Depression
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Pubmed
Journal: Journal of the National Medical Association
April/21/2003
Abstract

Racism is associated with increased psychosocial stress and blood pressure in blacks. However, little is known of the relationship of racism to other features of insulin resistance syndrome. This study examined the relationship of internalized racism to abdominal obesity and elevated blood pressure in a population of black Caribbean women aged 20-55 years. One hundred thirty-three randomly selected women from the island of Barbados comprised the study sample. Data collected included anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, and information about internalized racism, anxiety, and depression. The stress measures including anxiety, depression, and internalized racism were significantly correlated with waist circumference (r = .25, r = .21, and r = .25). After adjusting for age, education, anxiety, and depression, internalized racism remained significantly correlated with waist circumference. The odds ratio associated with development of abdominal obesity among those with high internalized racism (OR = 2.4 [95% CI, 1.1,5.3]) was significant (P < .05) after adjusting for age, education, and body mass index. Blood pressure was not independently related to internalized racism. Studies comparing black-white differences in diseases for which abdominal obesity is a risk factor (eg, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) should take into account the potential role of internalized racism in defining the differences between ethnic groups.

Pubmed
Journal: Pain
January/4/1999
Abstract

The present study examined the role of catastrophizing in predicting levels of pain and disability in a sample of individuals who had sustained soft-tissue injuries to the neck, shoulders or back following work or motor vehicle accidents. Participants were 86 (27 men, 59 women) consecutive referrals to the Atlantic Pain Clinic, a multidisciplinary treatment centre for the management of persistent pain disorders. Findings revealed that catastrophizing, measured by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS; Sullivan, M.J.L. et al., Psychol. Assess., 7 (1995) 524-532) was significantly correlated with patients' reported pain intensity, perceived disability and employment status. The results of a regression analysis further showed that catastrophizing contributed to the prediction of disability over and above the variance accounted for by pain intensity. In addition, catastrophizing was associated with disability independent of the levels of depression and anxiety. The rumination subscale of the PCS was the strongest predictor of pain and disability. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

Pubmed
Journal: Obesity research
August/3/2005
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

There is increasing evidence that depressive mood is associated with central obesity, but little is known about the association between depression and abdominal fat distribution. This study investigated this relationship in premenopausal women.

METHODS

We recruited 101 overweight premenopausal women who had no eating disorders as defined using the DSM IV criteria. Depressive mood was assessed using Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). Areas of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue at the level of vertebral body L(4)-L(5) were measured using computed tomography. Associations of VAT, SAT, and the ratio of VAT to SAT with natural logarithmic transformation [(ln)]SDS were evaluated using linear regression. Anthropometric indices and physical fitness were also measured. Information on socioeconomic status, education level, and alcohol and smoking habits was obtained using self-administered questionnaires. A hospital nutritionist assessed nutritional status. All of these factors were adjusted for as possible confounding factors in the analyses.

RESULTS

The (ln)SDS score showed a positive association with the area of VAT, even after adjusting for the confounders mentioned above (p < 0.01). BMI, waist circumference, maximal oxygen uptake, and age were also associated with the area of VAT (all p < 0.05). In contrast, the (ln)SDS score was not associated with SAT (p > 0.10).

CONCLUSIONS

We showed that depressive mood is associated with VAT, not with SAT, in overweight premenopausal women. These findings may explain some of the association between depression and coronary heart disease. More studies are needed to elucidate the causal relationship.

Pubmed
Journal: Obesity research
June/22/2005
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine rates of self-reported childhood maltreatment in extremely obese bariatric surgery candidates and to explore associations with sex, eating disorder features, and psychological functioning.

METHODS

Three hundred forty (58 men and 282 women) extremely obese consecutive candidates for gastric bypass surgery completed a questionnaire battery. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was given to assess childhood maltreatment.

