Treatment for osteoporosis using potassium salts
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Publications
(116)
Publication
Journal: Nature genetics
June/16/2010
Abstract
To identify new genetic risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis, we conducted a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 5,539 autoantibody-positive individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (cases) and 20,169 controls of European descent, followed by replication in an independent set of 6,768 rheumatoid arthritis cases and 8,806 controls. Of 34 SNPs selected for replication, 7 new rheumatoid arthritis risk alleles were identified at genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10(-8)) in an analysis of all 41,282 samples. The associated SNPs are near genes of known immune function, including IL6ST, SPRED2, RBPJ, CCR6, IRF5 and PXK. We also refined associations at two established rheumatoid arthritis risk loci (IL2RA and CCL21) and confirmed the association at AFF3. These new associations bring the total number of confirmed rheumatoid arthritis risk loci to 31 among individuals of European ancestry. An additional 11 SNPs replicated at P < 0.05, many of which are validated autoimmune risk alleles, suggesting that most represent genuine rheumatoid arthritis risk alleles.
Publication
Journal: The New England journal of medicine
February/9/2011
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) and diseases caused by HPV are common in boys and men. We report on the safety of a quadrivalent vaccine (active against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18) and on its efficacy in preventing the development of external genital lesions and anogenital HPV infection in boys and men.
METHODS
We enrolled 4065 healthy boys and men 16 to 26 years of age, from 18 countries in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. The primary efficacy objective was to show that the quadrivalent HPV vaccine reduced the incidence of external genital lesions related to HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18. Efficacy analyses were conducted in a per-protocol population, in which subjects received all three vaccinations and were negative for relevant HPV types at enrollment, and in an intention-to-treat population, in which subjects received vaccine or placebo, regardless of baseline HPV status.
RESULTS
In the intention-to-treat population, 36 external genital lesions were seen in the vaccine group as compared with 89 in the placebo group, for an observed efficacy of 60.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.8 to 73.8); the efficacy was 65.5% (95% CI, 45.8 to 78.6) for lesions related to HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18. In the per-protocol population, efficacy against lesions related to HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18 was 90.4% (95% CI, 69.2 to 98.1). Efficacy with respect to persistent infection with HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18 and detection of related DNA at any time was 47.8% (95% CI, 36.0 to 57.6) and 27.1% (95% CI, 16.6 to 36.3), respectively, in the intention-to-treat population and 85.6% (97.5% CI, 73.4 to 92.9) and 44.7% (95% CI, 31.5 to 55.6) in the per-protocol population. Injection-site pain was significantly more frequent among subjects receiving quadrivalent HPV vaccine than among those receiving placebo (57% vs. 51%, P<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
Quadrivalent HPV vaccine prevents infection with HPV-6, 11, 16, and 18 and the development of related external genital lesions in males 16 to 26 years of age. (Funded by Merck and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00090285.).
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
November/26/2007
Abstract
Airway inflammation and epithelial remodeling are two key features of asthma. IL-13 and other cytokines produced during T helper type 2 cell-driven allergic inflammation contribute to airway epithelial goblet cell metaplasia and may alter epithelial-mesenchymal signaling, leading to increased subepithelial fibrosis or hyperplasia of smooth muscle. The beneficial effects of corticosteroids in asthma could relate to their ability to directly or indirectly decrease epithelial cell activation by inflammatory cells and cytokines. To identify markers of epithelial cell dysfunction and the effects of corticosteroids on epithelial cells in asthma, we studied airway epithelial cells collected from asthmatic subjects enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of inhaled corticosteroids, from healthy subjects and from smokers (disease control). By using gene expression microarrays, we found that chloride channel, calcium-activated, family member 1 (CLCA1), periostin, and serine peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 2 (serpinB2) were up-regulated in asthma but not in smokers. Corticosteroid treatment down-regulated expression of these three genes and markedly up-regulated expression of FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51). Whereas high baseline expression of CLCA1, periostin, and serpinB2 was associated with a good clinical response to corticosteroids, high expression of FKBP51 was associated with a poor response. By using airway epithelial cells in culture, we found that IL-13 increased expression of CLCA1, periostin, and serpinB2, an effect that was suppressed by corticosteroids. Corticosteroids also induced expression of FKBP51. Taken together, our findings show that airway epithelial cells in asthma have a distinct activation profile and identify direct and cell-autonomous effects of corticosteroid treatment on airway epithelial cells that relate to treatment responses and can now be the focus of specific mechanistic studies.
