Depression
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Publication
Journal: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica : a Magyar Pszichofarmakologiai Egyesulet lapja = official journal of the Hungarian Association of Psychopharmacology
March/4/2010
Abstract
The role of carbon dioxide (CO2) is underestimated in the pathomechanism of neuropsychiatric disorders, though it is an important link between psyche and corpus. The actual spiritual status also influences respiration (we start breathing rarely, frequently, irregularly, etc.) causing pH alteration in the organism; on the other hand the actual cytosolic pH of neurons is one of the main modifiers of Ca2+-conductance, hence breathing directly, quickly, and effectively influences the second messenger system through Ca2+-currents. (Decreasing pCO2 turns pH into alkalic direction, augments psychic arousal, while increasing pCO2 turns pH acidic, diminishes arousal.) One of the most important homeostatic function is to maintain or restore the permanence of H+-concentration, hence the alteration of CO2 level starts cascades of contraregulation. However it can be proved that there is no perfect compensation, therefore compensational mechanisms may generate psychosomatic disorders causing secondary alterations in the "milieu interieur". Authors discuss the special physico-chemical features of CO2, the laws of interweaving alterations of pCO2 and catecholamine levels (their feedback mechanism), the role of acute and chronic hypocapnia in several hyperarousal disorders (delirium, panic disorder, hyperventilation syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder), the role of "locus minoris resistentiae" in the pathomechanism of psychosomatic disorders. It is supposed that the diseases of civilization are caused not by the stress itself but the lack of human instinctive reaction to it, and this would cause long-lasting CO2 alteration. Increased brain-pCO2, acidic cytosol pH and/or increased basal cytosolic Ca2+ level diminish inward Ca2+-current into cytosol, decrease arousal--they may cause dysthymia or depression. This state usually co-exists with ATP-deficiency and decreased cytosolic Mg2+ content. This energetical- and ion-constellation is also typical of ageing-associated and chronic organic disorders. It is the most important link between depression and organic disorders (e.g. coronary heart disease). The above-mentioned model is supported by the fact that H+ and/or Ca2+ metabolism is affected by several drugs (catecholemines, serotonin, lithium, triaecetyluridine, thyroxine) and sleep deprivation, they act for the logically right direction.
Publication
Journal: Torture : quarterly journal on rehabilitation of torture victims and prevention of torture
March/4/2010
Abstract
Our study falls in line with the numerous studies providing a critique of the use of western diagnostic instruments for assessing trauma in a cross-cultural context. Our purpose has been to give evidence for the Tibetan torture survivors' degree of traumatisation and for their use of spirituality to overcome their difficult situation. In addition we wanted to question the use of our western methods in an Asian context. 102 tortured refugees attended a formalised needs assessment including neuropsychological and psychological measures of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 25 (HSCL-25). Even though significant correlations between the amount of the measures of organized violence and neuropsychological and psychological distress were found in our data, the division of the material into different subgroups according to e.g. religious and non-religious groups did not have an influence on the level of distress. After the assessment study, eight Tibetan lamas were interviewed about their views on our methods and results. They questioned the validity of our western rating scales and explained that our results might be influenced by the Tibetan culture, which among other things can be characterized as having a view and articulation of suffering much more complex than the units of our study's rating scales.
Publication
Journal: Nutrition research and practice
December/5/2018
Abstract
Although a lot of effort has been put into increasing fruit and vegetable intakes in preschool children, vegetable intake in this group is still low. This study investigated whether nutrition education focusing on fruit and vegetable intakes can affect preschoolers' fruit and vegetable intakes as well as their behavioral outcomes.Thirty-five preschoolers (54.3% boys, n = 19) aged 4-6 years residing in Seoul underwent weekly nutrition education intervention (8 sessions) between May and July 2016. Intakes of fruits and vegetables were measured during pre and post-intervention. At snack time, fresh fruit (150 g) and vegetable (120 g) snacks were distributed to each child by teachers. The remaining portions of the snacks were weighed and recorded for each child. Behavioral outcomes were measured by applying Child behavior checklist 1.5-5 and the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.