RESULTS

Overall, 69% of patients self-reported childhood maltreatment: 46% reported emotional abuse, 29% reported physical abuse, 32% reported sexual abuse, 49% reported emotional neglect, and 32% reported physical neglect. Except for higher rates of emotional abuse reported by women, different forms of maltreatment did not differ significantly by sex. Different forms of maltreatment were generally not associated with binge eating, current BMI, or eating disorder features. At the Bonferonni-corrected significance level, emotional abuse was associated with higher eating concerns and body dissatisfaction, and emotional neglect was associated with higher eating concerns. In terms of psychological functioning, at the Bonferonni-corrected level, emotional abuse and emotional neglect were associated with higher depression and lower self-esteem, and physical abuse was associated with higher depression.

CONCLUSIONS

Extremely obese bariatric surgery candidates reported rates of maltreatment comparable with those reported by clinical groups and roughly two to three times higher than normative community samples. Reported experiences of maltreatment differed little by sex and were generally not significantly associated with current BMI, binge eating, or eating disorder features. In contrast, maltreatment-notably emotional abuse and neglect-were significantly associated with higher depression and lower self-esteem.

Pubmed
Journal: Parkinsonism & related disorders
January/12/2006
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the factors associated with poor quality of life (QoL) in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) in a clinic-based sample.

METHODS

One hundred patients were included in this study. To assess the quality of life the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) was used. A structured questionnaire interview and a complete neurological examination, including the Hoehn and Yahr scale (H-Y), the Schwab and England disability scale, II, III, IV parts of the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS part II, III, IV), Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) and the Mini-Mental state examination (MMSE) were performed.

CONCLUSIONS

The most important predictive factor was MADRS score, followed by clinical fluctuations as measured by UPDRS part IVB and the H-Y stage of disease, which account for 79% of the variance of QoL scores. Therefore, recognition of depression should become an important part of treatment of PD.

Pubmed
Journal: Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews
August/15/2005
Abstract

Depression is a multifactorial and multigenetic disease. At present, three main theories try to conceptualize its molecular and biochemical mechanisms, namely the monoamine-, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal- (HPA-) system- and the neurotrophin-hypotheses. One way to explore, validate or falsify these hypotheses is to alter the expression of genes that are involved in these systems and study their respective role in animal behavior and neuroendocrinological parameters. Following an introduction in which we briefly describe each hypothesis, we review here the different mouse lines generated to study the respective molecular pathways. Among the many mutant lines generated, only a few can be regarded as genetic depression models or as models of predisposition for a depressive syndrome after stress exposure. However, this is likely to reflect the human situation where depressive syndromes are complex, can vary to a great extent with respect to their symptomatology, and may be influenced by a variety of environmental factors. Mice with mutations of candidate genes showing depression-like features on behavioral or neurochemical levels may help to define a complex molecular framework underlying depressive syndromes. Because it is conceivable that manipulation of one single genetic function may be necessary but not sufficient to cause complex behavioral alterations, strategies for improving genetic modeling of depression-like syndromes in animals possibly require a simultaneous targeted dysregulation of several genes involved in the pathogenesis of depression. This approach would correspond to the new concept of 'endophenotypes' in human depression research trying to identify behavioral traits which are thought to be encoded by a limited set of genes.

Pubmed
Journal: International journal of geriatric psychiatry
June/5/2005
Abstract

BACKGROUND

The World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II) measures functioning and disability in concordance with the bio-psycho-social model of the WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Our objectives were to investigate the independent associations of physical health, depression and cognitive function with WHODAS II disability in an older Korean population.

METHODS

The WHODAS II was administered to a community sample of 1204 residents age 65 or over. Data on demographic characteristics (age, gender, living area, marital state, and religion), socio-economic state (education, type of accommodation, number of rooms, previous occupation, current employment, monthly income), social support, number of physical illness, depression (GMS), and cognitive function (MMSE) was gathered. A subsample (n = 746) received a clinical examination for dementia.

