Depression
Best match
All
Search in:AllTitleAbstractAuthor name
Publications
(118K+)
Publication
Journal: Neuroscience
November/1/2019
Abstract
Mid-adulthood represents the critical window period usually associated with the development of age-related diseases. Despite several attempts to delineate the pathological mechanisms underlying postnatal immune challenge and altered brain functions, the role of sex-dependent changes in affective behaviors of middle-aged animals requires more attention. In this study, we sought to investigate behavioral and molecular response patterns at mid-adulthood linked to early-life immune activation. Using affective behavioral test batteries, we showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced postnatal immune challenge caused anxiety-like behaviors in both male and female Wistar rats at mid-adulthood, whereas only female rats exhibited depression-like behaviors. Our data further demonstrated a significant increase in microglial complexity and increased levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), nitric oxide (NOx), and lipid peroxidation in the prefrontal cortex of female rats compared to their male counterparts and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) littermate controls. With these results, we established significant interaction between sex differences and LPS-induced alterations in behavior and associated oxidative and immunohistochemical changes. These findings may provide an insight to better understand the neuroimmunological mechanisms of sex-dependent brain pathological manifestations occurring at mid-adulthood.
Publication
Journal: Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology
October/31/2019
Abstract
Coronary microvessel endothelial dysfunction and nitric oxide (NO) depletion contribute to elevated passive tension of cardiomyocytes, diastolic dysfunction and predispose the heart to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. We examined if diastolic dysfunction at the level of the cardiomyocytes precedes coronary endothelial dysfunction in prediabetes. Further, we determined if myofilaments other than titin contribute to impairment. Utilizing synchrotron microangiography we found young prediabetic male rats showed preserved dilator responses to acetylcholine in microvessels. Utilizing synchrotron X-ray diffraction we show that cardiac relaxation and cross-bridge dynamics are impaired by myosin head displacement from actin filaments particularly in the inner myocardium. We reveal that increased PKC activity and mitochondrial oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes contributes to rho-kinase mediated impairment of myosin head extension to actin filaments, depression of soluble guanylyl cyclase /PKG activity and consequently stiffening of titin in prediabetes ahead of coronary endothelial dysfunction.
Publication
Journal: Journal of medical economics
October/31/2019
Abstract
Aims: The current study examined the association between insufficient major depressive disorder (MDD) care and healthcare resource use (HCRU) and costs among patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke.Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted using MarketScan Claims Database (2010-2015). The date of the first MI/stroke diagnosis was defined as the cardiovascular disease (CVD) index date and the first date of a subsequent MDD diagnosis was the index MDD date. Adequacy of MDD care was assessed during the 90-days (i.e., profiling period) following the index MDD date using 2 measures: dosage adequacy (average fluoxetine equivalent dose of ≥20 mg/day for nonelderly and ≥10 mg/day for elderly patients) and duration adequacy (measured as the proportion of days covered of 80% or higher for all MDD drugs). Study outcomes included all-cause and CVD-related HCRU and costs which were determined from the end of the profiling period until the end of study follow-up. Propensity-score adjusted generalized linear models (GLMs) were used to compare patients receiving adequate versus inadequate MDD care in terms of study outcomes.Results: Of 1,568 CVD patients who were treated for MDD, 937 (59.8%) were categorized as receiving inadequate MDD care. Results from the GLMs suggested that patients receiving inadequate MDD care had 14% more all-cause hospitalizations, 4% more all-cause outpatient visits, 17% more CVD-related outpatient visits, 13% more CVD-related emergency room (ER) visits, higher per-patient per-year CVD-related hospitalization costs ($21,485 vs $17,756), higher all-cause outpatient costs ($2,820 vs $2,055), and higher CVD-related ($520 vs $434) outpatient costs compared to patients receiving adequate MDD care.Limitations: Clinical information such as depression severity, and frailty which are potential predictors of adverse CVD outcomes could not be ascertained using administrative claims data.Conclusions: Among post-MI and post-stroke patients, inadequate MDD care was associated with a significantly higher economic burden.