RESULTS
During post intervention, vegetable intake increased from 36.15 ± 30.64 g to 48.01 ± 31.23 g (P = 0.010). Among the emotional and behavioral problems measured by parents, levels of total problems (P = 0.001), internalizing (P = 0.004), externalizing (P = 0.003), anxiety and depression (P = 0.001), and aggressive behavior (P = 0.005) decreased. Anxiety (P = 0.026) score, as measured by teachers, also decreased.

Nutrition education of preschoolers regarding the intakes of fruits and vegetables had a positive effect on preschoolers' vegetable intake as well as on their emotional and behavioral outcomes. A long-term, large-scale study with a broader study design is warranted to further investigate the role of fruit and vegetable intake in cognitive development and behavior of preschoolers.
Publication
Journal: Materia socio-medica
December/5/2018
Abstract
The most common mental disorders in elderly, beside dementia, are depression and anxiety, which are important public health problem, although they are diagnosed and treated in under 20% of the population. Mental health care for elderly is one of the indicators of quality or omissions in the health system of a country.The aim of the study was to examine the incidence of depression and anxiety among the elderly in the Livno area.Across-sectional study was carried out in the Livno area through June 2017 on a sample of 100 respondents (N=100). Inclusion criteria: age over 65 years. Exclusion criteria: persons with malignancy, persons with psychiatric diagnosis or dementia. Research tools used: Questionnaire on sociodemographic status and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Self Evaluation Scale (HAD).More than 90% of the respondents of both genders were estimated to be borderline depressed or depressed. There was a higher incidence of depression among male respondents, and anxiety among female respondents. Probably and borderline anxiety is recorded in 84% of respondents, which exceed the results of all available literature data. Religious habits have no influence on the occurrence of depression but there is a connection between prayer and anxiety occurrence.This research has established an extremely high incidence of depression and anxiety among the elderly in the Livno area. The results of the available studies indicate significantly lower rates of occurrence than in the tested sample. Socioeconomic status did not prove to be a significant predictor of the occurrence of these disorders.
Publication
Journal: The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
April/27/2014
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Adult and adolescent congenital heart disease is increasing in prevalence as better medical care means more children are surviving to adulthood. People with chronic disease often also experience depression. There are several non-pharmacological treatments that might be effective in treating depression and improving quality of life for adults and young adults with congenital heart disease. The aim of this review was to assess the effects of treatments such as psychotherapy, cognitive behavioural therapies and talking therapies for treating depression in this population.
OBJECTIVE
To update the previous review on the effects (both harms and benefits) of psychological interventions for treating depression in young adults and adults with congenital heart disease. Psychological interventions include cognitive behavioural therapy, psychotherapy, or 'talking/counselling' therapy for depression.
METHODS
We updated the searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2013), MEDLINE (OVID, 1946 to January week 4 2013), EMBASE (OVID, 1980 to 2013 week 05), PsycINFO (OVID, 1806 to January week 5 2013), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) on The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2013), BIOSIS (Thomson Reuters, 1969 to 21 February 2013), and CINAHL (January 1980 to February 2013) on 5 February 2013. We did not search abstracts from national and international cardiology and psychology conferences and dissertation abstracts for this update. No language restrictions were applied.
METHODS
Randomised controlled trials comparing psychological interventions with no intervention for people over 15 years with depression who have congenital heart disease.
METHODS
Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts of studies that were potentially relevant to the review. We rejected studies that were clearly ineligible. Two review authors independently assessed the abstracts or full papers for inclusion criteria. We sought further information from the authors where papers contained insufficient information to make a decision about eligibility.
RESULTS
We did not identify any randomised controlled trials that met the inclusion criteria.
CONCLUSIONS
Depression is common in people with congenital heart disease and can exacerbate the physical consequences of the illness. There are effective pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for depression, but we have not been able to identify any trials showing the effectiveness of non-pharmacological treatments. A well-designed randomised controlled trial is needed to assess the effects of psychological interventions for depression in congenital heart disease.
