Depression
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Pubmed
Journal: Drug discovery today
January/18/2017
Abstract

Major depression is a chronic and debilitating illness that effects approximately 1 in 5 people, but currently available treatments are limited by low rates of efficacy, therapeutic time lag, and undesirable side effects. Recent efforts have been directed towards investigating rapid-acting agents that reverse the behavioral and neuronal deficits of chronic stress and depression, notably the glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. The cellular mechanisms underlying the rapid antidepressant actions of ketamine and related agents are discussed, as well as novel, selective glutamatergic receptor targets that are safer and have fewer side effects.

Pubmed
Journal: JAMA
December/27/2001
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Persons with lower-extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are often asymptomatic or have leg symptoms other than intermittent claudication (IC).

OBJECTIVE

To identify clinical characteristics and functional limitations associated with a broad range of leg symptoms identified among patients with PAD.

METHODS

Cross-sectional study of 460 men and women with PAD and 130 without PAD, who were identified consecutively, conducted between October 1998 and January 2000 at 3 Chicago-area medical centers.

METHODS

Ankle-brachial index score of less than 0.90; scores from 6-minute walk, accelerometer-measured physical activity over 7 days, repeated chair raises, standing balance (full tandem stand), 4-m walking velocity, San Diego claudication questionnaire, Geriatric Depression Score Short-Form, and the Walking Impairment Questionnaire.

RESULTS

All groups with PAD had poorer functioning than participants without PAD. The following values are for patients without IC vs those with IC. Participants in the group with leg pain on exertion and rest (n = 88) had a higher (poorer) score for neuropathy (5.6 vs 3.5; P<.001), prevalence of diabetes mellitus (48.9% vs 26.7%; P<.001), and spinal stenosis (20.8% vs 7.2%; P =.002). The atypical exertional leg pain/carry on group (exertional leg pain other than IC associated with walking through leg pain [n = 41]) and the atypical exertional leg pain/stop group (exertional leg pain other than IC that causes one to stop walking [n = 90]) had better functioning than the IC group. The group without exertional leg pain/inactive (no exertional leg pain in individual who walks </=6 blocks per week [n = 28]) and the leg pain on exertion and rest group had poorer functioning than those with IC. Adjusting for age, sex, race, and comorbidities and compared with IC, participants with atypical exertional leg pain/carry on achieved a greater distance on the 6-minute walk (404.3 vs 328.5 m; P<.001) and were less likely to stop during the 6-minute walk (6.8% vs 36%; P =.002). The group with pain on exertion and rest had a slower time for completing 5 chair raises (13.5 vs 11.9 seconds; P =.009), completed the tandem stand less frequently (37.5% vs 60.0%; P =.004), and had a slower 4-m walking velocity (0.80 vs 0.90 m/s; P<.001).

CONCLUSIONS

There is a wide range of leg symptoms in persons with PAD beyond that of classic IC. Comorbid disease may contribute to these symptoms in PAD. Functional impairments are found in every PAD symptom group, and the degree of functional limitation varies depending on the type of leg symptom.

Pubmed
Journal: The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
September/25/2012
Abstract

BACKGROUND

People with cancer undergoing active treatment experience numerous disease- and treatment-related adverse outcomes and poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Exercise interventions are hypothesized to alleviate these adverse outcomes. HRQoL and its domains are important measures of cancer survivorship, both during and after the end of active treatment for cancer.

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise on overall HRQoL outcomes and specific HRQoL domains among adults with cancer during active treatment.

METHODS

We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PEDRO, LILACS, SIGLE, SportDiscus, OTSeeker, Sociological Abstracts from inception to November 2011 with no language or date restrictions. We also searched citations through Web of Science and Scopus, PubMed's related article feature, and several websites. We reviewed reference lists of included trials and other reviews in the field.

METHODS

We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing exercise interventions with usual care or other type of non-exercise comparison intervention to maintain or enhance, or both, overall HRQoL or at least one distinct domain of HRQoL. Included trials tested exercise interventions that were initiated when adults with cancer were undergoing active cancer treatment or were scheduled to initiate treatment.