Publication
Journal: Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology
October/31/2019
Abstract
The number of patients with mental illnesses, including depression, is rapidly increasing, and daily lifestyle is closely associated with the development of symptoms. Consequently, corrective measures, such as diet-based treatment for diseases, are receiving great attention. We previously showed that β-lactolin, a β-lactopeptide of glycine-threonine-tryptophan-tyrosine peptide, inhibits monoamine oxidase and improves memory impairment in mice, but the effects on depression have not been investigated. Here we showed that β-lactolin improved depression-like behavior via dopamine-D1-like receptor. Orally administered β-lactolin reduced immobility time in tail suspension test (TST). Pretreatment with SCH23390, dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist, attenuated the reduction in TST by β-lactolin. These effects were observed by the treatment with whey digest rich in β-lactolin. In addition, β-lactolin increased the levels of dopamine in the frontal cortex associated with the depression-like behavior. The present study suggests that supplements or nutraceutical compounds in whey digests (such as β-lactolin) show antidepressant-like effect.
Publication
Journal: Lancet (London, England)
October/31/2019
Abstract
We did a global review to synthesise data on the prevalence, harms, and interventions for stimulant use, focusing specifically on the use of cocaine and amphetamines. Modelling estimated the effect of cocaine and amphetamine use on mortality, suicidality, and blood borne virus incidence. The estimated global prevalence of cocaine use was 0·4% and amphetamine use was 0·7%, with dependence affecting 16% of people who used cocaine and 11% of those who used amphetamine. Stimulant use was associated with elevated mortality, increased incidence of HIV and hepatitis C infection, poor mental health (suicidality, psychosis, depression, and violence), and increased risk of cardiovascular events. No effective pharmacotherapies are available that reduce stimulant use, and the available psychosocial interventions (except for contingency management) had a weak overall effect. Generic approaches can address mental health and blood borne virus infection risk if better tailored to mitigate the harms associated with stimulant use. Substantial and sustained investment is needed to develop more effective interventions to reduce stimulant use.
Publication
Journal: International health
October/31/2019
Abstract
Migrant workers worldwide commonly are susceptible to mental disorders. Since the 1980s, there has been a large-scale increase in the number of migrant workers in China; this development parallels the acceleration of socio-economic transformation. Studies addressing this population rarely focus on workers' mental health or psychological well-being, yet it is imperative to understand the mental health status of rural-to-urban migrant workers and study the relationship between migration and mental health.A cross-sectional survey of 3286 participants (response rate 85.4%) was conducted among different work units in Shanghai. All of the variables of this survey were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire, with depression measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale and poor mental health (PMH) measured by the World Health Organization 5-Item Well-Being Index (WHO-5) scale. Pearson's χ2 test and logistic regression were used to compare migrants with urbanites, and to identify factors related to mental health outcomes.Migrant workers (15.3%) had a slightly higher prevalence of depression than non-migrant (12.0%) workers, with notable PMH (26.9%) among participants >45 y of age. In the logistic regression models, those who reported low job satisfaction, unhealthy organizations, poor physical health (self-rated) and long working hours were 2.86 (95% CI 2.14 to 3.84), 1.42 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.91), 1.89 (95% CI 1.41 to 2.55) and 1.48 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.03) times more likely to have depression, respectively. Similarly, workers >45 y of age were 2.92 (95% CI 1.65 to 5.16) and 1.80 (95% CI 1.01 to 3.21) times more likely to have PMH for low job satisfaction and unhealthy organizations, respectively.There are numerous potential causes affecting the mental health of Chinese internal migrant workers. Strengthening the construction of healthy organizations and enhancing workers' job satisfaction may improve the mental health status or psychological well-being of this group.