RESULTS

Scores on the WHODAS II were significantly and independently associated with worse physical health, depression, and lower cognitive function. Associations with other factors were no longer apparent after adjustment for these. These associations persisted in the absence of dementia. In participants with dementia (n = 110), WHODAS II scores were principally associated with physical health and accommodation type.

CONCLUSIONS

Level of disability, as measured by the WHODAS II, was principally associated with physical health, depression and cognitive function, rather than socio-demographic factors.

Pubmed
Journal: Headache
October/18/2005
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the associations of headache occurrence, severity, and frequency with psychological, sleep, and lifestyle characteristics, and comorbid conditions.

BACKGROUND

Whilst associations for individual headache types, particularly migraine, have been investigated, possible associations between headache of all types and general health characteristics have not been explored.

METHODS

Cross-sectional postal survey in an adult general population sample registered at five general practices in North Staffordshire, UK.

RESULTS

Headache occurrence was associated with anxiety (odds ratio 4.09, 95% confidence interval 3.0, 5.6) and sleep problems (moderate sleep problems OR 3.60, 95% CI 2.5, 5.0), and the strength of the associations increased with higher levels of anxiety and sleep problem. Whilst depression showed an association with headache, this was not seen in respondents with depression in the absence of anxiety. Headache occurrence was also associated with comorbid pain anywhere in the body (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.7, 2.6), with the strongest associations being for the neck and upper body areas compared with other areas. There was no overall link with alcohol or caffeine consumption. Increasing severity and frequency of headache resulted in stronger associations, and there were strong associations between the occurrence, severity, and frequency of headache, and both sleep problems and psychological distress.

CONCLUSIONS

Poor sleep and anxiety appear to make a substantial contribution to the impact of headache on sufferers' lives in the general population.

Pubmed
Journal: Behavioural brain research
June/27/2007
Abstract

Major depression is a highly prevalent mental disorder and environmental factors have been strongly implicated in its pathophysiology. Clinical studies have demonstrated that stress or depression can lead to atrophy and cell loss in the hippocampus. Studies of animal models of depression have suggested that reduced neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus might contribute to such structural changes and to the behavior of these animals. On the other hand, increased hippocampal neurogenesis can be induced by the administration of antidepressants or electroconvulsive seizure, suggesting that increased neurogenesis might be related to the treatment of depression. Thus, an enriched environment (EE), which also enhances neurogenesis, is expected to have therapeutic effects on depression-related behaviors. To investigate the effects of an EE during adulthood on these behaviors, we subjected adult mice housed in an EE for five weeks to behavioral tests. In an open field test, EE mice exhibited a decrease in the distance traveled and an increase in the amount of time spent in the center. The startle response was smaller in EE mice than in control mice. EE mice also showed reduced immobility time in a forced swim test. The immobility time in EE mice was approximately half that observed in mice treated with a tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine. In our experimental condition, increased survival of newborn cells was observed in EE mice by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled immunohistochemistry. Double-staining of BrdU and a mature neuron marker, NeuN, revealed that the majority of surviving cells were neurons. Our results suggest that EE, which enhanced the survival of newborn neurons, shows beneficial effects on behavioral despair and habituation to a novel environment.