Publication
Journal: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
July/11/2005
Abstract
BACKGROUND
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib (also known as Tarceva or OSI-774) has shown promising response rates in malignant gliomas. We investigated the association between expression of EGFR and downstream signaling components and the response of malignant gliomas to erlotinib in a phase I trial of erlotinib administered either alone or with the alkylating agent temozolomide.
METHODS
Expression of EGFR and ligand-independent EGFRvIII mutant proteins and of phosphorylated protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt in specimens from glioma patients were assessed by immunohistochemistry. EGFR gene amplification was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Mutations in PTEN and EGFR were assessed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing. Response was evaluated by sequential magnetic resonance imaging every 2 months. The Cochran-Mantel-Haenzel test was used to assess associations between biomarker status and response. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS
Of 41 glioma patients, eight responded to treatment. Response to erlotinib was associated with EGFR expression (P = .07) and EGFR amplification (P = .08). These associations were stronger and statistically significant among the 29 patients initially diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme (P = .03 and P = .02, respectively). Among six responders with sufficient tumor tissue, none had EGFRvIII mutations. None of the 22 tumors with high levels of phosphorylated PKB/Akt responded to erlotinib treatment, whereas eight of the 18 tumors with low levels of phosphorylated PKB/Akt responded to erlotinib treatment (P < .001). The level of phosphorylated PKB/Akt was also associated with time to progression (P < .001).
CONCLUSIONS
Among glioma patients, those with glioblastoma multiforme tumors who have high levels of EGFR expression and low levels of phosphorylated PKB/Akt had better response to erlotinib treatment than those with low levels of EGFR expression and high levels of phosphorylated PKB/Akt.
Publication
Journal: Nature genetics
April/18/2011
Abstract
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, MIM152700) is an autoimmune disease characterized by self-reactive antibodies resulting in systemic inflammation and organ failure. TNFAIP3, encoding the ubiquitin-modifying enzyme A20, is an established susceptibility locus for SLE. By fine mapping and genomic re-sequencing in ethnically diverse populations, we fully characterized the TNFAIP3 risk haplotype and identified a TT>A polymorphic dinucleotide (deletion T followed by a T to A transversion) associated with SLE in subjects of European (P = 1.58 × 10(-8), odds ratio = 1.70) and Korean (P = 8.33 × 10(-10), odds ratio = 2.54) ancestry. This variant, located in a region of high conservation and regulatory potential, bound a nuclear protein complex composed of NF-κB subunits with reduced avidity. Further, compared with the non-risk haplotype, the haplotype carrying this variant resulted in reduced TNFAIP3 mRNA and A20 protein expression. These results establish this TT>A variant as the most likely functional polymorphism responsible for the association between TNFAIP3 and SLE.
Publication
Journal: American journal of human genetics
May/9/2001
Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune/inflammatory disorder with a complex genetic component. We report the first major genomewide screen of multiplex families with RA gathered in the United States. The North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium, using well-defined clinical criteria, has collected 257 families containing 301 affected sibling pairs with RA. A genome screen for allele sharing was performed, using 379 microsatellite markers. A nonparametric analysis using SIBPAL confirmed linkage of the HLA locus to RA (P < .00005), with lambdaHLA = 1.79. However, the analysis also revealed a number of non-HLA loci on chromosomes 1 (D1S235), 4 (D4S1647), 12 (D12S373), 16 (D16S403), and 17 (D17S1301), with evidence for linkage at a significance level of P<.005. Analysis of X-linked markers using the MLOD method from ASPEX also suggests linkage to the telomeric marker DXS6807. Stratifying the families into white or seropositive subgroups revealed some additional markers that showed improvement in significance over the full data set. Several of the regions that showed evidence for nominal significance (P < .05) in our data set had previously been implicated in RA (D16S516 and D17S1301) or in other diseases of an autoimmune nature, including systemic lupus erythematosus (D1S235), inflammatory bowel disease (D4S1647, D5S1462, and D16S516), multiple sclerosis (D12S1052), and ankylosing spondylitis (D16S516). Therefore, genes in the HLA complex play a major role in RA susceptibility, but several other regions also contribute significantly to overall genetic risk.