METHODS

Five paired review authors independently extracted information on characteristics of included trials, data on effects of the intervention, and assessed risk of bias based on predefined criteria. Where possible, we performed meta-analyses for HRQoL and HRQoL domains for the reported difference between baseline values and follow-up values using standardized mean differences (SMDs) and a random-effects model by length of follow-up. We also reported the SMD at follow-up between the exercise and control groups. Because investigators used many different HRQoL and HRQoL domain instruments and often more than one for the same domain, we selected the more commonly used instrument to include in the SMD meta-analyses. We also report the mean difference for each type of instrument separately.

RESULTS

We included 56 trials with 4826 participants randomized to an exercise (n = 2286) or comparison (n = 1985) group. Cancer diagnoses in trial participants included breast, prostate, gynecologic, hematologic, and other. Thirty-six trials were conducted among participants who were currently undergoing active treatment for their cancer, 10 trials were conducted among participants both during and post active cancer treatment, and the remaining 10 trials were conducted among participants scheduled for active cancer treatment. Mode of exercise intervention differed across trials and included walking by itself or in combination with cycling, resistance training, or strength training; resistance training; strength training; cycling; yoga; or Qigong. HRQoL and its domains were assessed using a wide range of measures.The results suggest that exercise interventions compared with control interventions have a positive impact on overall HRQoL and certain HRQoL domains. Exercise interventions resulted in improvements in: HRQoL from baseline to 12 weeks' follow-up (SMD 0.33; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.55) or when comparing difference in follow-up scores at 12 weeks (SMD 0.47; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.79); physical functioning from baseline to 12 weeks' follow-up (SMD 0.69; 95% CI 0.16 to 1.22) or 6 months (SMD 0.28; 95% CI 0.00 to 0.55); or when comparing differences in follow-up scores at 12 weeks (SMD 0.28; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.45) or 6 months (SMD 0.29; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.50); role function from baseline to 12 weeks' follow-up (SMD 0.48; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.90) or when comparing differences in follow-up scores at 12 weeks (SMD 0.17; 95% CI 0.00 to 0.34) or 6 months (SMD 0.32; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.61); and, in social functioning at 12 weeks' follow-up (SMD 0.54; 95% CI 0.03 to 1.05) or when comparing differences in follow-up scores at both 12 weeks (SMD 0.16; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.27) and 6 months (SMD 0.24; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.44). Further, exercise interventions resulted in a decrease in fatigue from baseline to 12 weeks' follow-up (SMD -0.38; 95% CI -0.57 to -0.18) or when comparing difference in follow-up scores at follow-up of 12 weeks (SMD -0.73; 95% CI -1.14 to -0.31). Since there is consistency of findings on both types of measures (change scores and difference in follow-up scores) there is greater confidence in the robustness of these findings.When examining exercise effects by subgroups, exercise interventions had significantly greater reduction in anxiety for survivors with breast cancer than those with other types of cancer. Further, there was greater reduction in depression, fatigue, and sleep disturbances, and improvement in HRQoL, emotional wellbeing (EWB), physical functioning, and role function for cancer survivors diagnosed with cancers other than breast cancer but not for breast cancer. There were also greater improvements in HRQoL and physical functioning, and reduction in anxiety, fatigue, and sleep disturbances when prescribed a moderate or vigorous versus a mild exercise program.Results of the review need to be interpreted cautiously owing to the risk of bias. All the trials reviewed were at high risk for performance bias. In addition, the majority of trials were at high risk for detection, attrition, and selection bias.

CONCLUSIONS

This systematic review indicates that exercise may have beneficial effects at varying follow-up periods on HRQoL and certain HRQoL domains including physical functioning, role function, social functioning, and fatigue. Positive effects of exercise interventions are more pronounced with moderate- or vigorous-intensity versus mild-intensity exercise programs. The positive results must be interpreted cautiously because of the heterogeneity of exercise programs tested and measures used to assess HRQoL and HRQoL domains, and the risk of bias in many trials. Further research is required to investigate how to sustain positive effects of exercise over time and to determine essential attributes of exercise (mode, intensity, frequency, duration, timing) by cancer type and cancer treatment for optimal effects on HRQoL and its domains.