Pubmed
Journal: Brain : a journal of neurology
November/12/2007
Abstract

Non-invasive unilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex induces analgesic effects in focal chronic pain syndromes, probably by modifying central pain modulatory systems. Neuroimaging studies have shown bilateral activation of a large number of structures, including some of those involved in pain processing, suggesting that such stimulation may induce generalized analgesic effects. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of unilateral rTMS of the motor cortex on chronic widespread pain in patients with fibromyalgia. Thirty patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (age: 52.6 +/- 7.9) were randomly assigned, in a double-blind fashion, to two groups, one receiving active rTMS (n = 15) and the other sham stimulation (n = 15), applied to the left primary motor cortex in 10 daily sessions. The primary outcome measure was self-reported average pain intensity over the last 24 h, measured at baseline, daily during the stimulation period and then 15, 30 and 60 days after the first stimulation. Other outcome measures included: sensory and affective pain scores for the McGill pain Questionnaire, quality of life (assessed with the pain interference items of the Brief Pain Inventory and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire), mood and anxiety (assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). We also assessed the effects of rTMS on the pressure pain threshold at tender points ipsi- and contralateral to stimulation. Follow-up data were obtained for all the patients on days 15 and 30 and for 26 patients (13 in each treatment group) on day 60. Active rTMS significantly reduced pain and improved several aspects of quality of life (including fatigue, morning tiredness, general activity, walking and sleep) for up to 2 weeks after treatment had ended. The analgesic effects were observed from the fifth stimulation onwards and were not related to changes in mood or anxiety. The effects of rTMS were more long-lasting for affective than for sensory pain, suggesting differential effects on brain structures involved in pain perception. Only few minor and transient side effects were reported during the stimulation period. Our data indicate that unilateral rTMS of the motor cortex induces a long-lasting decrease in chronic widespread pain and may therefore constitute an effective alternative analgesic treatment for fibromyalgia.

Pubmed
Journal: European journal of pain (London, England)
March/3/2011
Abstract

Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has made important contributions to chronic pain management, but the process by which it is effective is not clear. Recently, strong arguments have been raised concerning the need for theory driven research to e.g. identify mechanisms of change in CBT and enhance the effectiveness of this type of treatment. However, the number of studies addressing these issues is still relatively scarce. Furthermore, the arrival of varieties of CBT with seemingly different process targets increases the need for such information. The present study explored the processes of change in a previously reported successful randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of an exposure-based form of behavioral and cognitive therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), on improvement in pain-related disability and life satisfaction for patients suffering from whiplash-associated disorder (WAD). Several process variables relevant to theories underlying traditional CBT were included: pain, distress, kinesiophobia, self-efficacy, and the process primarily targeted by ACT: psychological inflexibility. Mediation analyses were performed using a non-parametric cross-product of the coefficients approach. Results illustrated that pain intensity, anxiety, depression, kinesiophobia, and self-efficacy did not have significant mediating effects on the dependent variables. In contrast, significant indirect effects were seen for psychological inflexibility on pain-related disability (pre- to post-change scores) and life satisfaction (pre- to post; pre- to 4-month follow-up change scores). Although tentative, these results support the mediating role of psychological inflexibility in ACT-oriented interventions aimed at improving functioning and life satisfaction in people with chronic pain.

Pubmed
Journal: BMJ (Clinical research ed.)
September/9/1996
Pubmed
Journal: The Journal of rheumatology
February/21/2000
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine the degree of anxiety and depression and to assess well being and general symptoms in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS).

METHODS

A standardized questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, was used to examine the degree of anxiety and depression in patients with primary SS (n = 62) and in age matched healthy female controls. The Gothenburg quality of life instrument (GQOL) was used to assess well being and general symptoms. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 38) were used as patient controls.

RESULTS

The patients with primary SS had significantly higher scoring rate for "possible" clinical anxiety (48%) and for "possible" clinical depression (32%) compared with reference groups (p<0.05). The physical and mental well being of the patients with primary SS were significantly reduced compared with controls. Furthermore, patients with primary SS complained more commonly of low mood, irritability, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, and impaired concentration and memory than the patients with RA.

CONCLUSIONS

The results indicate that patients with primary SS often have psychiatric symptoms and worse well being, which may affect their quality of life.

Pubmed
Journal: Biological psychiatry
April/3/2016
Abstract

BACKGROUND

While the influence of testosterone levels on vulnerability to affective disorders is not straightforward, research suggests this hormone may confer some degree of resiliency in men. We recently demonstrated a role for the dentate gyrus in mediating testosterone's protective effects on depressive-like behavior in gonadectomized male rats. Here, testosterone may exert its effects through androgen receptor-mediated mechanisms or via local aromatization to estradiol.