Publication
Journal: Journal of sleep research
April/27/2014
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between gluteal adipose tissue fatty acids and sleep quality in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome after controlling for possible confounders. Sixty-three patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome based on overnight attended polysomnography were included. Gluteal adipose tissue fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. Anthropometric measurements were carried out. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Saturated fatty acids were positively related to total sleep time, sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep. Significant positive associations were found between polyunsaturated fatty acids and sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep. Moreover, n-3 fatty acids were positively associated with sleep efficiency, slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. This study revealed independent associations between certain gluteal adipose tissue fatty acids and sleep quality after controlling for age, gender, obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome indices and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale scores in patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.
Publication
Journal: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
March/2/2010
Publication
Journal: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics. Supplement
October/20/2004
Abstract
The diagnosis of depression by clinical interview may be difficult in the patients with communication problems (aphasia, severe cognitive impairment or severe deafness). In these cases, depressive symptoms may be observed by others (nurses and caregivers). The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of an observational scale to identify depression in older patients. Seventy-six institutionalized patients in an intermediate-long-term care center were evaluated. Of them, 39 were excluded because they were unable to perform a clinical interview, needed to diagnose depression. Of the excluded patients, 18 had aphasia, 7 showed severe cognitive impairment: their mini mental state examination (MMSE) score < 14, and 14 collaborated very poorly. Thus 37 patients were analyzed, mean age was 83 +/- 0.86 years (30 women and 7 men). Diagnostic categories were: neurological 16 patients (43.2%), fractures/orthopedics 6 (16.2%), pulmonary/cardiology 5 (13.5%) and others 10 (27.1%). The mean Barthel index was 57.0 +/- 31.6 and mean MMSE score was 21.1 +/- 4.3. The observational scale (OS) designed with six items, was applied to all patients. Each item was scored as never (0 points), sometimes (1 point) and always (2 points). Thus total OS score ranged from 0 to 12. Two observers, who knew the patients (nurses), applied the OS. A trained geriatrician, using the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) performed detection of depressive symptoms. There were 15 patients (40.5 %) with depression on the GDS. OS scale score with a cutoff point of 5 or more was present in 13 patients; nine of them had depression (69.2 %). In the remaining 24 patients with an OS score < 5, depression was present only in 6 cases (25%) (chi2 = 6.844; p < 0.01). The OS >/= 5, in the present study, obtained a sensitivity of 60 %, a specificity of 81 %, a positive predictive value of 69 %, and a negative predictive value of 75 %.We concluded that (i) the OS has been useful for identifying depressive symptoms with an acceptable sensitivity and specificity, and (ii) the OS may be an alternative to detect depression in patients who are unable to perform a clinical interview.
Publication
Journal: Journal of youth and adolescence
April/24/2014
Abstract
Epidemiological research has demonstrated that youth are exposed to potentially traumatic events at high rates. Caregivers play an important role in youths' successful recovery following exposures to potentially traumatic events. However, past research has documented poor caregiver-youth agreement regarding youths' exposures to potentially traumatic events, indicating a potential lack of support for many youth exposed to such events. This study examined caregiver-youth discrepancies in the reports of youths' lifetime exposures to potentially traumatic events, and the relationship between these reporting discrepancies and youths' post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, mood symptoms, and functional impairment following disclosures of sexual abuse. Participants included 114 caregiver-youth dyads participating in a family-based intervention at four Child Advocacy Centers in New York City. Standardized measures of trauma history, youth PTSD symptoms, youth mood symptoms, youth functional impairment, and caregiver PTSD symptoms were given in interview format to caregivers and youth at the time of intake into the intervention. The demographic composition of the youth sample was 86.8 % female, 13.2 % male, 32.5 % African American, 54.4 % Latino/a, 2.6 % Caucasian, 0.9 % Asian American, 8.8 % other race/ethnicity. Youth ranged in age from 7 to 16. Results demonstrated poor agreement between youth and caregivers regarding youths' exposure to a range of potentially traumatic events and regarding youths' PTSD symptoms, mood symptoms and functional impairment. Both caregiver-youth discrepancies regarding youths' histories of exposures to potentially traumatic events and caregiver PTSD symptoms were significantly associated with youths' self-reported symptoms and functional impairment. Only caregiver PTSD symptoms were related to caregivers' reports of youths' symptoms and functional impairment. Findings underscore the importance of family support and communication regarding exposures to potentially traumatic events and the detrimental associations of caregiver-youth disagreement about youths' exposures to potentially traumatic events. Recommendations are provided for the assessment and treatment of families presenting in the aftermath of traumatic exposures.
