosis.

Pubmed
Journal: Proteomics
February/24/2014
Abstract

Prostate cancer is highly heterogeneous in nature; while the majority of cases are clinically insignificant, some cases are lethal. Currently, there are no reliable screening methods for aggressive prostate cancer. Since most established serum and urine biomarkers are glycoproteins secreted or leaked from the diseased tissue, the current study seeks to identify glycoprotein markers specific to aggressive prostate cancer using tissue specimens. With LC-MS/MS glycoproteomic analysis, we identified 350 glycopeptides with 17 being altered in aggressive prostate cancer. ELISA assays were developed/purchased to evaluate four candidates, that is, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), periostin, membrane primary amine oxidase (VAP-1), and cathepsin L, in independent tissue sets. In agreement with the proteomic analysis, we found that COMP and periostin expressions were significantly increased in aggressive prostate tumors while VAP-1 expression was significantly decreased in aggressive tumor. In addition, the expression of these proteins in prostate metastases also follows the same pattern observed in the proteomic analysis. This study provides a workflow for biomarker discovery, prioritization, and evaluation of aggressive prostate cancer markers using tissue specimens. Our data suggest that increase in COMP and periostin and decrease in VAP-1 expression in the prostate may be associated with aggressive prostate cancer.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of cellular biochemistry
July/31/2011
Abstract

Creatine kinase brain (CKB) is one of three cytosolic isoforms of creatine kinase that is predominantly expressed in the brain. The enzyme is overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers, with the exception of colon cancer, where it is downregulated. The significance of this downregulation remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of CKB-C283S, a dominant-negative construct that lacks the kinase function but retains its ability to dimerize, causes remarkable changes in cell shape, adhesion, and invasion. Furthermore, it results in increased expression of stromal cell markers such as PAGE4 and SNAIL, suggesting an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in these cells. In cells transfected with a CKB-expressing construct, CKB localizes not only to the cytosol but also to the nucleus, indicating a structural or kinase role unrelated to ATP storage. Furthermore, overexpression of CFP-tagged wild-type (WT) CKB in Caco-2 colon cancer cells dramatically increased the number of cells in G2/M but had little effect on cell proliferation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the downregulation of CKB may play an important role in colon cancer progression by promoting EMT.

Pubmed
Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications
July/11/2001
Abstract

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor consisting alpha and beta subunits. It is critically involved in cancer cell hypoxia adaptation, glycolysis, and angiogenesis. HIF-1beta is associated with HIF-1 functions as a dimerization partner of HIF-1alpha, and is on the other hand associated with carcinogenesis via dioxin signaling. Regulation of HIF-1beta protein expression was investigated in human prostate cancer (PCA) cells. HIF-1beta protein was expressed constitutively under nonhypoxic conditions in all human PCA cells tested, and was up-regulated by hypoxia, CoCl2, EGF, serum, or PMA in moderate levels. Compared to that of HIF-1alpha, the constitutive, serum-, EGF-, and PMA-increased HIF-1beta protein expression were also inhibited by selective PI3K or FRAP/TOR inhibitors but in higher doses. Hypoxia partially reversed the dose dependent inhibition of HIF-1beta. These results suggest that HIF-1alpha and beta share common signaling pathways for nuclear protein accumulation.

Pubmed
Journal: The American journal of surgical pathology
June/2/2004
Abstract

The importance of isolated high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) on needle biopsy is its association with synchronous invasive carcinoma. The relevance of this relationship has been called into question in recent years. In our study, we examined whether the histologic subtype of HGPIN (ie, tufting, micropapillary, cribriform, flat) and/or the number of core biopsies involved by HGPIN was predictive of a subset of men who were at higher risk of having invasive carcinoma on follow-up biopsies. We examined 200 sets of needle biopsies with a diagnosis of isolated HGPIN. Patient age ranged from 46 to 90 years (mean 66.4 years). The breakdown of the histologic subtypes of HGPIN is as follows: tufting 59%, micropapillary 34.3%, cribriform 6.2%, and flat 0.5%. A total of 132 patients (66%) had follow-up biopsies. Prostatic adenocarcinoma was identified in 28.8% of patients with 89.5% of cancers identified on the first two follow-up biopsies. For men that had two or more cores with HGPIN on the initial biopsy, 35.9% eventually had cancer on follow-up whereas men with only single core involvement had cancer in 22% of cases. Men with tufting/flat HGPIN on the initial biopsy had cancer on follow-up in 31.9% of cases, whereas the micropapillary/cribriform subtype was associated with cancer in 22% of follow-up biopsies. The histologic findings on the first repeat biopsy can be quite informative as to the risk of synchronous invasive carcinoma. Of the men with HGPIN on the first repeat biopsy, 32% eventually had cancer on follow-up. Additionally, if multiple cores were involved by HGPIN on the first repeat biopsy, the risk of finding cancer was 50%, regardless of single or multiple core involvement on the initial biopsy. Men with a benign diagnosis on the first repeat biopsy had a 14% risk of having cancer on follow-up. These data indicate that the multiple core involvement by HGPIN, both on initial and first repeat biopsy, defines a subset of men that are at increased risk of harboring synchronous invasive carcinoma. The histologic subtype of PIN does not appear to be as informative.