Publication
Journal: PLoS genetics
August/23/2011
Abstract
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a clinically heterogeneous, systemic autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody formation. Previously published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have investigated SLE as a single phenotype. Therefore, we conducted a GWAS to identify genetic factors associated with anti-dsDNA autoantibody production, a SLE-related autoantibody with diagnostic and clinical importance. Using two independent datasets, over 400,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were studied in a total of 1,717 SLE cases and 4,813 healthy controls. Anti-dsDNA autoantibody positive (anti-dsDNA +, n = 811) and anti-dsDNA autoantibody negative (anti-dsDNA -, n = 906) SLE cases were compared to healthy controls and to each other to identify SNPs associated specifically with these SLE subtypes. SNPs in the previously identified SLE susceptibility loci STAT4, IRF5, ITGAM, and the major histocompatibility complex were strongly associated with anti-dsDNA + SLE. Far fewer and weaker associations were observed for anti-dsDNA - SLE. For example, rs7574865 in STAT4 had an OR for anti-dsDNA + SLE of 1.77 (95% CI 1.57-1.99, p = 2.0E-20) compared to an OR for anti-dsDNA - SLE of 1.26 (95% CI 1.12-1.41, p = 2.4E-04), with p(heterogeneity)<0.0005. SNPs in the SLE susceptibility loci BANK1, KIAA1542, and UBE2L3 showed evidence of association with anti-dsDNA + SLE and were not associated with anti-dsDNA - SLE. In conclusion, we identified differential genetic associations with SLE based on anti-dsDNA autoantibody production. Many previously identified SLE susceptibility loci may confer disease risk through their role in autoantibody production and be more accurately described as autoantibody propensity loci. Lack of strong SNP associations may suggest that other types of genetic variation or non-genetic factors such as environmental exposures have a greater impact on susceptibility to anti-dsDNA - SLE.
Publication
Journal: Science signaling
March/4/2010
Abstract
Glioblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor, is among the most lethal and difficult cancers to treat. Although epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are frequent in glioblastoma, their clinical relevance is poorly understood. Studies of tumors from patients treated with the EGFR inhibitor lapatinib revealed that EGFR induces the cleavage and nuclear translocation of the master transcriptional regulator of fatty acid synthesis, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1). This response was mediated by Akt; however, clinical data from rapamycin-treated patients showed that SREBP-1 activation was independent of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, possibly explaining rapamycin's poor efficacy in the treatment of such tumors. Glioblastomas without constitutively active EGFR signaling were resistant to inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, whereas introduction of a constitutively active mutant form of EGFR, EGFRvIII, sensitized tumor xenografts in mice to cell death, which was augmented by the hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor atorvastatin. These results identify a previously undescribed EGFR-mediated prosurvival metabolic pathway and suggest new therapeutic approaches to treating EGFR-activated glioblastomas.
Publication
Journal: American journal of human genetics
November/14/2005
Abstract
The minor allele of the R620W missense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs2476601) in the hematopoietic-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase gene, PTPN22, has been associated with multiple autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). These genetic data, combined with biochemical evidence that this SNP affects PTPN22 function, suggest that this phosphatase is a key regulator of autoimmunity. To determine whether other genetic variants in PTPN22 contribute to the development of RA, we sequenced the coding regions of this gene in 48 white North American patients with RA and identified 15 previously unreported SNPs, including 2 coding SNPs in the catalytic domain. We then genotyped 37 SNPs in or near PTPN22 in 475 patients with RA and 475 individually matched controls (sample set 1) and selected a subset of markers for replication in an additional 661 patients with RA and 1,322 individually matched controls (sample set 2). Analyses of these results predict 10 common (frequency >1%) PTPN22 haplotypes in white North Americans. The sole haplotype found to carry the previously identified W620 risk allele was strongly associated with disease in both sample sets, whereas another haplotype, identical at all other SNPs but carrying the R620 allele, showed no association. R620W, however, does not fully explain the association between PTPN22 and RA, since significant differences between cases and controls persisted in both sample sets after the haplotype data were stratified by R620W. Additional analyses identified two SNPs on a single common haplotype that are associated with RA independent of R620W, suggesting that R620W and at least one additional variant in the PTPN22 gene region influence RA susceptibility.