METHODS

Gonadectomized male rats were implanted with a placebo, testosterone, or estradiol pellet, and subsequent protective anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of testosterone and its aromatized metabolite, estradiol, were then investigated in the open field and sucrose preference tests, respectively. Moreover, their influence on gene expression in the hippocampus was analyzed by genome-wide complementary DNA microarray analysis. Finally, the contribution of testosterone's aromatization within the dentate gyrus was assessed by local infusion of the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole, whose efficacy was confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

RESULTS

Both hormones had antidepressant-like effects associated with a substantial overlap in transcriptional regulation, particularly in synaptic plasticity- and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway-related genes. Further, chronic aromatase inhibition within the dentate gyrus blocked the protective effects of testosterone.

CONCLUSIONS

Both testosterone and estradiol exhibit anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in gonadectomized male rats, while similarly regulating critical mediators of these behaviors, suggesting common underlying mechanisms. Accordingly, we demonstrated that testosterone's protective effects are mediated, in part, by its aromatization in the dentate gyrus. These findings thus provide further insight into a role for estradiol in mediating the protective anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of testosterone.

Pubmed
Journal: British medical journal
December/8/1970
Abstract

Because of an error in the manufacture of digoxin tablets a large number of patients took tablets that contained 0.20 mg. of digitoxin and 0.05 mg. of digoxin instead of the prescribed 0.25 mg. of digoxin. The symptoms are described of 179 patients who took these tablets and suffered from digitalis intoxication. Of these patients, 125 had taken the faultily composed tablets for more than three weeks. In 48 patients 105 separate disturbances in rhythm or in atrioventricular conduction were observed on the electrocardiogram. Extreme fatigue and serious eye conditions were observed in 95% of the patients. Twelve patients had a transient psychosis. Extensive ophthalmological observations indicated that the visual complaints were most probably caused by a transient retrobulbar neuritis.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of personality
September/24/1989
Abstract

The stability and long-term correlates of both social withdrawal and sociability were investigated in a longitudinal study of normal children in kindergarten through the fifth grade. Both observational and peer assessment indices of withdrawal and sociability were considered; furthermore, a distinction was made between observed active versus passive solitude. Of particular interest was whether social withdrawal in early childhood was predictive of subsequent internalizing problems, as assessed by self-reports of social competence, overall self-worth, loneliness, and depression as well as teacher ratings of shy/anxious behavior, in later childhood. Results indicated a modest degree of stability for observed social withdrawal but not for observed sociability, nor for active or passive forms of solitude. Somewhat higher stability correlations were obtained for peer assessments of both sociability and withdrawal. In terms of predictive outcomes, significant relations were found between early social withdrawal in kindergarten and Grade 2 and subsequent internalizing problems in Grades 4 and 5, although the pattern of results was mixed. These data suggest that social withdrawal in early childhood may be predictive of risk for internalizing difficulties in later childhood.

Pubmed
Journal: Clinical child and family psychology review
April/5/2015
Abstract

The self-conscious emotions of guilt, shame, and pride typically occur when people evaluate their own self through the eyes of another person. This article will first of all discuss the nature and function of self-conscious emotions, and describe their developmental course in children and adolescents. Then, a number of variables are discussed that are thought to increase young people's proneness to experience self-conscious emotions. Following this, the empirical evidence on the relationships between guilt, shame, and pride and various types of psychopathology in children and adolescents will be summarized. A model is presented to explain why these self-conscious emotions are associated with a diversity of psychopathological outcomes. Finally, recommendations for clinical practice are made in terms of assessment and interventions targeting the origins and sequelae of self-conscious emotions.