Publication
Journal: BMC psychiatry
October/31/2019
Abstract
Increasing attention has been paid to differences in the prevalence of perinatal depression by HIV status, although inconsistent results have been reported. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the relationship between perinatal depression and HIV infection. A comprehensive meta-analysis of comparative studies comparing the prevalence of antenatal or postnatal depression between HIV-infected women and HIV-negative controls was conducted.Studies were identified through PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase and PsycINFO, and the reading of complementary references in August 2019. Subgroup analyses were performed for anticipated explanation of heterogeneity using methodological quality and pre-defined study characteristics, including study design, geographical location and depression screening tools for depression. The overall odds ratio (OR) and mean prevalence of each group were calculated.Twenty-three studies (from 21 publications), thirteen regarding antenatal depression and ten regarding postnatal depression were included, comprising 3165 subjects with HIV infection and 6518 controls. The mean prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms in thirteen included studies was 36% (95% CI: 27, 45%) in the HIV-positive group and 26% (95% CI: 20, 32%) in the control group. The mean prevalence of postnatal depressive symptoms in ten included studies was 21% (95% CI: 14, 27%) in the HIV-positive group and 16% (95% CI: 10, 22%) in the control group. Women living with HIV have higher odds of antenatal (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.80) and postnatal depressive symptoms (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.32) compared with controls. Publication bias and moderate heterogeneity existed in the overall meta-analysis, and heterogeneity was partly explained by the subgroup analyses.Women with HIV infection exhibit a significantly higher OR of antenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms compared with controls. For the health of both mother and child, clinicians should be aware of the significance of depression screening before and after delivery in this particular population and take effective measures to address depression among these women.
Publication
Journal: PloS one
October/31/2019
Abstract
Mental health disorders in pregnant women living with HIV are associated with poor maternal and child outcomes, and undermine the global goals of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). This study aimed to determine prevalence of depression and anxiety and identify factors associated with these common mental health disorders among HIV-infeced pregnant women in Tanzania.We enrolled 200 pregnant women living with HIV from antenatal care clinics in the Kilimanjaro region. Women were eligible if they were in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and had been in PMTCT care for a minimum of one month. Data were collected via interviewer administered surveys. Participants self reported depression symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, EPDS) and anxiety symptoms (Brief Symptom Index, BSI). Multivariate logistic regression models examined factors associated with depression, anxiety, and comorbid depression and anxiety.25.0% of women met screening criteria for depression (EPDS ≥10). Depression was significantly associated with being single (aOR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.1-15.5), food insecurity (aOR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.0-6.4), and HIV shame (aOR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.1-1.3). 23.5% of participants met screening criteria for anxiety (BSI ≥1.01). Anxiety was associated with being single (aOR = 3.6, 95%CI = 1.1-11.1), HIV shame (aOR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.1-1.2) and lifetime experience of violence (aOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.0-5.1). 17.8% of the sample met screening criteria for both depression and anxiety. Comorbid depression and anxiety was associated with being single (aOR = 4.5, 95%CI = 1.0-19.1), HIV shame (aOR = 1.2, 95%CI = 1.1-1.3) and lifetime experience of violence (aOR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.2-9.6).Depression and anxiety symptomatology was common in this sample of pregnant women living with HIV, with a sizable number screening positive for comorbid depression and anxiety. In order to successfully engage women in PMTCT care and support their well-being, strategies to screen for mental health disorders and support women with mental illnesses are needed.
Publication
Journal: Developmental psychobiology
October/31/2019
Abstract
Employing a longitudinal design, relationships between maternal distress (i.e., perceived stress, negative affect, depressive symptomology), and infant secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) across the peripartum period were examined in 51 mother-infant dyads. Indices of maternal distress were assessed at four time periods: third trimester of pregnancy and 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum. Infant saliva samples were collected at each of the three time points in the postpartum period to assess sIgA levels. No relationships were found between prenatal maternal distress and infant sIgA. Results indicated that during the postnatal period, higher concurrent maternal distress was associated with reduced infant sIgA. Maternal distress did not prospectively predict infant sIgA. These findings advance our understanding of the social-context of infant development, highlighting the significance of maternal regulation of infant immunity.