Publication
Journal: Dialogues in clinical neuroscience
November/12/2018
Abstract
This manuscript summarizes the literature on mental health outcomes after cardiac arrest. Survivors of cardiac arrest show high rates of mental illness with more than 40% suffering from anxiety, 30% from depression, and 25% from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Mental health outcomes may differ depending on the setting in which the cardiac arrest occurred. A major problem is reduced neuropsychological functioning. Between 30% and 50% of survivors of cardiac arrest suffer from cognitive deficits. Deficits of attention, declarative memory, executive function, visual-spatial abilities, and verbal fluency have been observed. As a result of numerous psychopathological symptoms (depression in 14% to 45%, anxiety in 13% to 61%, and PTSD in 19% to 27%) and reduced cognitive functioning (about 20% to 60%), relevantly reduced quality of life is observed in about 20% of cardiac arrest survivors.
Publication
Journal: Developmental psychology
November/12/2018
Abstract
A burgeoning literature supports the role of autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning as an index of physiologic sensitivity to the environment, but extant research is limited in its focus on single branches of the ANS, childhood samples, and solely negative environmental factors. This study seeks to address these limitations by exploring whether reactivity in the parasympathetic (PNS) and sympathetic (SNS) nervous systems jointly moderate the prospective contributions of both positive (maternal involvement) and negative (maternal psychological control) aspects of the family environment to developmentally relevant outcomes in adolescence (depressive symptoms and emotion regulation). At Wave 1, adolescents (n = 352, 52% female, M age = 15.27, SD = 1.04; 65% White) and their parents completed a problem-solving discussion task, during which adolescent ANS activation was continuously monitored, and reports of maternal involvement, maternal psychological control, adolescent depressive symptoms, and adolescent emotion regulation were obtained. Adolescent depressive symptoms and emotion regulation were assessed again 1 year later (Wave 2). Results indicated that PNS and SNS reactivity jointly moderated the prospective contributions of maternal involvement and maternal psychological control to depressive symptoms and emotion regulation. Specifically, adolescents who exhibited reciprocal SNS activation appeared to be most sensitive to both positive and negative parenting environments. Adolescents exhibiting coinhibition or coactivation profiles of autonomic reactivity were comparatively unreactive to parenting. This study corroborates the notion that consideration of multiple physiological systems is critical to our understanding of biological processes in the development of emotional functioning in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record
Publication
Journal: BMC pulmonary medicine
March/10/2010
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Early detection of exacerbations by COPD patients initiating prompt interventions has shown to be clinically relevant. Until now, research failed to identify the effectiveness of a written individualized Action Plan (AP) to achieve this.
METHODS
The current multicenter, single-blind RCT with a follow-up period of 6 months, evaluates the hypothesis that individualized AP's reduce exacerbation recovery time. Patients are included from regular respiratory nurse clinics and allocated to either usual care or the AP intervention. The AP provides individualized treatment prescriptions (pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical) related to a color coded symptom status (reinforcement at 1 and 4 months). Although usually not possible in self-management trials, we ensured blinding of patients, using a modified informed consent procedure in which patients give consent to postponed information. Exacerbations in both study arms are defined using the Anthonisen symptom diary-card algorithm. The Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) is assessed every 3-days. CCQ-recovery time of an exacerbation is the primary study outcome. Additionally, healthcare utilization, anxiety, depression, treatment delay, and self-efficacy are assessed at baseline and 6 months. We aim at including 245 COPD patients from 7 hospitals and 5 general practices to capture the a-priori sample size of at least 73 exacerbations per study arm.
CONCLUSIONS
This RCT identifies if an AP is an effective component of self-management in patients with COPD and clearly differentiates from existing studies in its design, outcome measures and generalizability of the results considering that the study is carried out in multiple sites including general practices.
