Date
All
Pubmeds
(11,273)
Pubmed
Journal: Neurocritical care
December/8/2018
Abstract
Related with
Pubmed
Journal: NeoReviews
December/8/2018
Abstract

Preterm infants are at increased risk for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Prolonged exposure to PDA may be deleterious and has been associated with neonatal morbidity and mortality. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of postnatal ductus arteriosus closure are not fully understood, clinical experience and research trials have informed recent changes in PDA management strategies and refocused treatment strategies on smaller subsets of infants who require intervention. This review examines current diagnostic and management approaches to PDA in preterm neonates.

Related with
Pubmed
Journal: Ugeskrift for laeger
December/7/2018
Abstract

Epidemiological studies have shown a larger prevalence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in patients with cryptogenic ischaemic stroke (CIS) than in patients without CIS. In 2017, three randomised clinical trials showed a beneficial effect of PFO closure in patients with CIS. Among patients with CIS and PFO, those who underwent PFO closure, had a lower risk of stroke recurrence than those treated with antithrombotic therapy alone. In this review, we analyse the existing evidence and set up suggestions for future recommendations for PFO closure in patients with CIS.

Related with
Pubmed
Journal: Anatolian journal of cardiology
December/6/2018
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report clinical and procedural characteristics of twelve patients who received a covered stent for the treatment of aortic coarctation and concurrent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA).

METHODS

A single center database was retrospectively evaluated to obtain data of patients with combined aortic coarctation and PDA. We selected patients in whom a covered stent was used for the treatment of both pathologies. The stent length was chosen so as to cover the entire length of the lesion from healthy to healthy tissue and also cover the ampulla of PDA.

RESULTS

The median age of the patients was 15 (range, 6.5-35) years. The diameter of the coarctated segment increased from a median of 8.4 (range, 2.6-10.8) mm to 16 (range, 9-24) mm (p<0.005), whereas the pressure gradient decreased from a median of 43 (range, 10-71) mm Hg to 0 (range, 0-8) mm Hg (p<0.005). Fourteen covered stents were used for 12 patients. Following deployment, seven stents were flared with larger and low-pressure balloons because of the gap between the distal end of the stent and the poststenotic dilated segment of the aorta, which caused residual PDA shunts and/or instability of the stent. After the procedure, no residual PDA shunt was present in any patient.

CONCLUSIONS

To the best of our knowledge, this study includes the largest series of patients reported in literature in whom covered CP stents were used for simultaneous percutaneous treatment of coarctation and PDA. The procedure was successful and stable results were obtained during follow-up in all cases.

Related with
Pubmed
Journal: Clinical case reports
December/6/2018
Abstract

Uncorrected left-to-right shunt congenital heart defect is a predisposing factor for infective endocarditis (IE), especially right-sided IE which has different clinical manifestations and complications from left-sided IE. Prompt diagnosis by means of transthoracic echocardiography and timely antibiotics management for IE are encouraged to prevent multiorgan failure and fatal pulmonary embolism.

Related with
Pubmed
Journal: Frontiers in neurology
December/6/2018
Abstract

Background: Randomized controlled trials indicate that patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure reduces risk of stroke recurrence in patients with cryptogenic stroke and PFO. However, the optimal time point for PFO closure is unknown and depends on the risk of stroke recurrence. Objective: We aimed to investigate risk of early new ischemic lesions on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in cryptogenic stroke patients with and without PFO. Methods: Cryptogenic stroke patients underwent serial MRI examinations within 1 week after symptom onset to detect early new ischemic lesions. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesions were delineated, co-registered, and analyzed visually for new hyperintensities by raters blinded to clinical details. A PFO was classified as stroke-related in patients with PFO and a Risk of Paradoxical Embolism (RoPE) score >5 points. Results: Out of 80 cryptogenic stroke patients, risk of early recurrent DWI lesions was not significantly different in cryptogenic stroke patients with and without PFO. Similar results were observed in patients ≤60 years of age. Patients with a stroke-related PFO even had a significantly lower risk of early recurrent ischemic lesions compared to all other patients with cryptogenic stroke (unadjusted odds ratio 0.23 [95% confidence interval 0.06-0.87], P = 0.030). Conclusion: Our data argue against a high risk of early stroke recurrence in patients with cryptogenic stroke and PFO.

Related with
Pubmed
Journal: Clinical research in cardiology : official journal of the German Cardiac Society
December/6/2018
Abstract
Related with
Pubmed
Journal: Anatolian journal of cardiology
December/6/2018
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

We aimed to investigate the feasibility and safety of stand-alone transthoracic echocardiography-guided percutaneous occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) without the use of X-ray equipment.