Pubmed
Journal: Psychiatric genetics
August/27/2008
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) variations have been proposed as an explanation for interindividual differences in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) effects. Quantitative assessment of genetic influences is necessary to evaluate whether genetic testing before antidepressant prescription would lead to earlier treatment effects. This study evaluates the influence of two polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR and STin2) on SSRI treatment outcome in depression.

METHODS

We included 50 SSRI nonresponders (cases) and 164 referents meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorder-IV criteria for major depression and using an SSRI for at least 6 weeks. Blood samples or buccal swabs were gathered to determine 5-HTTLPR (N=48 for cases and 161 for referents) and STin2 (N=50 for cases and 162 for referents) genotypes. The association between genotype and SSRI response was assessed by use of logistic regression.

RESULTS

Patients with the 5-HTTLPR s-allele had a nonsignificantly increased risk of SSRI nonresponse; odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66-3.89. 5-HTTLPR effects were strongest in female patients (OR 3.54, 95% CI 1.05-11.92), and for male patients 5-HTTLPR seemed to have no effect (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.04-2.34). An age-dependent effect of 5-HTTLPR was observed; patients under 44 years of age had an increased nonresponse risk (OR 9.34, 95% CI 1.41-61.98). STin2 genotype had no clear influence on treatment outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

Our findings indicate that women with the 5-HTTLPR s-allele have a less favorable response to SSRI treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a gender-dependent influence of 5-HTTLPR is reported. More research is needed, particularly in subgroups of patients, before implementation of genetic testing can be recommended.

Pubmed
Journal: Aging & mental health
April/28/2010
Abstract

In this study, we briefly described a large urban Meals on Wheels program's adoption of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) as its depression-screening tool. Then we reported the assessment outcomes with respect to the rates, severity, and correlates of depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 736 MOW clients. Bivariate analysis, with chi(2) statistics, was performed to examine differences in the rates and severity of depressive symptoms by age group, gender, race/ethnicity, and cognitive status. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to determine the correlates of depression symptom severity. Of the sample, 17.5% had clinically significant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 > or = 10), and 8.8% had probable major depressive disorder (MDD). A significantly higher proportion of those under age 60 years was found to have clinically significant depressive symptoms and probable MDD. The multivariate regression results show that age, gender, race/ethnicity, income, cognitive impairment, number of chronic medical conditions, and the nutritional risk score were significant predictors of the severity of depression symptoms. Implications of and recommendations for incorporating a valid depression-screening tool into social service agencies' existing assessment process are discussed.

Pubmed
Journal: Medical hypotheses
August/21/2012
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Somatization is a multisomatoform disorder characterized by medically unexplained, functional or psychosomatic symptoms. Similar somatic symptoms are key components of depression and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS).

METHODS

This paper reviews the evidence that such symptoms are organically based. We use the term "physio-somatic" to describe these symptoms.

RESULTS

Inflammation, cell-mediated immune (CMI) activation and alterations in the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway are associated with the physio-somatic symptoms of depression, ME/CFS and/or somatization. Proinflammatory cytokines, decreased tryptophan and aberrations in TRYCATs may cause physio-somatic symptoms, such as fatigue, autonomic symptoms, hyperalgesia and somatic presentations.

CONCLUSIONS

The data suggest co-ordinated and interacting biological pathways driving the occurrence of physio-somatic symptoms across these three disorders, giving a biologically validated "pathway phenotype". These data have far-reaching implications for DSM-IV diagnostic conceptualizations of somatization (and ME/CFS) suggesting the presence of an emerging organic explanation. Future research should focus on the role of immune regulation, and co-ordination, of neuronal activity and, through larger data sets, ultimately creating new, biologically validated classification rules. These data have implications for the development of novel therapies utilizing these insights, buttressing the role of psychotherapy in psychosomatic presentations.