Pubmed
Journal: The Prostate
December/16/2014
Abstract

BACKGROUND

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate a broad array of cellular and disease processes. Several miRNAs are differentially expressed in cancer and many are being considered as biomarkers for predicting clinical outcomes. Here we quantified the expression of three miRNAs, miR-21, miR-141, and miR-221, from prostate cancer surgical specimens and evaluated their association with disease recurrence after primary therapy.

METHODS

A pilot nested case-control study was designed from a large cohort of men who underwent radical prostatectomy between 1993 and 2001. Total RNA was extracted from malignant prostate tissue of 59 cases (recurrence) and 59 controls. Cases and controls were matched on age, race, pathologic stage, and grade. The relative expression of each miRNA was then determined for each sample by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of recurrence for tertiles of miRNA expression. We noted block storage time effects and thus, used separate tertile cutpoints based on the controls by calendar year of prostatectomy.

RESULTS

Lower miR-221 expression was associated with a higher risk of recurrence; the ORs were 3.21 for the lowest tertile and 2.63 for the middle tertile compared with the highest tertile of expression (P-trend = 0.02). This pattern was unchanged after multivariable adjustment (P-trend = 0.05). No statistically significant trends were observed for miR-21 or miR-141 after multivariable adjustment.

CONCLUSIONS

Based on this small pilot study, men with localized prostate cancers with lower miR-221 expression may have a greater risk for recurrence after surgery.

Pubmed
Journal: The Prostate
August/30/2004
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Surface enhanced laser desorption and ionization-time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) is an evolving proteomic technology for improving biomarker discovery that allows for rapid and sensitive analysis of complex protein mixtures generated from body fluids, cells, and/or tissues. SELDI--based profiling identifies unique, differentially expressed proteins relating to specific cancer-related disease states. We utilized SELDI-TOF following pre-processing with molecular separation and chemical fractionation of cell membrane extracts from three Dunning rat prostate cancer cell lines of varying metastatic potential to search novel proteins that are differentially expressed.

METHODS

Dunning rat cell sublines of variable (%) metastatic potential; G (0%), AT-1 (20%), and Mat-Ly-Lu (100%) were cultured in two different laboratories. Cell lysis was performed in a homogenation buffer (320 mM sucrose/50 mM Tris/0.5 mM PSMF) using Dounce homogenation. After centrifugation, the membrane pellet was washed 2x and then solublized in 2% CHAPS/8 M urea. This sample was further processed using positive pressure molecular ultrafiltration at 30 kDa or precipitation with 50% ammonium sulfate. Next, each sample was applied to an IMAC3-Ni ProteinChip (Ciphergen Biosystems, Freemont, CA) and analyzed using Ciphergen's Protein Biology System with protein peak analysis software.

RESULTS

SELDI-TOF analysis differentiated the three Dunning rat cell sublines based upon protein concentration normalized profiles between 5,000 and 20,000 Da. The preparations from the three cells lines showed clear differences when the extracts from the metastatic sublines (AT-1 and MLL) were compared to the benign subline (G) for proteins with molecular weights of 9 kDa (decrease), 12 kDa (significant decrease), 14 kDa (decrease), and 17 kDa (significant gain). After pre-processing extracts with ammonium sulfate and molecular ultrafiltration, the molecular profile changes from one subline to the next became more apparent. Our results were reproducible using multiple runs including from Dunning cells cultured in a separate laboratory, and using different lots of SELDI ProteinChips.

CONCLUSIONS

The application of SELDI-TOF to a series of Dunning rat prostate cancer cell lines illustrated apparent changes in protein profiles among the three cell lines with known differences in metastatic biologic activity. SELDI-TOF identified four reproducible changes in protein expression in the AT1 and MLL metastatic cell sublines. Three of the expression changes were manifested as decreases, but one protein (17 kDa) was over-expressed in the AT1 and MLL cell lines. Emphasis will be placed on the isolation, purification, and characterization of the 17 kDa over-expressed protein and its potential role in PCa metastasis.