METHODS

From January to December 2015, we performed stand-alone transthoracic echocardiography-guided percutaneous PDA occlusion using an occluder delivered via a delivery sheath introduced via femoral vein access without the use of X-ray equipment in 12 PDA patients.

RESULTS

PDA occlusion was successfully performed in all 12 patients. The procedure duration ranged from 30 to 110 min (50.4±22.8 min), and the size of the implanted occluder ranged from 12 to 20 mm (15.2±2.8 mm). No occluder migration, residual shunt, or thrombotic complications were observed in the perioperative period. There was no clinical death, hemolysis, infection, or embolism during patients' hospitalization and the follow-up period.

CONCLUSIONS

Stand-alone transthoracic echocardiography-guided percutaneous PDA occlusion without the use of X-ray equipment is a safe and effective procedure.

Related with
Pubmed
Journal: Iranian journal of public health
December/6/2018
Abstract

UNASSIGNED

The participation of enterprises and governments in the Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) improves the disease management levels by enhancing the accessibility of medical resources. Non-participation of the stakeholders restricts the development of the MPP. Hence, systematic analysis of the key factors influencing MPP participation is necessary.

UNASSIGNED

A system dynamics model of the market before and after enterprises and governments join the MPP was constructed by considering the economic benefits of both stakeholders. The effects of generic drug prices, royalty rates, pooling subsidies, and enterprise scale on the relevant benefit difference were analyzed. Data from the China Medical and Economic Network for the period 2003-2016, as well as the 2017 annual report of Celgene Corporation, were used as test data.

UNASSIGNED

The proper pooling subsidy coefficient ranges between 0.05 and 0.08 when the generic drug price ratio and royalty rate are lower than 36% and 34%, respectively. These factors could enhance the willingness of both stakeholders to join the MPP. Initial R&D investments and the relative drug patent intensity of enterprises respectively exert positive and negative impacts on their willingness to join the MPP.

UNASSIGNED

To encourage stakeholders to join the MPP, generic drug prices should be lowered, license fees and subsidies should be adjusted appropriately, and the R&D scale and strength of original drug enterprises should be taken into account. The research results provide a reference for formulating the rules of MPP and other policies aiming to facilitate the sharing and innovation of medical resources.

Related with
Pubmed
Journal: Pediatric research
December/6/2018
Abstract

In many preterm infants, the ductus arteriosus remains patent beyond the first few days of life. This prolonged patency is associated with numerous adverse outcomes, but the extent to which these adverse outcomes are attributable to the hemodynamic consequences of ductal patency, if at all, has not been established. Different treatment strategies have failed to improve short-term outcomes, with a paucity of data on the correct diagnostic and pathophysiological assessment of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in association with long-term outcomes. Echocardiography is the selected method of choice for detecting a PDA, assessing the impact on the preterm circulation and monitoring treatment response. PDA in a preterm infant can result in pulmonary overcirculation and systemic hypoperfusion, Therefore, echocardiographic assessment should include evaluation of PDA characteristics, indices of pulmonary overcirculation with left heart loading conditions, and indices of systemic hypoperfusion. In this review, we provide an evidence-based overview of the current and emerging ultrasound measurements available to identify and monitor a PDA in the preterm infant. We offer indications and limitations for using Neonatologist Performed Echocardiography to optimize the management of a neonate with a PDA.

Related with
Pubmed
Journal: Clinical research in cardiology : official journal of the German Cardiac Society
December/6/2018
Abstract
Related with
Pubmed
Journal: Internal and emergency medicine
December/6/2018
Abstract

The aim of our study is to compare patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure versus medical treatment and antiplatelet versus anticoagulant therapy in patients with cryptogenic stroke (CS) and PFO. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA) of randomized trials. Primary outcomes are stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes are peripheral embolism, bleeding, serious adverse events, myocardial infarction and atrial dysrhythmias. We performed an intention to treat meta-analysis with a random-effects model. We include six trials (3677 patients, mean age 47.3 years, 55.8% men). PFO closure is associated with a lower recurrence of stroke or TIA at a mean follow-up of 3.88 years compared to medical therapy [risk ratio (RR) 0.55, 95% CI 0.38-0.81; I2 = 40%]. The TSA confirms this result. No difference is found in mortality (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.35-1.60; I2 = 0%), while PFO closure is associated with a higher incidence of atrial dysrhythmias (RR 4.55, 95% CI 2.16-9.60; I2 = 25%). The rate of the other outcomes is not different among the two groups. The comparison between anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy shows no difference in terms of stroke recurrence, mortality and bleeding. There is conclusive evidence that PFO closure reduces the recurrence of stroke or TIA in patients younger than 60 years of age with CS. More data are warranted to assess the consequences of the increase in atrial dysrhythmias and the advantage of PFO closure over anticoagulants.