Pubmed
Journal: Positively aware : the monthly journal of the Test Positive Aware Network
June/28/2004
Pubmed
Journal: Archives of internal medicine
March/18/1997
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Later-life depressive disorders are a major public health problem in primary care settings. A validated screening instrument might aid in the recognition of depression. However, available findings from younger patients may not generalize to older persons, and existing studies of screening instruments in older patient samples have suffered substantial methodological limitations.

METHODS

One hundred thirty patients 60 years or older attending 3 primary care internists' practices participated in the study. Two screening scales were used: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Third Edition, Revised, was used to establish "gold standard" diagnoses including major and minor depressive disorders. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine each scale's operating characteristics.

RESULTS

Both the CES-D and the GDS had excellent properties in screening for major depression. The optimum cutoff point for the CES-D was 21, yielding a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 87%. The optimum cutoff point for the GDS was 10, yielding a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 84%. A shorter version of the GDS had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 81% using a cutoff point of 5. All scales lost accuracy when used to detect minor depression or the presence of any depressive diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS

The CES-D and the GDS have excellent properties for use as screening instruments for major depression in older primary care patients. Because the GDS's yes or no format may ease administration, primary care clinicians should consider its routine use in their practices.

Pubmed
Journal: Social science & medicine (1982)
July/26/2010
Abstract

Childhood psychological conditions including depression and substance abuse are a growing concern among American children, but their long-term economic costs are unknown. This paper uses unique data from the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) following groups of siblings and their parents for up to 40 years prospectively collecting information on education, income, work, and marriage. Following siblings offers an opportunity to control for unobserved family and neighborhood effects. A retrospective child health history designed by the author was placed into the 2007 PSID wave measuring whether respondents had any of 14 childhood physical illnesses or suffered from depression, substance abuse, or other psychological conditions. Large effects are found on the ability of affected children to work and earn as adults. Educational accomplishments are diminished, and adult family incomes are reduced by 20% or $10,400 per year with $18,000 less family household assets. Lost income is partly a consequence of seven fewer weeks worked per year. There is also an 11% point lower probability of being married. Controlling for physical childhood diseases shows that these effects are not due to the co-existence of psychological and physical diseases, and estimates controlling for within-sibling differences demonstrate that these effects are not due to unobserved common family differences. The long-term economic damages of childhood psychological problems are large-a lifetime cost in lost family income of approximately $300,000, and total lifetime economic cost for all those affected of 2.1 trillion dollars.

Pubmed
Journal: Neuron
May/20/2002
Abstract

Five adenosines within the coding sequence of the serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2C) pre-mRNA are converted to inosines by RNA editing (named A, B, C' (E), C, and D sites). In human prefrontal cortex (PFC), the most abundant 5-HT2C mRNA sequences result from editing at the A site, or from the editing combinations AC'C, ABCD, and ABD. In suicide victims with a history of major depression, C' site editing is significantly increased, D site editing is significantly decreased, and the C site shows a trend toward increased editing. Treatment of mice with the antidepressant drug fluoxetine (Prozac) causes changes in C', C, and D site editing that are exactly opposite to those seen in suicide victims. Thus, one outcome of fluoxetine treatment may be to reverse the abnormalities in 5-HT2C pre-mRNA editing seen in depressed suicide victims.

Pubmed
Journal: Epidemiologic reviews
January/4/2005
Pubmed
Journal: JAMA internal medicine
April/30/2014
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Many people meditate to reduce psychological stress and stress-related health problems. To counsel people appropriately, clinicians need to know what the evidence says about the health benefits of meditation.

OBJECTIVE

To determine the efficacy of meditation programs in improving stress-related outcomes (anxiety, depression, stress/distress, positive mood, mental health-related quality of life, attention, substance use, eating habits, sleep, pain, and weight) in diverse adult clinical populations.