Publication
Journal: PLoS genetics
June/30/2008
Abstract
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a genetically complex disease with heterogeneous clinical manifestations. A polymorphism in the STAT4 gene has recently been established as a risk factor for SLE, but the relationship with specific SLE subphenotypes has not been studied. We studied 137 SNPs in the STAT4 region genotyped in 4 independent SLE case series (total n = 1398) and 2560 healthy controls, along with clinical data for the cases. Using conditional testing, we confirmed the most significant STAT4 haplotype for SLE risk. We then studied a SNP marking this haplotype for association with specific SLE subphenotypes, including autoantibody production, nephritis, arthritis, mucocutaneous manifestations, and age at diagnosis. To prevent possible type-I errors from population stratification, we reanalyzed the data using a subset of subjects determined to be most homogeneous based on principal components analysis of genome-wide data. We confirmed that four SNPs in very high LD (r(2) = 0.94 to 0.99) were most strongly associated with SLE, and there was no compelling evidence for additional SLE risk loci in the STAT4 region. SNP rs7574865 marking this haplotype had a minor allele frequency (MAF) = 31.1% in SLE cases compared with 22.5% in controls (OR = 1.56, p = 10(-16)). This SNP was more strongly associated with SLE characterized by double-stranded DNA autoantibodies (MAF = 35.1%, OR = 1.86, p<10(-19)), nephritis (MAF = 34.3%, OR = 1.80, p<10(-11)), and age at diagnosis<30 years (MAF = 33.8%, OR = 1.77, p<10(-13)). An association with severe nephritis was even more striking (MAF = 39.2%, OR = 2.35, p<10(-4) in the homogeneous subset of subjects). In contrast, STAT4 was less strongly associated with oral ulcers, a manifestation associated with milder disease. We conclude that this common polymorphism of STAT4 contributes to the phenotypic heterogeneity of SLE, predisposing specifically to more severe disease.
Publication
Journal: AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
December/5/2005
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Abnormalities on diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images are reported in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). To our knowledge, no large study has been conducted to determine the sensitivity and specificity of DWI and FLAIR imaging for diagnosing CJD.
METHODS
Two neuroradiologists, blinded to diagnosis, retrospectively evaluated DWI and FLAIR images from 40 patients with probable or definite CJD and 53 control subjects with other forms of dementia and rated the likelihood of CJD on the basis of the imaging findings.
RESULTS
DWI and FLAIR imaging was 91% sensitive, 95% specific, and 94% accurate for CJD. Interrater reliability was high (kappa = 0.93). Sensitivity was higher for DWI than FLAIR imaging. Abnormalities involved cortex and deep gray matter (striatum and/or thalamus) in 68% of patients with CJD, cortex alone in 24%, and deep gray matter alone in 5%. The most typical and specific patterns were corresponding hyperintensity on both FLAIR images and DWIs confined to the gray matter in the cortex, striatum, medial and/or posterior thalamus, or a combination of these areas. Narrow-window soft-copy review of artifact-free DWIs and FLAIR images and recognition of the normal variation in cortical signal intensity proved critical for successful differentiation of CJD from other dementias.
CONCLUSIONS
Because specific patterns of abnormality on DWI and FLAIR images are highly sensitive and specific for CJD, these sequences should be performed whenever CJD is suspected.
Publication
Journal: International journal of cancer
June/17/2007
Abstract
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is etiologically associated with a subset of oral cancers, and yet, the natural history of oral HPV infection remains unexplored. The feasibility of studying oral HPV natural history was evaluated by collecting oral rinse samples on 2 occasions at a 6-month interval from 136 HIV-positive and 63 HIV-negative participants. Cervical vaginal lavage samples were concurrently collected for comparison. HPV genomic DNA was detected in oral and cervical samples by consensus primer PCR and type-specified for 37 HPV types. The six-month cumulative prevalence of oral HPV infection was significantly less than for cervical infection (p < 0.0001). HIV-positive women were more likely than HIV-negative women to have an oral (33 vs. 15%, p = 0.016) or cervical (78 vs. 51%, p < 0.001) infection detected. Oral HPV infections detected at baseline were as likely as cervical infections to persist to 6 months among HIV-negative (60% vs. 51%, p = 0.70) and HIV-positive (55% vs. 63%, p = 0.27) women. Factors that independently elevated odds for oral HPV persistence differed from cervical infection and included current smoking (OR = 8, 95% CI = 1.3-53), age above 44 years (OR = 20, 95% CI = 4.1-83), CD4 < 500 (OR = 6, 95% CI = 1.1-26), use of HAART therapy (OR = 12, 95% CI = 1.0-156), and time on HAART therapy (trend p = 0.04). The rate of oral HPV infections newly detected at follow-up was significantly lower than cervical infection among HIV-positive (p < 0.001) and HIV-negative women (p < 0.001). Our study not only demonstrates that it is feasible to study the natural history of oral HPV infection with oral rinse sampling, but also indicates that oral and cervical HPV natural history may differ.