Related with
Pubmed
Journal: PloS one
December/6/2018
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the safety and efficacy of percutaneous closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect (PmVSD) using patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) occluders.

BACKGROUND

Widespread use of conventional PmVSD closure devices has been limited by unacceptable high rate of complete heart block (CHB). The elegant design of PDA occluders is supposed to ease implantation, increase closure rate and minimize damage to adjacent structures. Thus, PDA occluders may reduce complications, especially the CHB, and offer a good alternative for PmVSD closure.

METHODS

From September 2008 to October 2015, patients who underwent attempted percutaneous VSD closure using PDA occluders were included in the study. Patient demographics, echocardiography measurements, procedure details and follow-up data until October 2017 were collected.

RESULTS

In total, 321 patients with a mean age of 15.5±12.6 years and mean a weight of 33.3±20.5 kg were included in this study. The mean defect size was 4.8±2.1 mm. Implantation was successful in 307 (95.6%) patients. The median follow-up time was 63 months (24 to 108 months). The closure rates were 89.5%, 91.5%, and 99.3% after the procedure 24 hours, 6 months and 2 years, respectively. Major complications occurred in 5 (1.7%) patients during the procedure and follow-up, including persistent CHB in 2 (0.7%) patients and device embolization in 3 (1.0%) patients. No death, disability, or other major complication was detected.

CONCLUSIONS

Percutaneous closure of PmVSD using PDA occluders is feasible, safe and efficacious in selected patients.

Related with
Pubmed
Journal: Brazilian journal of cardiovascular surgery
December/6/2018
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

We aimed to analyze whether patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure reduces the risk of stroke, assessing also some safety outcomes after the publication of a new trial.

BACKGROUND

The clinical benefit of closing a PFO has been an open question, so it is necessary to review the current state of published medical data in regards to this subject.

METHODS

MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles were used to search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported any of the following outcomes: stroke, death, major bleeding or atrial fibrillation. Six studies fulfilled our eligibility criteria and included 3560 patients (1889 for PFO closure and 1671 for medical therapy.

RESULTS

The risk ration (RR) for stroke in the "closure" group compared with the "medical therapy" showed a statistically significant difference between the groups, favouring the "closure" group (RR 0.366; 95%CI 0.171-0.782, P=0.010). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the safety outcomes, death and major bleeding, but we observed an increase in the risk of atrial fibrillation in the "closure" group (RR 4.131; 95%CI 2.293-7.443, P<0.001). We also observed that the larger the proportion of effective closure, the lower the risk of stroke.

CONCLUSIONS

This meta-analysis found that stroke rates are lower with percutaneously implanted device closure than with medical therapy alone, being these rates modulated by the rates of hypertension, atrial septal aneurysm and effective closure. The publication of a new trial did not change the scenario in the medical literature.

Related with
Pubmed
Journal: Journal of the American Heart Association
December/6/2018
Related with
Pubmed
Journal: Journal of pharmaceutical policy and practice
December/6/2018
Abstract

High medicines prices increasingly pose challenges for universal access to treatments of communicable and non-communicable diseases. New essential medicines are often patent-protected which sustains high prices in many countries, including in low- and middle-income countries. To respond to the HIV/AIDS crisis of the late nineties and to increase access to antiretroviral treatment, certain flexibilities contained in the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS flexibilities) have been clarified and in some respects strengthened at the global level. They have been applied by a number of countries to ensure access to lower-priced generic medicines to treat HIV/AIDS. Governments in the South African Development Community (SADC) have also used TRIPS flexibilities to gain access to lower-priced generic medicines. This paper documents 15 instances of the use of TRIPS flexibilities by eight SADC Member States during the period 2001-2016. Of those, six concerned least developed countries (LDCs) that declared non-enforcement of pharmaceutical patents pursuant to a new LDC transition provision. All instances occurred in the context of medicines procurement for HIV treatment. Such flexibilities can, however, also be used to overcome patent barriers to gain access to generic medicines for other diseases, including NCDs. The SADC, being a regional bloc with over 50% least developed country Members, can make use of the regional exception, a TRIPS flexibility that facilitates the production or procurement of generic medicines to the benefit of the entire region. SADC's Pharmaceutical Business Plan proposes strategies for increased collaboration and pooled procurement of medicines.

Related with
Pubmed
Journal: Cardiovascular revascularization medicine : including molecular interventions
December/6/2018
Related with
Pubmed
Journal: European journal of clinical pharmacology
December/6/2018
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Ibuprofen is the drug of choice for treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). There is accumulating evidence that current ibuprofen-dosing regimens for PDA treatment are inadequate. We aimed to propose an improved dosing regimen, based on all current knowledge.