METHODS

We identified randomized clinical trials with active controls for placebo effects through November 2012 from MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, PsycArticles, Scopus, CINAHL, AMED, the Cochrane Library, and hand searches. Two independent reviewers screened citations and extracted data. We graded the strength of evidence using 4 domains (risk of bias, precision, directness, and consistency) and determined the magnitude and direction of effect by calculating the relative difference between groups in change from baseline. When possible, we conducted meta-analyses using standardized mean differences to obtain aggregate estimates of effect size with 95% confidence intervals.

RESULTS

After reviewing 18 753 citations, we included 47 trials with 3515 participants. Mindfulness meditation programs had moderate evidence of improved anxiety (effect size, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.12-0.64] at 8 weeks and 0.22 [0.02-0.43] at 3-6 months), depression (0.30 [0.00-0.59] at 8 weeks and 0.23 [0.05-0.42] at 3-6 months), and pain (0.33 [0.03- 0.62]) and low evidence of improved stress/distress and mental health-related quality of life. We found low evidence of no effect or insufficient evidence of any effect of meditation programs on positive mood, attention, substance use, eating habits, sleep, and weight. We found no evidence that meditation programs were better than any active treatment (ie, drugs, exercise, and other behavioral therapies).

CONCLUSIONS

Clinicians should be aware that meditation programs can result in small to moderate reductions of multiple negative dimensions of psychological stress. Thus, clinicians should be prepared to talk with their patients about the role that a meditation program could have in addressing psychological stress. Stronger study designs are needed to determine the effects of meditation programs in improving the positive dimensions of mental health and stress-related behavior.

Pubmed
Journal: Biological psychiatry
October/3/2012
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Currently, no pharmacological treatments for bipolar depression exist that exert rapid (within hours) antidepressant or antisuicidal effects. We previously reported that intravenous administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist ketamine produced rapid antidepressant effects in patients with treatment-resistant bipolar depression. The present study sought to replicate this finding in an independent sample.

METHODS

In this double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study, 15 subjects with DSM-IV bipolar I or II depression maintained on therapeutic levels of lithium or valproate received a single intravenous infusion of either ketamine hydrochloride (.5 mg/kg) or placebo on 2 test days 2 weeks apart. The primary outcome measure was the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, which was used to rate overall depressive symptoms at baseline; at 40, 80, 110, and 230 minutes postinfusion; and on days 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, and 14 postinfusion.

RESULTS

Within 40 minutes, depressive symptoms, as well as suicidal ideation, significantly improved in subjects receiving ketamine compared with placebo (d = .89, 95% confidence interval = .61-1.16, and .98, 95% confidence interval = .64-1.33, respectively); this improvement remained significant through day 3. Seventy-nine percent of subjects responded to ketamine and 0% responded to placebo at some point during the trial. The most common side effect was dissociative symptoms, which occurred only at the 40-minute time point.

CONCLUSIONS

This study replicated our previous finding that patients with bipolar depression who received a single ketamine infusion experienced a rapid and robust antidepressant response. In addition, we found that ketamine rapidly improved suicidal ideation in these patients.

Pubmed
Journal: International journal of methods in psychiatric research
October/27/2008
Abstract

The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) is a multi-site naturalistic cohort study to: (1) describe the long-term course and consequences of depressive and anxiety disorders, and (2) to integrate biological and psychosocial research paradigms within an epidemiological approach in order to examine (interaction between) predictors of the long-term course and consequences. Its design is an eight-year longitudinal cohort study among 2981 participants aged 18 through 65 years. The sample consists of 1701 persons with a current (six-month recency) diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety disorder, 907 persons with life-time diagnoses or at risk because of a family history or subthreshold depressive or anxiety symptoms, and 373 healthy controls. Recruitment took place in the general population, in general practices (through a three-stage screening procedure), and in mental health organizations in order to recruit persons reflecting various settings and developmental stages of psychopathology. During a four-hour baseline assessment including written questionnaires, interviews, a medical examination, a cognitive computer task and collection of blood and saliva samples, extensive information was gathered about key (mental) health outcomes and demographic, psychosocial, clinical, biological and genetic determinants. Detailed assessments will be repeated after one, two, four and eight years of follow-up. The findings of NESDA are expected to provide more detailed insight into (predictors of) the long-term course of depressive and anxiety disorders in adults. Besides its scientific relevance, this may contribute to more effective prevention and treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders.