Publication
Journal: The Journal of infectious diseases
January/2/2005
Abstract
BACKGROUND
In the United States, anal cancer in men who have sex with men (MSM) is more common than cervical cancer in women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally linked to the development of anal and cervical cancer. In women, cervical HPV infection peaks early and decreases after the age of 30. Little is known about the age-specific prevalence of anal HPV infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative MSM.
METHODS
We studied the prevalence and determinants of anal HPV infection in 1218 HIV-negative MSM, 18-89 years old, who were recruited from 4 US cities. We assessed anal HPV infection status by polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS
HPV DNA was found in the anal canal of 57% of study participants. The prevalence of anal HPV infection did not change with age or geographic location. Anal HPV infection was independently associated with receptive anal intercourse (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; P<.0001) during the preceding 6 months and with >5 sex partners during the preceding 6 months (OR, 1.5; P<.0001).
CONCLUSIONS
Urban, HIV-negative MSM have a stable, high prevalence of anal HPV infection across all age groups. These results differ substantially from the epidemiologic profile of cervical HPV infection in women. This may reflect differences between these populations with respect to the number of new sex partners after the age of 30 and may explain the high incidence of anal cancer in MSM.
Publication
Journal: AIDS (London, England)
October/23/2007
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To determine the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in a nationally representative cohort of HIV-infected women and a comparison group of HIV-uninfected women.
METHODS
A prospective study between October 2000 and March 2006 of 2088 participants from the Women's Interagency HIV Study who did not have evidence of DM at enrollment (1524 HIV infected and 564 HIV uninfected).
METHODS
Incident DM was defined as either having fasting glucose > or = 1.26 g/l, reporting antidiabetic medication, or reporting DM diagnosis (with subsequent confirmation by fasting glucose > or = 1.26 g/l or reported antidiabetic medication); all were assessed at semi-annual study visits.
RESULTS
DM developed in 116 HIV-infected and 36 HIV-uninfected women over 6802 person-years. HIV-infected women reporting no recent antiretroviral therapy had a DM incidence rate of 1.53/100 person-years; those reporting HAART containing a protease inhibitor (PI) had a rate of 2.50/100 person-years and those reporting non-PI-containing HAART a rate of 2.89/100 person-years. None of these rates differed from the HIV-uninfected women (1.96/100 person-years) substantially or beyond levels expected by chance. Among HIV-infected women, longer cumulative exposure to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) was associated with an increased risk of DM incidence compared with no NRTI exposure: relative hazard (RH) 1.81 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83-3.93] for > 0 to 3 years exposure and RH 2.64 (95% CI, 1.11-6.32) for > 3 years exposure.
CONCLUSIONS
Longer cumulative exposure to NRTI was associated with increased DM incidence in HIV-infected women. Regular DM monitoring is advisable because NRTI form the backbone of effective antiretroviral therapy.
Publication
Journal: The Journal of infectious diseases
November/3/2008
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Whether human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with a change in the diversity of genital microbiota in women was investigated.
METHODS
Amplicon length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) analysis and pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene were used to analyze the diversity of the microbiota in HIV-positive (HIV(+)) and HIV-negative (HIV(-)) women with or without bacterial vaginosis (BV).