Publication
Journal: Sleep medicine
October/31/2019
Abstract
Patient heterogeneity is problematic for the accurate assessment and effective treatment of Hypersomnolence Disorder. Clustering analysis is a preferred approach for establishing homogenous subclassifications. Thus, this investigation aimed to identify more homogeneous subclassifications of Hypersomnolence Disorder through clustering analysis.Patients undergoing polysomnography (PSG) and multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) assessment for hypersomnolence were recruited as part of a larger investigation. A sample of patients with Hypersomnolence Disorder was determined based on a post hoc chart review protocol. After removing persons with missing data, 62 participants were included in the analyses. Self-report total sleep time, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score, and Sleep Inertia Questionnaire (SIQ) score were chosen as clustering variables to mirror Hypersomnolence Disorder diagnostic traits. A statistically-driven clustering process produced two clusters using Ward's D hierarchical approach. Clusters were compared across characteristics, self-report measures, PSG/MSLT results, and additional objective measures.The resulting clusters differed across a variety of hypersomnolence-related subjective metrics and objective measurements. A more severe hypersomnolence phenotype was identified in a cluster that also had elevated depressive symptoms. This cluster endorsed significantly greater daytime sleepiness, sleep inertia, and functional impairment, while displaying longer sleep duration and worse vigilance.These results provide growing support for a nosological reformulation of hypersomnolence associated with psychiatric disorders. Future research is necessary to solidify the conceptualization and characterization of unexplained hypersomnolence presenting with-and-without psychiatric illness.
Publication
Journal: Health & social care in the community
October/31/2019
Abstract
Youth experiencing homelessness are a vulnerable population with increased behavioural health risks. Social networks are a consistent correlate of youths' substance use behaviours. However, less is known about the reciprocal relationships among these constructs. This study classified youth experiencing homelessness according to their social support network type (e.g. instrumental, emotional, service) and composition (e.g. family, peers, service staff) and linked their membership in these social network classes to sociodemographic and substance use characteristics. Four waves of cross-sectional data were collected between October 2011 and June 2013 from youth experiencing homelessness, ages 14-29, at three drop-in centres in Los Angeles, CA (N = 1,046). This study employed latent class analysis to identify subgroups of youth experiencing homelessness according to the type and composition of their social support networks. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were then conducted to identify the sociodemographic and substance use characteristics associated with social support network class membership. Five latent classes of youths' social support networks were identified: (a) high staff emotional and service support; (b) high home-based peer and family emotional, service and instrumental support; (c) moderate street- and home-based peer emotional support; (d) low or no support and (e) high home-based peer and family emotional and instrumental support. Multinomial logistic regression models indicated that race/ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, literal homelessness, former foster care experience, depression, heroin and marijuana use were significant correlates of social support network class membership. Results indicate distinct classes of social support networks among youth experiencing homelessness, with certain sociodemographic and substance use characteristics implicated in youths' social networks.
Publication
Journal: Journal of geriatric oncology
October/31/2019
Abstract
This study aims to assess factors associated with depressive symptoms in older women with gynecologic cancers and to examine the association of depression with health-related quality of life (HRQOL).Women aged 65 and older previously diagnosed with cervical, ovarian, or uterine cancer (n=1977) were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results - Medicare Health Outcomes Survey database and compared to propensity-matched cancer-free controls (n=9885). Women with and without depressive symptoms were compared by cancer status. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms, and linear regression was used to determine the association of depressive symptoms with HRQOL measures.The prevalence of depressive symptoms was higher among older women with gynecologic cancer (31.9%, 32.2%, and 25.3% for cervical, ovarian, and uterine cancer, respectively) than cancer-free older women (24.9%) (p=0.05). Adjusting for demographic and clinical factors, older women with ovarian cancer were significantly more likely to have depressive symptoms than controls (Prevalence Odds Ratio = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.31, 2.32, p < 0.01). Among older women with gynecologic cancer, comorbid conditions and functional limitations were strongly associated with depressive symptoms. Women with depressive symptoms showed significant decrements in both physical and mental measures of HRQOL.This study gives insight into correlates of depressive symptoms that may be used to better identify women with gynecologic cancers who are at risk of depression. The relatively high prevalence of depressive symptoms and significant deficits in HRQOL underscore the need for effective screening and treatment of depression in older women with gynecologic cancers.