Pubmed
Journal: Magnetic resonance in medicine
April/17/2016
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To develop an imaging tool that enables the detection of malignant tissue with enhanced specificity using the exquisite spatial resolution of MRI.

METHODS

Two mammalian gene expression vectors were created for the expression of the lysine-rich protein (LRP) under the control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter and the progression elevated gene-3 promoter (PEG-3 promoter) for constitutive and tumor-specific expression of LRP, respectively. Using those vectors, stable cell lines of rat 9L glioma, 9L(CMV-LRP) and 9L(PEG-LRP) , were established and tested for CEST contrast in vitro and in vivo.

RESULTS

9L(PEG-LRP) cells showed increased CEST contrast compared with 9L cells in vitro. Both 9L(CMV-LRP) and 9L(PEG-LRP) cells were capable of generating tumors in the brains of mice, with a similar growth rate to tumors derived from wild-type 9L cells. An increase in CEST contrast was clearly visible in tumors derived from both 9L(CMV-LRP) and 9L(PEG-LRP) cells at 3.4 ppm.

CONCLUSIONS

The PEG-3 promoter:LRP system can be used as a cancer-specific, molecular-genetic imaging reporter system in vivo. Because of the ubiquity of MR imaging in clinical practice, sensors of this class can be used to translate molecular-genetic imaging rapidly.

Pubmed
Journal: Cancer immunology research
July/18/2016
Abstract

Correlative human studies suggest that the pleiotropic cytokine IL6 contributes to the development and/or progression of prostate cancer. However, the source of IL6 production in the prostate microenvironment in patients has yet to be determined. The cellular origin of IL6 in primary and metastatic prostate cancer was examined in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues using a highly sensitive and specific chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) assay that underwent extensive analytical validation. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that benign prostate tissues often had higher expression of IL6 mRNA than matched tumor specimens. CISH analysis further indicated that both primary and metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma cells do not express IL6 mRNA. IL6 expression was highly heterogeneous across specimens and was nearly exclusively restricted to the prostate stromal compartment--including endothelial cells and macrophages, among other cell types. The number of IL6-expressing cells correlated positively with the presence of acute inflammation. In metastatic disease, tumor cells were negative in all lesions examined, and IL6 expression was restricted to endothelial cells within the vasculature of bone metastases. Finally, IL6 was not detected in any cells in soft tissue metastases. These data suggest that, in prostate cancer patients, paracrine rather than autocrine IL6 production is likely associated with any role for the cytokine in disease progression.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
March/14/2016
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Bone-metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (bmCRPC) represents a lethal stage of the most common noncutaneous cancer in men. The recent introduction of Radium-223 dichloride, a bone-seeking alpha particle (α)-emitting radiopharmaceutical, demonstrates statistically significant survival benefit and palliative effect for bmCRPC patients. Clinical results have established safety and efficacy, yet questions remain regarding pharmacodynamics and dosing for optimized patient benefit.

METHODS

We elucidated the biodistribution of (223)Ra as well as interaction with the bone and tumor compartments in skeletally mature mice (C57Bl/6 and CD-1, n = 3-6) and metastasis models (LNCaP and PC3, n = 4). Differences in uptake were evaluated by µCT and histological investigation. Novel techniques were leveraged on whole-mount undecalcified cryosections to determine microdistribution of Radium-223. All statistical tests were two-sided.

RESULTS

(223)Ra uptake in the bones (>30% injected activity per gram) at 24 hours was also accompanied by non-negligible remnant activity in the kidney (2.33% ± 0.36%), intestines (5.73% ± 2.04%), and spleen (10.5% ± 5.9%) Skeletal accumulation across strains did not correspond with bone volume or surface area but instead to local blood vessel density (P = .04). Microdistribution analysis by autoradiography and α camera revealed targeting of the ossifying surfaces adjacent to the epiphyseal growth plate. In models of PCa metastasis, radioactivity does not localize directly within tumors but instead at the apposite bone surface. Osteoblastic and lytic lesions display similar intensity, which is comparable with uptake at sites of normal bone remodeling.

CONCLUSIONS

Profiling the macro- and microdistribution of (223)Ra in healthy and diseased models has important implications to guide precision application of this emerging α-therapy approach for bmCRPC and other bone metastastic diseases.

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