Pubmed
Journal: International psychogeriatrics
October/3/2001
Abstract

This study examines the psychometric properties of two new abbreviated versions of standard measures of depression, a revised eight-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and a short-form Composite International Diagnostic Interview (short-form CIDI). A sample of 6,133 elders, age 70 years or older, completed both measures as part of the Asset and Health Dynamics Study of the Oldest Old. The revised CES-D had an internal consistency and factor structure comparable to that of prior versions of the CES-D. The sources of discordance between the two measures were examined and the two measures were compared on self-report of four clinical variables: medical illness, physician diagnosis, psychiatric treatment, and antidepressant or tranquilizer use. Both measures were associated with self-report of physician diagnosis and psychiatric treatment. Respondents positive for depression on the CES-D reported higher rates of antidepressant use. Respondents positive on the short-form CIDI only did not report more antidepressant use than nondepressed respondents.

Pubmed
Journal: Schweizerische Rundschau fur Medizin Praxis = Revue suisse de medecine Praxis
March/28/1973
Authors
Pubmed
Journal: Journal of general internal medicine
May/12/2014
Abstract

BACKGROUND

As medical homes are developing under health reform, little is known regarding depression services need and use by diverse safety-net populations in under-resourced communities. For chronic conditions like depression, primary care services may face new opportunities to partner with diverse community service providers, such as those in social service and substance abuse centers, to support a collaborative care model of treating depression.

OBJECTIVE

To understand the distribution of need and current burden of services for depression in under-resourced, diverse communities in Los Angeles.

METHODS

Baseline phase of a participatory trial to improve depression services with data from client screening and follow-up surveys.

METHODS

Of 4,440 clients screened from 93 programs (primary care, mental health, substance abuse, homeless, social and other community services) in 50 agencies, 1,322 were depressed according to an eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) and gave contact information; 1,246 enrolled and 981 completed surveys. Ninety-three programs, including 17 primary care/public health, 18 mental health, 20 substance abuse, ten homeless services, and 28 social/other community services, participated.

METHODS

Comparisons by setting in 6-month retrospective recall of depression services use.

RESULTS

Depression prevalence ranged from 51.9 % in mental health to 17.2 % in social-community programs. Depressed clients used two settings on average to receive depression services; 82 % used any setting. More clients preferred counseling over medication for depression treatment.

CONCLUSIONS

Need for depression care was high, and a broad range of agencies provide depression care. Although most participants had contact with primary care, most depression services occurred outside of primary care settings, emphasizing the need to coordinate and support the quality of community-based services across diverse community settings.

Pubmed
Journal: Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
February/23/2012
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Adolescents with a history of peer assault are known to report high rates of other risky behaviors. The characteristics of adolescents seeking care in the ED for acute assault-related injury are less well established. This knowledge deficit is particularly noticeable for adolescent female victims of peer assault. This study's objectives were: 1) to characterize the demographics and risk behaviors of youths presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute assault-related injury and 2) to compare assaulted youths' demographic characteristics, past experiences with violence, and other risk behaviors by sex.

METHODS

A systematic sample of adolescents (ages 14 to 18 years) presenting to an urban ED with acute assault-related injury (excluding dating violence, sexual assault, and child abuse) was recruited. Consenting participants self-administered a computerized survey about demographics, history of peer and dating aggression, and theoretical correlates of violence (e.g., alcohol and other drug use, depressive symptoms, weapon carriage). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify factors that were differentially associated with presentation to the ED for acute assault-related injury for females versus males.