Publication
Journal: International health
October/31/2019
Abstract
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2018 to investigate the mental health status of internal migrant workers (IMWs) in Shanghai to understand basic information and the mental health status of IMWs.The total number of IMWs in the study was 4793 and 4648 questionnaires were valid. We used χ2 test, t test, analysis of variance, linear regression and logistic regression to analyse the data.Mental health, represented by the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire score (≥10), was significantly correlated with self-rated income-expenditure status, living with family, job type and alcohol use. The total depression prevalence of IMWs in this study was 20.1%. Subjective well-being (SWB) was significantly correlated with marital status, educational attainment, self-reported income-expenditure status, living with family and job type. Those who were female, had a high school education or above, self-reported inadequate income, did not live with family, had poor self-rated health and had moderate or severe depression were more likely to have lower SWB. Promoting the mental health of IMWs also benefited their physical health.Chinese migrant workers who were younger, had insufficient self-rated income, had worse self-reported health, used alcohol and were unmarried had a high risk of mental health disorders.
Publication
Journal: BMJ open
October/30/2019
Abstract
Lifestyle and working conditions of truck drivers predisposes them to risk-factors associated with communicable and non-communicable diseases, but little is known about the health status of African truck driver. This study aims to assess a cross-section of truckers in South Africa to describe their health information.The study took place across three truck-stop rest areas in the South African provinces of Free State and Gauteng.Eligibility criteria included being males aged 18 years and older, full-time employment as a long-distance truck driver. A total of 614 male truck drivers participated; 384 (63%) were Zimbabwean and 325 (55%) completed high-school.The trucker survey explored demographics; working conditions; sexual, eating and sleeping behaviours; mental health status, medical history and cardiac risk-factors. Medical assessments included physical measurements, glucose and lipid measurements, ECG, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and cardiac ultrasound.In the previous month, 554 (91%) participants were sexually active; 522 (86%) had sex with a regular partner; 174 (27%) with a casual partner; 87 (14%) with a sex worker. Average time driving was 10 hours/day, 20 days/month, 302 (50%) never worked night shifts and 74 (12%) worked nights approximately four times per week. 112 (18%) experienced daytime sleepiness and 59 (10%) were ever hospitalised from an accident. Forty-seven (8%, 95% CI 5.3 to 9.5) were HIV-positive, with half taking antiretrovirals. Forty-eight (8%) truckers had some moderate depression, while 21 (4%) suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder. Reported tuberculosis, myocardial infarction, and diabetes were <3%. Prominent cardiac risk-factors included smoking (n=63, 11%), consuming alcohol (>15 drinks/week) (n=54, 9%), overweight/obesity (n=417, 69%), and hypertension (n=220, 36%,95% CI 32.1 to 39.7). ECG results showed 23 (4.9%) and 29 (5.3%) drivers had left ventricular hypertrophy using the Cornell criterion and product, respectively. CIMT measurements indicated nine (4.2%) drivers had a carotid atherosclerotic plaque.This first holistic assessment of health among southern African male truck drivers demonstrates substantial addressable cardiovascular risk factors, mental health issues and sexual risk behaviours.
Publication
Journal: BMJ open
October/30/2019
Abstract
Depression is highly prevalent and the leading contributor to the burden of disease in young people worldwide, making it an ongoing priority for early intervention. As the current evidence-based interventions of medication and psychological therapy are only modestly effective, there is an urgent need for additional treatment strategies. This paper describes the rationale of the Improving Mood with Physical ACTivity (IMPACT) trial. The primary aim of the IMPACT trial is to determine the effectiveness of a physical activity intervention compared with psychoeducation, in addition to routine clinical care, on depressive symptoms in young people. Additional aims are to evaluate the intervention effects on anxiety and functional outcomes and examine whether changes in physical activity mediate improvements in depressive symptoms.The study is being conducted in six youth mental health services across Australia and is using a parallel-group, two-arm, cluster randomised controlled trial design, with randomisation occurring at the clinician level. Participants aged between 12 years and 25 years with moderate to severe levels of depression are randomised to receive, in addition to routine clinical care, either: (1) a physical activity behaviour change intervention or (2) psychoeducation about physical activity. The primary outcome will be change in the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, with assessments occurring at baseline, postintervention (end-point) and 6-month follow-up from end-point. Secondary outcome measures will address additional clinical outcomes, functioning and quality of life. IMPACT is to be conducted between May 2014 and December 2019.Ethical approval was obtained from the University of Melbourne Human Research Ethics Committee on 8 June 2014 (HREC 1442228). Trial findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at conferences. Key messages will also be disseminated by the youth mental health services organisation (headspace National Youth Mental Health Foundation).ACTRN12614000772640.