RESULTS
LH-PCR analysis revealed significantly more microbiota diversity in BV-positive (BV(+)) women than in BV-negative (BV(-)) women, but no significant difference was noted between HIV(+) women and HIV(-) women. Pyrosequencing revealed that Lactobacillus organisms constituted a median of 96% of the bacteria in BV(-) women. BV(+) women had a significantly higher number of taxa found at > or =1% of the total genital microbiota (median, 11 taxa). Common taxa in BV(+) women were Prevotella, Megasphaera, Gardnerella, Coriobacterineae, Lachnospira, and Sneathia. There was a trend (P = .07) toward the presence of a higher number of taxa in HIV(+)BV(+) women than in HIV(-)BV(+) women. Propionibacterineae, Citrobacter, and Anaerococcus were the taxa found only in HIV(+) women (P < .05).
CONCLUSIONS
The present study demonstrated that both LH-PCR analysis and pyrosequencing differentiated microbiota in BV(+) women from that in BV(-) women and that pyrosequencing indicated a trend toward increased diversity in BV(+)HIV(+) women, suggesting that HIV infection is associated with changes in the diversity of genital microbiota.
Publication
Journal: American journal of public health
August/16/2004
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of HIV-positive women who do not report highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use.
METHODS
We analyzed HAART use among 1165 HIV-positive participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.
RESULTS
Between October 1, 2000, and March 31, 2001, 254 women with clinical indications for HAART reported not using it, 635 reported HAART use, and 276 had no clinical indications. In multivariate analysis, using crack/cocaine/heroin and a history of abuse decreased the likelihood of using HAART, whereas being White increased it.
CONCLUSIONS
One of 4 women for whom HAART was indicated reported not using HAART. Childhood sexual abuse prevention, more intensive abuse treatment, and continuing drug treatment may enhance HIV disease treatment of women.
Publication
Journal: The Journal of infectious diseases
May/5/2005
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Whether the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is affected by bacterial vaginosis (BV) or Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection has not been adequately investigated in prospective studies.
METHODS
Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected (n=1763) and high-risk HIV-1-uninfected (n=493) women were assessed semiannually for BV (by Nugent's criteria), TV infection (by wet mount), type-specific HPV (by polymerase chain reaction with MY09/MY11/HMB01 HPV primers), and squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) (by cytological examination). Sexual history was obtained from patient report at each visit. Risk factors for prevalent and incident HPV infection and SIL were evaluated by use of multivariate models.
RESULTS
BV was associated with both prevalent and incident HPV infection but not with duration of HPV infection or incidence of SIL. TV infection was associated with incident HPV infection and with decreased duration and lower prevalence of HPV infection. TV infection had no association with development of SIL. Effects of BV and TV infection were similar in HIV-1-infected and high-risk HIV-1-uninfected women. HIV-1 infection and low CD4(+) lymphocyte count were strongly associated with HPV infection and development of SIL.
CONCLUSIONS
BV and TV infection may increase the risk of acquisition (or reactivation) of HPV infection, as is consistent with hypotheses that the local cervicovaginal milieu plays a role in susceptibility to HPV infection. The finding that BV did not affect persistence of HPV infection and that TV infection may shorten the duration of HPV infection helps explain the lack of effect that BV and TV infection have on development of SIL.
Publication
Journal: AIDS (London, England)
October/6/2003
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To model the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV vaccines on HIV transmission using empirical data from studies in Rakai, Uganda.
METHODS
A stochastic simulation model estimated HIV incidence, probabilities of transmission per coital act and the reproductive number (R0) with ART and HIV vaccines. Model inputs included Rakai data on HIV transmission probabilities per coital act by HIV viral load, age and gender, and sexual behaviors. The impacts of therapy were derived from US programs, and vaccine assumptions included preventive efficacies ranging from 25 to 75%. Component projection models estimated the numbers of HIV-infected persons over 20 years.
RESULTS
The model incidence [1.57/100 person years (PY)] closely fitted empirical data (1.5/100 PY). Simulations of ART using DHHS treatment guidelines, predicted declines in HIV incidence, but R0 remained > 1.0, and the numbers of HIV-positive persons did not change substantially over 20 years. Preventive vaccines with > 50% efficacy and > 50% population coverage could reduce R0 to < 1.0, and substantially reduce the number of HIV-infected persons over 20 years. Concurrent ART and a preventive vaccine can have substantial impact at lower levels of population coverage and would markedly reduce the HIV infected population over 20 years. However, behavioral disinhibition with increased numbers of sexual partners in either ART or vaccine recipients, increased HIV incidence and diminished intervention impact.