RESULTS

Of 3,338 adolescents completing a screening survey during the 36-month study period, 197 had presented to the ED with acute assault-related injuries; seven of these were excluded from this study due to being victims of dating violence. Most (n = 179, 94.2%) of these 190 acutely assaulted participants were discharged home. The majority reported a history of past-year peer aggression (n = 160, 84.2%) and past-year violent injury (n = 106, 55.8%). Similar rates of past-year peer aggression, past-year violent injury, alcohol use, and weapon carriage were observed for adolescent males and females presenting with acute assault-related injury. Males and females also reported similar age, race, socioeconomic status, and education levels. Compared to males, females were less likely to report living with a parent (odds ratio [OR] = 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.08 to 0.84) and were more likely to report depressive symptoms (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.23 to 5.48) and past-year dating aggression (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.04 to 4.82).

CONCLUSIONS

Male and female adolescents with acute assault-related injuries were very similar. Both reported extremely high rates of past year peer violence, assault-related injury, and substance use. The greater prevalence of some risk factors among adolescent females, such as depressive symptoms, dating aggression, and independent living status, should be further investigated.

Pubmed
Journal: Schizophrenia bulletin
February/13/2014
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Psychiatric taxonomists have sometimes argued for a unitary psychosis syndrome and sometimes for a pentagonal model, including 5 diagnostic constructs of positive symptoms, negative symptoms, cognitive disorganization, mania, and depression. This continues to be debated in preparation for impending revisions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the International Classification of Diseases. We aimed to identify general and specific dimensions underlying psychopathological features of psychosis.

METHODS

The samples comprised 309 patients admitted to psychiatric services in the acute phase of their first or second episode of psychosis and 507 patients with enduring psychosis recruited from community mental health teams. Patients' symptoms were assessed on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Analyses compared unitary, pentagonal, and bifactor models of psychosis.

RESULTS

In both samples, a bifactor model including 1 general psychosis factor and, independently, 5 specific factors of positive symptoms, negative symptoms, disorganization, mania, and depression gave the best fit. Scores of general and specific symptom dimensions were differentially associated with phase of illness, diagnosis, social functioning, insight, and neurocognitive functioning.

CONCLUSIONS

The findings provide strong evidence for a general psychosis dimension in both early and enduring psychosis. Findings further allowed for independent formation of specific symptom dimensions. This may inform the current debate about revised classification systems of psychosis.

Pubmed
Journal: Cancer
March/17/2009
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Clinicians observe that advanced cancer patients with dependent children agonize over the impact their death will have on their children. The objective of this study was to determine empirically whether advanced cancer patients with and without dependent children differ in treatment preferences, mental health, and end-of-life (EOL) outcomes.

METHODS

Coping with Cancer is a National Cancer Institute/National Institute of Mental Health-funded, multi-institutional, prospective cohort study of 668 patients with advanced cancer. Patients with and without dependent children were compared on rates of psychiatric disorders, advance care planning (ACP), EOL care, quality of their last week of life, and location of death.

RESULTS

In adjusted analyses, patients with advanced cancer who had dependent children were more likely to meet panic disorder criteria (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 5.41; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.13-13.69), more likely to be worried (mean difference in standard deviations [delta], 0.09; P=.006), and more likely to prefer aggressive treatment over palliative care (AOR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.07-2.93). Patients with dependent children were less likely to engage in ACP (eg, do not resuscitate orders: AOR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.26-0.75) and had a worse quality of life in the last week of life (delta, 0.15; P=.007). Among spousal caregivers, those with dependent children were more likely to meet criteria for major depressive disorder (AOR, 4.53; 95% CI, 1.47-14) and generalized anxiety disorder (AOR, 3.95; 95% CI, 1.29-12.16).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with dependent children were more anxious, were less likely to engage in ACP, and were more likely to have a worse quality of life in their last week of life. Advanced cancer patients and spousal caregivers with dependent children represent a particularly distressed group that warrants further clinical attention, research, and support.