Publication
Journal: The New England journal of medicine
December/21/2008
Publication
Journal: European child & adolescent psychiatry
May/4/2014
Abstract
Traits of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) occur frequently in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the significance of their presence in terms of phenotype and underlying neurobiology is not properly understood. This analysis aimed to determine whether higher levels of autistic traits, as measured by the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), index a more severe presentation in a large, rigorously phenotyped sample of children with ADHD (N=711). Regression analyses were used to examine association of SCQ scores with core ADHD features, clinical comorbidities and cognitive and developmental features, with adjustment for putative confounders. For outcomes showing association with total SCQ score, secondary analyses determined levels of differential association of the three ASD sub-domains. Results suggest that increasing ASD symptomatology within ADHD is associated with a more severe phenotype in terms of oppositional, conduct and anxiety symptoms, lower full-scale IQ, working memory deficits and general motor problems. These associations persisted after accounting for ADHD severity, suggesting that autistic symptomatology independently indexes the severity of comorbid impairments in the context of ADHD. Sub-domain scores did not show unique contributions to most outcomes, except that social deficits were independently associated with oppositional symptoms and repetitive behaviours independently predicted hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and motor problems. It would be worthwhile for clinicians to consider levels of socio-communicative and repetitive traits in those with ADHD who do not meet diagnostic criteria for ASD, as they index higher levels of phenotypic complexity, which may have implications for efficacy of interventions.
Publication
Journal: Taehan Kanho Hakhoe chi
December/4/2008
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
The purpose of this study was to examine cognitive functions, depression, and life satisfaction among the elderly receiving visiting nursing services.
METHODS
The subjects of this study consisted of 221 elderly individuals who were receiving visiting nursing services from a public health center located in Gyeonggi-do. The Mini-mental State Examination Korea version (MMSE-K), Geriatric Depression Scale-short form-Korea version (GDS-K), and Life Satisfaction Scale were utilized to determine cognitive functions, depression, and life satisfaction. Collected data was analyzed by the SPSS PC Win 12.0 program.
RESULTS
The prevalence of cognitive impairment (MMSE-K <or= 24) was 86.4%, and the proportion of severe depression (GDS-K >or= 10) was 22.6%. Older age, lower education, and low income were associated with cognitive impairment, and low education, no religion, and low income were associated with depression. Cognitive function negatively correlated with depression. Life satisfaction level was fairly low and was not associated with any variables.
CONCLUSIONS
The high prevalence of cognitive impairment and low life satisfaction status were determined among low-income elderly who were registered at a visiting health care center. Thus, in the future at visiting health care services, efficient and various programs for the elderly should be tried, to improve cognitive functions and reduce depression. Additionally, consistent evaluation studies for those programs will be required.
Publication
Journal: Indian journal of dental research : official publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
February/24/2010
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Lichen planus is a relatively common chronic inflammatory disease of oral mucosa and skin. Cortisol, also called as "stress hormone", has been used as an indicator in various stress evaluation studies. Salivary cortisol measurement is an indicator of free cortisol or biologically active cortisol in human serum and provides noninvasive and easy technique. Recent studies have been conflicting, and hence, in the present study, evaluation of salivary cortisol levels and psychosocial factors in oral lichen planus (OLP) patients was done.
METHODS
A total of 30 patients with clinically and histopathologically proven cases of OLP, along with the age and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Samples of stimulated saliva were collected, centrifuged and analyzed for the level of cortisol with cortisol enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Psychosocial factors of study and control groups were measured by depression anxiety and stress scale. Student's t-test was used to compare the psychological factors and salivary cortisol levels between patients with the OLP and the control group.
RESULTS
Irrespective of sex, significantly higher depression (83.4 +/- 15.4%), anxiety (80.5 +/- 11.3%), and stress (94.2 +/- 6.2%) scores were observed in OLP patients compared to controls. Increased cortisol levels were observed among 17 (56.6%) OLP patients in the study group. A positive correlation was found between psychological factors and salivary cortisol levels in the OLP patients. The values of Pearson's correlation coefficient "r", between depression, anxiety, and stress with salivary cortisol was: +0.42,S; +0.27,NS; and +0.65,HS, respectively among the study group.