Publication
Journal: American journal of health behavior
October/30/2019
Abstract
Objectives: In this study, we investigated the association between cumulative health risk behaviors (HRBs) and adolescent suicidal behaviors and the moderating effect of future orientation. Methods: We used data were from 4255 adolescents in grades 9th-12th participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Wave I-II). We computed a cumulative HRB index by using 14 HRB indicators covering diet, physical activity, sleep, social media use, safety behaviors, and substance use. We used multilevel mixed-effect logistic regressions to analyze associations among cumulative HRBs, future orientation, and suicidal behaviors, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, depression, and complex survey design. We included 3-way interaction terms to explore moderation effect. Results: Cumulative HRBs significantly increased the odds of suicidal ideation (AOR = 1.27, 95% CI = [1.17, 1.37], p <. 001) and suicide attempts (AOR=1.26, 95% CI = [1.09, 1.46], p <. 01) across time. Future orientation moderated the associations between cumulative HRBs and suicide attempts differently across race/ethnicity. Engaging more than 4 cumulative HRBs, black adolescents with low future orientation had significantly higher risks of suicide attempts than those with high future orientation. Conclusions: Findings underline cumulative HRBs as significant risk factors for adolescent suicidal behaviors longitudinally. Suicide interventions targeting HRBs could benefit from nurturing future orientation.
Publication
Journal: BMC geriatrics
October/30/2019
Abstract
Fall-related efficacy has been found to be associated with both falls and fall risk factors such as physical performance. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether fall-related efficacy is, independent of physical performance and other potential risk factors, associated with future falls in community-dwelling older people.The study participants were 237 Japanese older people aged 65 years and over who were living independently in their community. Fall-related efficacy and physical performance were assessed at baseline using the short version of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (short FES-I) and 5-m walking time, the Timed Up and Go Test, the 5 Times Sit to Stand Test, and grip strength. Physical performance was then again assessed at 1-year follow-up. The number of falls was obtained every 6 months for 1 year after the baseline survey. Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), depression, fall history, current medications, medical history, and pain were also investigated as potential confounding factors that have possible associations with falls. The associations between the short FES-I, physical performance, and number of falls were analyzed using Poisson regression analysis adjusted for physical performance and potential confounding factors.The mean age of the participants (75.9% women) was 71.1 ± 4.6 years, and 92.8% could perform IADL independently. The total numbers of falls and fallers during the 1-year follow-up period were 70 and 42, respectively. On Poisson regression analysis adjusted for walking time and potential confounding factors, independent of physical performance, the short FES-I was found to be significantly associated with number of falls (relative risk = 1.09, p < 0.05). On the other hand, physical performance was not significantly associated with the number of falls.The findings of the present study suggest that the short FES-I, independent of physical performance and other potential risk factors, is a useful index to detect fall risk in community-dwelling older people, and that fall-related efficacy is an important factor in terms of fall prevention.
Publication
Journal: PLoS computational biology
October/30/2019
Abstract
Long-term potentiation and depression of synaptic activity in response to stimuli is a key factor in reinforcement learning. Strengthening of the corticostriatal synapses depends on the second messenger cAMP, whose synthesis is catalysed by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase 5 (AC5), which is itself regulated by the stimulatory Gαolf and inhibitory Gαi proteins. AC isoforms have been suggested to act as coincidence detectors, promoting cellular responses only when convergent regulatory signals occur close in time. However, the mechanism for this is currently unclear, and seems to lie in their diverse regulation patterns. Despite attempts to isolate the ternary complex, it is not known if Gαolf and Gαi can bind to AC5 simultaneously, nor what activity the complex would have. Using protein structure-based molecular dynamics simulations, we show that this complex is stable and inactive. These simulations, along with Brownian dynamics simulations to estimate protein association rates constants, constrain a kinetic model that shows that the presence of this ternary inactive complex is crucial for AC5's ability to detect coincident signals, producing a synergistic increase in cAMP. These results reveal some of the prerequisites for corticostriatal synaptic plasticity, and explain recent experimental data on cAMP concentrations following receptor activation. Moreover, they provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms that control signal processing by different AC isoforms.