Pubmed
Journal: Sleep
April/12/2012
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Fatigue is a pervasive symptom associated with HIV, resulting in significant functioning impairment; but little is known about its etiology or treatment. In patients with primary insomnia, data have shown improvement in fatigue following successful treatment of insomnia. However, little is known about the role of insomnia in patients with fatigue in HIV. This manuscript seeks to test the hypothesis that insomnia severity is correlated with increased fatigue in HIV-seropositive patients.

METHODS

Fifty-seven ambulatory HIV-seropositive patients, aged 18-60 years, with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of insomnia, were administered the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). Their most recent CD4 count and time since diagnosis of HIV were recorded. Regression analysis was carried out with PFS as the dependent variable.

RESULTS

A higher ISI score correlated with higher PFS score, (R2 = 0.1713, P = 0.0042). Overall depression severity was not significantly correlated with PFS score, except in the most severely depressed subgroup, in which the HADS depression score was the strongest predictor of PFS (R2 = 0.182, P = 0.0009). In participants without depression, ISI accounted for most of the variance in fatigue (R2 = 0.6035, P = 0.0011).

CONCLUSIONS

Greater insomnia severity is associated with greater fatigue severity in HIV seropositive patients. Depression may contribute to both fatigue and insomnia. In the absence of depression, the treatment of insomnia may emerge as a treatment strategy to help alleviate fatigue. Further studies are needed to confirm these data.

BACKGROUND

Clinical Trials.Gov: The Treatment of Insomnia in Patients with HIV Disease. Registry Number: NCT00465972. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00465972?term = HIV+insomnia&rank = 1.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of women's health (2002)
April/29/2012
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the co-occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health burden among perinatal mothers attending well-baby visits with their infants in the first year of life. We compare rates of depression, anxiety disorder, and substance abuse diagnoses between mothers who reported IPV within the past year to those who did not.

METHODS

This cross-sectional study of 188 mothers of infants (under 14 months) was conducted in an urban hospital pediatric clinic. Participants reported demographics and IPV and completed a semistructured psychiatric diagnostic interview.

RESULTS

Mothers reporting IPV were more likely to be diagnosed with mood and/or anxiety diagnoses (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test), specifically current depressive diagnoses (p<0.01, Fisher's exact test) and panic disorder (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test). There was a trend for more posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (p<0.06) among abused mothers. Substance abuse and dependence, age, race, insurance status, employment, education, and family arrangements did not differ between groups. Prior major or minor depression increases the odds for perinatal depression threefold (OD 3.18).

CONCLUSIONS

These findings have implications for practitioners who encounter perinatal women. Findings suggest providers should explore signs and symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders among women reporting IPV. Similarly, when perinatal mothers report symptoms of depression, PTSD, or panic disorder, practitioners should be alert to the possible contributory role of IPV.

Pubmed
Journal: AIDS and behavior
April/2/2013
Abstract

HIV-related stigma has been associated with depression, poor adherence, and nondisclosure of HIV-positive status, all of which can lead to increased transmission of HIV and poorer health outcomes for HIV-infected individuals. The Berger HIV Stigma scale has been used in multiple settings but never adapted and validated in India, home to the world's second largest HIV-infected population. We assessed the reliability and validity of a Tamil translation of the original 40-item scale, and conducted confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses to assess cultural appropriateness and abbreviate the scale. Reliability and validity were high (alpha = 0.91; test-retest reliability ICC = 0.89). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis resulted in an abridged 25-item version of the scale that possessed better psychometric properties than the 40-item version. This culturally validated, abridged HIV-Stigma scale can be used in busy clinical settings to identify individuals in need of psychosocial support and assess post-intervention changes in stigma in Southern India.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
November/19/2002
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify factors associated with functional change in an older population and investigate interactions among selected potential risk factors.

METHODS

A population-based prospective cohort study.

METHODS

A random sample was selected from the Group Health Cooperative members in the Seattle area from 1994 to 1996 and followed biennially.

METHODS

Two thousand five hundred eighty-one people aged 65 and older, cognitively intact at baseline.

METHODS

Functional status was measured by activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and performance-based physical function testing.