CONCLUSIONS
ART alone cannot control the HIV epidemic in mature epidemics such as Rakai, and persons in need of therapy will increase over time. ART in combination with a low efficacy vaccine could control the epidemic, if behavioral disinhibition is prevented.
Publication
Journal: Neurology
December/26/2006
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To compare the behavioral profiles in different variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA).
METHODS
We classified 67 patients with PPA into three clinical variants: semantic dementia (SEMD), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), and logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA), and we compared the severity of behavioral dysfunction, as measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, in these groups and patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer disease (AD).
RESULTS
SEMD was associated with significantly more socioemotional behavioral dysfunction than the other two variants of PPA and than AD, specifically more disinhibition, aberrant motor behavior, and eating disorders-behaviors that are typical of FTD. In contrast, PNFA and LPA did not differ from each other or from AD in the type or severity of behavioral dysfunction. Behavioral abnormalities increased in severity with disease duration in SEMD, but this association was not detected in PNFA or LPA.
CONCLUSIONS
Semantic dementia is associated with significantly more behavioral dysfunction than other variants of primary progressive aphasia, specifically behavioral features typical of frontotemporal dementia.
Publication
Journal: JAMA
March/28/2005
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Recent cervical cancer screening guidelines state that the interval between screenings can be safely extended to 3 years in healthy women 30 years or older who have normal cytology results and have negative test results for oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA.
OBJECTIVE
To determine the incidence of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) in HIV-seropositive women with normal cytology results, by baseline HPV DNA results.
METHODS
Participants were HIV-seropositive (n = 855; mean age, 36 years) and HIV-seronegative (n = 343; mean age, 34 years) US women with normal baseline cervical cytology who were enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a large, multi-institutional prospective cohort study. Since their recruitment during 1994-1995, WIHS participants have been followed up semi-annually with repeated Pap smears for a median of 7 years.
METHODS
The cumulative incidence of any SIL and high-grade SIL or cancer (HSIL+) was estimated according to baseline HPV DNA results, stratified by HIV serostatus and CD4 T-cell count.
RESULTS
Development of any SIL in women with negative HPV results (both oncogenic and nononcogenic) at 2 years was as follows: in HIV-seropositive women with CD4 counts less than 200/microL, 9% (95% CI, 1%-18%); with CD4 counts between 200/muL and 500/microL, 9% (95% CI, 4%-13%); and with CD4 counts greater than 500/microL, 4% (95% CI, 1%-7%). The CIs for these estimates overlapped with those for HIV-seronegative women with normal baseline cytology who were HPV-negative (3%; 95% CI, 1%-5%), indicating that at 2 years, there were no large absolute differences in the cumulative incidence of any SIL between groups. Furthermore, no HPV-negative participants in any group developed HSIL+ lesions within 3 years. Multivariate Cox models showed that on a relative scale, the incidence of any SIL among HIV-seropositive women with CD4 counts greater than 500/microL (hazard ratio [HR], 1.2; 95% CI, 0.5-3.0), but not those with CD4 counts less than or equal to 500/microL (HR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.2-7.1), was similar to that in HIV-seronegative women.
CONCLUSIONS
The similar low cumulative incidence of any SIL among HIV-seronegative and HIV-seropositive women with CD4 counts greater than 500/microL and who had normal cervical cytology and HPV-negative test results suggests that similar cervical cancer screening practices may be applicable to both groups, although this strategy warrants evaluation in an appropriate clinical trial.
Publication
Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
October/16/2002
Abstract
High-grade dysplasia induced by high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) precedes invasive cancer in anal squamous epithelium just as it does in the cervix. A therapeutic HPV vaccine strategy as a potential treatment for anal dysplasia was tested in a standard Phase I dose escalation trial. The primary objective was to evaluate the safety of the agent; additional study aims were to evaluate the histological response, immune response, and effect on anal HPV-16 infection. Each subject was treated with four i.m. injections of 50-400 microg of ZYC101 at 3-week intervals. ZYC101 is composed of plasmid DNA encapsulated in biodegradable polymer microparticles. The plasmid DNA encodes for multiple HLA-A2-restricted epitopes derived from the HPV-16 E7 protein, one of two HPV oncoproteins consistently expressed in neoplastic cells. Fifty-six potential anal dysplasia subjects were screened to identify 12 eligible subjects with HPV-16 anal infection and a HLA-A2 haplotype. The investigational agent was well tolerated in all subjects at all dose levels tested. Three subjects experienced partial histological responses, including one of three subjects receiving the 200-microg dose and two subjects at the 400-microg dose level. Using a direct Elispot, 10 of 12 subjects demonstrated increased immune response to the peptide epitopes encoded within ZYC101; each continued to show elevated immune responses 6 months after the initiation of therapy. These results support the continued investigation of a therapeutic vaccination strategy for anal dysplasia.