Publication
Journal: Der Internist
October/30/2019
Abstract
Comorbid depression is frequent in internal medicine (e.g. in coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure or diabetes mellitus) and impairs quality of life as well as the prognosis of the somatic illness.To review evidence based recommendations for the treatment of depressive comorbidity in selected somatic disorders.Selective literature search based on national and international guidelines.In clinical routine, depressive symptoms are often overseen or misinterpreted. Therefore, a specific diagnostic is recommended. Depressive symptoms should obligatory be screened during the clinical interview or by validated questionnaires. When screened positive, further diagnostic steps are mandatory. The treatment of depressive disorders has three main components: basic psychosomatic care, psychotherapy and antidepressant medication. These interventions are safe and effective for reducing depressive symptoms and enhancing quality of life. However, results regarding the effects on morbidity and mortality of the comorbid somatic disorder are still inconclusive. The greatest effects on depression are obtained by a preference-based, stepped-care approach and an optimal cooperation of all professionals ("collaborative care").An effective treatment of depressive comorbidity is relevant for quality of life and possibly also for the prognosis of a somatic disease. Integrating a routine screening for depressive symptoms is the first step toward an effective, evidence-based therapy.
Publication
Journal: Violence against women
October/30/2019
Abstract
This study examined substance use disorder (SUD) and mental health (MH) among survivors of intimate partner violence, with data collected from 102 participants. Both survivors and service providers emphasized SUD and MH as top priorities and reported a high prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem coupled with increasing rates of heroin, methamphetamine, and pharmaceutical abuse. Emergent themes included (a) trauma impacts functioning, (b) substances as coping strategy, (c) weighing safety against need, (d) lacking SUD and MH services, and (e) need for comprehensive and culturally specific resources. Scarcity of funding demands cross-sector collaboration to support survivors.
Publication
Journal: Psychology, health & medicine
October/30/2019
Abstract
Objective: To measure personal, medical and psychological positive and negative variables and to determine their relation with somatization in a sample of health sciences students. Subjects and methods: A total of 594 (34.43%) of the 1725 health science students of a public university answered an online survey with personal and medical information as well as the following psychological variables: phsychological well-being, five facets mindfulness questionnaire (FFMQ), life satisfaction, depression, and academic stress. Additionally, the presence of 11 somatic symptoms and 11 diseases during the last year was measured. Results: Most students were women (74.06%) who were 19.96 ± 4.28 years old. The global frequency of somatization in the previous year was 66.59%, and the presence of any measured disease 14.75%. With the multivariate analysis, self-acceptance was the most related variable (negatively) with somatization, followed by the sum of diseases, female gender, academic stress, smoking, and depression, in a model with an R-value of 0.634, self-acceptance was also the most related variable (negatively) with depression, being this last the most related variable with academic stress. Conclusions: After analyzing all variables considered in this study, self-acceptance was the most related variable with somatization and depression; this highlights the importance of strengthening the acceptance of the self in the student population in order to prevent these conditions and their consequences.
Publication
Journal: Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.)