RESULTS

The cohort status at the time of these analyses was: deceased, 391; withdrawn, 179; dementia, 152; and on study, 1,873. The mean follow-up time was 3.4 years. Using linear regressions with Generalized Estimating Equation, selected medical conditions (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease (CVD), osteoporosis, arthritis, and cancer), low cognitive function, depression, and smoking were associated with worse functional outcomes. Exercise and moderate alcohol use were associated with better functional outcomes. Over the follow-up period, coronary heart disease, CVD, and depression were associated with increased rates of functional decline. Exercise and moderate alcohol consumption were associated with decreased rates of functional decline. Significant interactions were observed between exercise and coronary heart disease, moderate alcohol use and CVD, and cognition and CVD.

CONCLUSIONS

Our study has identified not only risk factors associated with functional decline but also the interactions among these factors. These observations, along with other published research, add to the growing understanding of the underlying process of functional change and could provide a basis to design effective strategies to delay functional decline.

Pubmed
Journal: Epilepsy & behavior : E&B
July/17/2007
Abstract

Depression is a frequent comorbidity in epilepsy patients. A variety of biological factors may underlie epilepsy-associated depression. We examined whether kindling-induced chronic increase in seizure susceptibility is accompanied by behavioral symptoms of depression. Three-week-old Wistar rats underwent rapid kindling: 84 initially subconvulsant electrical stimulations of ventral hippocampus delivered every 5 minutes, followed by depression-specific behavioral tests performed 2 and 4 weeks later. Kindled animals exhibited a sustained increase in immobility time in the forced swim test and the loss of taste preference toward calorie-free saccharin, as compared with controls. Initial loss of preference toward the intake of calorie-containing sucrose was followed by the increased consumption at 4 weeks. At both time points, animals exhibited enhanced seizure susceptibility on test stimulations of the hippocampus. We conclude that neuronal plastic changes associated with the kindling state are accompanied by the development of depressive behavior.

Pubmed
Journal: Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research
October/24/2001
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Renewed interest in medications to prevent relapse in alcoholics (i.e., antidipsotropics) resulted in approval by the Food and Drug Administration of naltrexone to treat alcohol dependence. Acamprosate, although not approved in the United States, is used in alcoholism treatment in many other parts of the world. In the absence of studies that compare the effects of these medications, we used a meta-analytic approach to the literature to compare their efficacy in alcoholism treatment.

METHODS

All published placebo-controlled trials of naltrexone or acamprosate for alcohol dependence were examined, and, when suitable, data were extracted for calculation of a mean effect size. A sample of studies of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for treatment of major depression conducted over the last two decades served as a comparator for the antidipsotropics.

RESULTS

Both antidipsotropics exerted significant, but modest, effects on treatment retention and/or drinking outcomes. There was significant variability among the studies for the measure on which the largest effect was exerted by each of these medications. Based on limited comparisons of the two medications, there appears to be no statistical difference in their efficacy in the treatment of alcohol dependence. In contrast, there was a consistent effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on depressive symptoms in major depression, which was significantly greater than the effects observed for the antidipsotropics.

CONCLUSIONS

Both naltrexone and acamprosate are efficacious in reducing alcohol consumption in alcoholics. However, their specific role in alcoholism treatment remains to be more clearly defined. New approaches to the use of these medications and development of new medications are needed if pharmacotherapy is to play a substantial role in the treatment of alcoholism.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of health psychology
July/14/2005
Abstract

This prospective multisite Phase III clinical trial (Miami, New York, New Jersey) investigated the long-term (one year) effects of a 10-week group cognitive-behavioral stress management/expressive supportive therapy (CBSM+) intervention on disadvantaged minority women living with AIDS. The CBSM+ intervention consisted of 10-weekly group session of stress management, cognitive-behavioral skill training, relaxation techniques and expressive-supportive therapeutic strategies. The primary study outcome was self-reported depression scores as measured by the BDI. The CBSM+ Group intervention significantly decreased depression scores on the BDI for women following the intervention and maintained the decreased level at one-year follow-up.

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