Pubmed
Journal: European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience
September/16/2003
Abstract

Lithium has been used to augment the efficacy of antidepressant medications for more than 20 years. The present study examines whether evidence exists to support the clinical efficacy of lithium augmentation in refractory, treatment resistant depression. Studies were identified by searching Medline (1980 to August 2002) and by scanning the references of published reviews and standard textbooks. Studies were selected if they were open-labeled or double-blind, placebo-controlled or comparator trials that involved patients who had not responded to conventional antidepressants. 27 prospective studies were identified that included a total of 803 depressed patients displaying the following designs: 10 double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, 2 randomized, double-blind comparator trials, 2 randomized, open comparator trials, and 13 open-label trials. The majority of randomized controlled trials has demonstrated substantial efficacy of lithium augmentation in partial and non responders to antidepressant treatment. In the placebo-controlled trials, the response rate in the lithium group was 45% and in the placebo group 18% (p<0.001). Summarizing all open and controlled studies, approximately 50% of patients responded to lithium augmentation within 4 weeks. In conclusion, lithium is the foremost and most well-documented augmentation strategy in refractory depression.Therefore, it should be considered a first-line treatment strategy in patients with major depression who do not adequately respond to standard antidepressants.

Pubmed
Journal: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences
August/15/2005
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Depressive symptoms are common in seniors and may predict dementia. The objective of this study was to evaluate multiple measures of depressive symptoms to determine whether they predict subsequent Alzheimer's disease (AD) or dementia.

METHODS

This population-based cohort study with 5-year follow-up included 766 community-dwelling seniors (ages 65+ years) in Manitoba, Canada. Measurements considered were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, participant-reported medical history, and duration of depression.

RESULTS

Total CES-D score was a significant predictor of AD and dementia when categorized as a dichotomous variable according to the cutoff scores of 16 and 17; a CES-D cutoff of 21 was a significant predictor of AD and a marginally significant predictor of dementia. When analyzed as a continuous variable, CES-D score was marginally predictive of AD and dementia. Neither participant-reported history of depression nor participant-reported duration of depression was significant in predicting AD or dementia.

CONCLUSIONS

Because depressive symptoms as measured by the CES-D predict the development of AD and dementia over 5 years, clinicians should monitor their older patients with these symptoms for signs of cognitive impairment.

Pubmed
Journal: Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry
April/23/2007
Abstract

Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae), among other uses, is popularly employed for the treatment of depression. In this study, the antidepressant-like effect of the hexanic extract from leaves of S. molle was investigated in the mouse tail suspension test (TST), a predictive model of depression. The immobility time in the TST was significantly reduced by the extract (dose range 30-600 mg/kg, p.o.), without accompanying changes in ambulation when assessed in an open-field test. The efficacy of extract was found to be comparable to that of fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, p.o.). The anti-immobility effect of the extract (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was prevented by pretreatment of mice with p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA, 100 mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, for four consecutive days), NAN-190 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist), WAY100635 (0.1 mg/kg, s.c., a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist), ketanserin (5 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonist), MDL72222 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist), prazosin (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist), SCH23390 (0.05 mg/kg, s.c., a D(1) receptor antagonist) or sulpiride (50 mg/kg, i.p., a D(2) receptor antagonist). It may be concluded that the hexanic extract of S. molle produces an antidepressant-like effect that seems to be dependent on its interaction with the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems. These results provide evidence that the extract from S. molle shares with established antidepressants some pharmacological effects, at least at a preclinical level.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of traumatic stress
March/12/2007
Abstract

The negative consequences of intimate partner violence are well documented. This study investigated the possibility that some survivors of intimate partner violence may also experience posttraumatic growth because of their struggle with this highly stressful circumstance. In addition, the relationships between posttraumatic growth and relationship status, type of abuse, depression, and availability of models of posttraumatic growth were examined. Most women reported posttraumatic growth. Overall abuse experienced and depression were unrelated to posttraumatic growth, but abuse was related to one domain of growth. Contact with a model of posttraumatic growth and having left an abusive relationship were both positively related to posttraumatic growth.

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