October/30/2019
Abstract
This randomized clinical trial investigated the effects of adding cervico-mandibular manual therapies into an exercise and educational program on clinical outcomes in individuals with tinnitus associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs).Sixty-one patients with tinnitus attributed to TMD were randomized into the physiotherapy and manual therapy group or physiotherapy alone group. All patients received six sessions of physiotherapy treatment including cranio-cervical and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) exercises, self-massage, and patient education for a period of one month. Patients allocated to the manual therapy group also received cervico-mandibular manual therapies targeting the TMJ and cervical and masticatory muscles. Primary outcomes included TMD pain intensity and tinnitus severity. Secondary outcomes included tinnitus-related handicap (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory [THI]), TMD-related disability (Craniofacial Pain and Disability Inventory [CF-PDI]), self-rated quality of life (12-item Short Form Health Survey [SF-12]), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI-II]), pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), and mandibular range of motion. Patients were assessed at baseline, one week, three months, and six months after intervention by a blinded assessor.The adjusted analyses showed better outcomes (all, P < 0.001) in the exercise/education plus manual therapy group (large effect sizes) for TMD pain (η 2 P = 0.153), tinnitus severity (η 2 P = 0.233), THI (η 2 P = 0.501), CF-PDI (η 2 P = 0.395), BDI-II (η 2 P = 0.194), PPTs (0.363 < η 2 P < 0.415), and range of motion (η 2 P = 0.350), but similar changes for the SF-12 (P = 0.622, η 2 P = 0.01) as the exercise/education alone group.This clinical trial found that application of cervico-mandibular manual therapies in combination with exercise and education resulted in better outcomes than application of exercise/education alone in individuals with tinnitus attributed to TMD.
Publication
Journal: International journal of psychiatry in clinical practice
October/30/2019
Abstract
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to explore whether eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective therapy and to investigate whether EMDR affects anxiety levels for children and adolescents.Methods: We conducted this study with 30 clients. The clients completed self-administered questionnaires Child Post-Traumatic Stress Reaction Index Scale and The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The questionnaires were conducted before the therapy and 6 weeks after the completion of the therapy.Results: Nineteen clients (63%) had only one traumatic event, but 11 clients (37%) had more than one traumatic event. While the mean score on the PTSD symptom scale was 60 (±8.7), this rate decreased to 24 (±10.1), whereas the mean STAI-T scale was 59 (±8.9) before treatment and 41 (±11.5) after treatment. We found a statistically significant difference between symptom scores as quantified by both questionnaires before and after EMDR therapy (p < .05).Conclusions: As a result, we have shown that EMDR is an effective method for children and adolescents with PTSD in terms of both post-traumatic and anxiety symptom levels; however, we recommend a larger sample size with a control group to further establish the effectiveness of EMDR therapy in children.KEY POINTSPTSD is a common disorder in children and adolescents.Additional psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression are common in children and adolescents with PTSD.In PTSD cases applying for psychiatric treatment, trauma associated with sexual abuse is more pronounced and complex.EMDR is an effective therapy in children and adolescents as well as in adults.There is a statistically significant decrease at anxiety and PTSD symptom scores as quantified by questionnaires in patients with PTSD after EMDR therapy.
Publication
Journal: Neurourology and urodynamics
October/30/2019
Abstract
Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMD) is a congenital syndrome caused by a deletion on chromosome 22q13.3. About 600 cases have been identified worldwide. PMD is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, moderate/severe intellectual impairment, impaired expressive language, and typical dysmorphic features. Psychological symptoms as hyperactivity, attention problems, restlessness, and stereotyped-repetitive behavior were reported. The aim of the study was to assess incontinence and associated psychological problems in PMD.Forty-one individuals with PMD were recruited through a German support group (48.8% male; mean age 13.4 years; range, 4-55 years). Parents or caregivers completed the developmental behavior checklist (DBC), as well as the parental questionnaire: enuresis/urinary incontinence, including six questions on adaptive toileting skills.Rates of nocturnal enuresis (NE), daytime urinary incontinence, and fecal incontinence were 86%, 73%, and 79%. Rates were similar in all age groups (children, teens, adults). Constipation was present in 19%. Forty-two percent of the sample had a clinically relevant DBC score, with adults more affected than teens. Persons with NE had significantly higher "anxiety/depression" subscale scores. Toileting skills were more developed in adults than in children. Sixty-eight percent had further physical disabilities.Incontinence rates in PMD are high in all age groups. However, persons with PMD can improve their toilet skills. Therefore, the assessment and treatment of incontinence in persons with PMD is recommended. Constipation does not seem to be a major problem in PMD. Due to the high prevalence rates of somatic conditions, an assessment for organic and functional incontinence is recommended.
load more...