METHODS

We performed a literature search on the clinical pharmacology and effectiveness of ibuprofen. (R)- and (S)-ibuprofen plasma concentration-time profiles of different dosing regimens were simulated using a population pharmacokinetic model and evaluated to obtain a safe, yet likely more efficacious ibuprofen exposure.

RESULTS

The most effective intravenous ibuprofen dosing in previous clinical trials included a first dose of 20 mg kg-1 followed by 10 mg kg-1 every 24 h. Simulations of this dosing regimen show an (S)-ibuprofen trough concentration of 43 mg L-1 is reached at 48 h, which we assumed the target through concentration. We show that this target can be reached with a first dose of 18 mg kg-1, followed by 4 mg kg-1 every 12 h. After 96 h postnatal age, the dose should be increased to 5 mg kg-1 every 12 h due to maturation of clearance. This twice-daily dosing has the advantage over once-daily dosing that an effective trough level may be maintained, while peak concentrations are substantially (22%) lower.

CONCLUSIONS

We propose to improve intermittent ibuprofen-dosing regimens by starting with a high first dose followed by a twice-daily maintenance dosing regimen that requires increase over time and should be continued until sufficient effect has been achieved.

Related with
Pubmed
Journal: Journal of the American Heart Association
December/6/2018
Abstract

BACKGROUND

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure, anticoagulation, and antiplatelet therapy to prevent stroke recurrence in patients with PFO-associated cryptogenic stroke.

RESULTS

We searched Medline, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE through March 2018. The primary outcome was stroke recurrence. Pooled incidences, hazard ratios, and risk ratios (RRs) were calculated in random-effects meta-analyses. PFO closure was associated with a lower risk of recurrent stroke compared with antithrombotic therapy (antiplatelet therapy or anticoagulation: 3560 patients from 6 RCTs; RR=0.36, 95% CI: 0.17-0.79; I2=59%). The effect of PFO closure on stroke recurrence was larger in patients with atrial septal aneurysm or large shunt (RR=0.27, 95% CI, 0.11-0.70; I2=42%) compared with patients without these anatomical features (RR=0.80, 95% CI, 0.43-1.47; I2=12%). Major complications occurred in 2.40% (95% CI, 1.03-4.25; I2=77%) of procedures. New-onset atrial fibrillation was more frequent in patients randomized to PFO closure versus antithrombotic therapy (RR=4.33, 95% CI, 2.37-7.89; I2=14%). One RCT compared PFO closure versus anticoagulation (353 patients; hazard ratio=0.14, 95% CI, 0.00-1.45) and 2 RCTs compared PFO closure versus antiplatelet therapy (1137 patients; hazard ratio=0.18, 95% CI, 0.05-0.63; I2=12%). Three RCTs compared anticoagulation versus antiplatelet therapy, with none showing a significant difference.

CONCLUSIONS

PFO closure is superior to antithrombotic therapy to prevent stroke recurrence after cryptogenic stroke. The annual absolute risk reduction of stroke was low, but it has to be tempered by a substantial time at risk (at least 5 years) in young and middle-aged patients. PFO closure was associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation.

Related with
Pubmed
Journal: Journal of the American Heart Association
December/6/2018
Related with
Pubmed
Journal: Cardiovascular revascularization medicine : including molecular interventions
December/6/2018
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Patients with history of cryptogenic stroke are more likely to have a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and should be managed with antithrombotic agents, while the alternative option is percutaneous closure of PFOs. Our aim was to perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing percutaneous closure vs. medical treatment for patients with PFO and prior cryptogenic stroke.

METHODS

Medline, Scopus and Cochrane databases were reviewed. A random-effect model meta-analysis was used and I-square was utilized to assess the heterogeneity. New ischemic stroke was defined as the primary endpoint. A sensitivity analysis was performed for Amplatzer device. Subgroup analyses were performed for different patient and PFO characteristics for the composite endpoints as defined by the included RCTs.

RESULTS

In total of 3440 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Closure devices were superior to medical therapy for prevention of recurrent ischemic strokes (HR = 0.29; CI: 0.02-0.56), but were associated with increased risk of new onset of atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (RR = 4.67; CI: 2.22-9.81). However, in the sensitivity analysis for Amplatzer device, there was no difference between the two groups in new onset of atrial arrhythmias. Closure devices were superior across all different subgroups when compared to medical treatment with the exception of patients with a small shunt.

CONCLUSIONS

This meta-analysis shows that closure devices for patients with PFO and history of cryptogenic stroke can significantly decrease the risk of a new ischemic stroke. The use of Amplatzer device was not associated with increased risk of newly diagnosed atrial arrhythmias.

Related with
Pubmed
Journal: Anatolian journal of cardiology
December/6/2018
Related with
Pubmed
Journal: The London medical and physical journal
December/6/2018
Pubmed
Journal: The London medical and physical journal
December/6/2018
load more...