Publication
Journal: Arthritis and rheumatism
March/5/2008
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To examine the reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness of the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) in a large observational cohort of persons with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
METHODS
We evaluated the reliability of the SLAQ using Cronbach's alpha and principal factor analysis and ascertained construct validity by studying the association of the SLAQ with other clinically relevant, validated patient assessments of health. We estimated responsiveness by calculating standardized response means and analyzing the association of changes in SLAQ scores with changes in other patient assessments of health.
RESULTS
The SLAQ had excellent reliability, as reflected by Cronbach's alpha (0.87) and principal factor analysis (one factor accounted for 92% of the variance). SLAQ scores were strongly correlated with other health indices, including the Short Form 12 Physical Component Summary and the Short Form 36 Physical Functioning subscale. Scores were significantly higher for respondents reporting a flare, more disease activity, hospitalization in the last year, concurrent use of immunosuppressive medication, and work disability. The SLAQ demonstrated a small to moderate degree of responsiveness; standardized response means were 0.66 and -0.37 for those reporting clinical worsening and improvement, respectively. Across a range of other patient assessments of disease status, the SLAQ had a response in the direction predicted by these other measures.
CONCLUSIONS
The SLAQ demonstrates adequate reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness in our large, community-based cohort and appears to represent a promising tool for studies of SLE outside the clinical setting.
Publication
Journal: Alzheimer disease and associated disorders
February/27/2008
Abstract
Progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by motor speech impairment and agrammatism, with relative sparing of single word comprehension and semantic memory. PNFA has been associated with the characteristic pattern of left anterior insular and posterior frontal atrophy, including the motor and premotor regions and Broca's area. Postmortem histopathologic evidence has shown that PNFA is usually associated with tau pathology, although focal Alzheimer disease pathology and tau-negative, ubiquitin-TDP-43 inclusions also have been reported in association with this clinical syndrome. We performed a detailed analysis of motor speech errors in 18 patients with PNFA and investigated their neural correlates using voxel-based morphometry on magnetic resonance imaging scans. Seven patients demonstrated only apraxia of speech (AOS) errors, whereas 11 showed AOS along with dysarthria. Slow rate of speech, effortful articulation with groping, and consonant distortions were the most common AOS errors. Hypernasality was the most represented dysarthric feature and dysarthria was most often classified as spastic, hypokinetic, or mixed spastic-hypokinetic. Neuroimaging results demonstrated that patients with AOS-only and AOS plus dysarthria showed atrophy in the left posterior frontal, anterior insular, and basal ganglia regions when compared with controls. Patients with AOS plus dysarthria showed greater damage than patients with AOS-only in the left face portion of primary motor cortex and left caudate. PNFA is a distinct frontotemporal lobar degeneration clinical syndrome associated with characteristic clinical, neuroimaging, and pathologic features. The clinical features are driven by the severity of left frontal and caudate damage.
Publication
Journal: The Journal of infectious diseases
June/11/2008
Abstract
Immune activation is a hallmark of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and impacts innate and adaptive immunity. Individuals coinfected with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) may have increased immune activation early in HIV disease because of a high HCV antigen load in tissues such as the liver. We evaluated T cell markers of activation and maturation in women with or without HIV-1 infection, by HCV antibody and HCV RNA status. We found increased percentages of activated CD8(+) T cells (i.e., CD8(+)HLA-DR(+)38(+) cells and CD8(+)CD28(+)HLA-DR(+) cells) but not of CD4(+) T cells among women who tested positive for HIV-1, HCV antibody, and HCV RNA, compared with HIV-1-positive women who tested negative for HCV antibody. Because CD8(+) T cell activation is related to HIV-1 disease progression, these data may have implications for the medical management of patients coinfected with HIV-1 and HCV.
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