Publication
Journal: Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology
October/19/2014
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Explore the use of electronic health records (EHRs) in fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) surveillance systems.
METHODS
Using EHRs we identified diagnoses and anthropometric measurements related to the FAS criteria developed by the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network (FASSNet) among children aged 0 to 12 years.
RESULTS
There were 143,393 distinct children aged between 0 and 12 years enrolled in Kaiser Permanente, Georgia, during the study period. Based on diagnoses and anthropometric measurements, 20,101 children met at least one criterion of interest, and when grouped into combinations of different criteria there were 2285 who met GROWTH+CNS criteria, 76 children who met GROWTH+FACE criteria, 107 children who met CNS+FACE criteria, and 93 children who met GROWTH+CNS+FACE criteria. The prevalence of FAS as defined by FASSNet is 1.92 per 1000 children. We linked 17,084 (85.0%) children to their mothers in the health plan; only 3% of mothers of children in the GROWTH+CNS+FACE group had an indication of alcohol or drugs use, but they had the highest rate of depression (39%).
CONCLUSIONS
Data of utility in identification of FAS are readily available in EHRs and may serve as a basis for intervention with at-risk children and in planning of future FAS surveillance programs.
Publication
Journal: Journal of managed care pharmacy : JMCP
May/15/2006
Publication
Journal: The West Indian medical journal
October/16/2014
Abstract
The current study investigated the prevalence of depressive symptoms in persons with self-reported cardiovascular disease and the interactions of depressive symptoms, reported cardiovascular disease and gender in a Trinidadian population. Between June 2009 and August 2009, 425 participants were recruited from the Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex (EWMSC) Heart Clinic and all the participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Clinical and demographic variables were obtained from the sociodemographic questionnaire. Forty-seven per cent of the self-reported cardiovascular disease participants were identified as having high depressive symptoms as compared to 32% of those who did not report having a cardiovascular illness. The odds ratio indicated that high depressive symptoms are more likely to occur in individuals with reported cardiovascular disease. The Mann-Whitney test revealed females had significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Previous studies suggest that depression is a risk factor for adverse prognosis in a cardiac population, therefore future research examining the link between depression and cardiovascular disease is warranted.
Publication
Journal: Journal de gynecologie, obstetrique et biologie de la reproduction
July/22/2015
Abstract
Despite the organization of smoking cessation program, the percentage of pregnant smokers remains too high in France. The knowledge of the factors limiting success of the attempt can help the smoking cessation.
OBJECTIVE
To evaluate the prevalence of depressive disorders in pregnant smokers compared to nonsmokers; assess their impact on motivation stopping smoking; verify their identification can be performed by midwives.
METHODS
Prospective multicenter survey on 792 women (435 smokers and 357 non-smokers), the assessment of the current depression is made by the Hospital Anxiety Depression scale, and motivation to quit smoking by the Richmond test.
RESULTS
Pregnant smokers compared to non-smokers, have more frequent depressive disorders (current: OR=2.4; history: OR=2). These problems do not decrease the motivation to quit, they are associated with a high nicotine dependence and low socioeconomic levels. Their testing can be done by midwives.
CONCLUSIONS
Systematic screening for depression in pregnant women smoking could facilitate smoking cessation.
Publication
Journal: International psychogeriatrics
July/14/2015
Publication
Journal: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
December/28/2018
Publication
Journal: Neuroreport
December/20/2018
Abstract
Aberrant expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) was reported in several types of cancers and it was demonstrated to promote tumor progression. In glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), TRAF6 depression by miRNA could decrease GBM cell resistance to temozolomide, but the prognostic values of TRAF6 and its functions in GBM progression have not been elucidated. In our study, the expression of TRAF6 and matrix metalloprotein 9 (MMP9) in 101 cases of GBM were investigated using immunohistochemistry. Twelve pairs of GBM frozen tissues and their corresponding adjacent tissues were collected during operation prospectively, and TRAF6 and MMP9 mRNA levels in them were detected using qRT-PCR. The correlations between TRAF6, MMP9, and clinicopathological factors were analyzed using the Chi-square test, and the prognostic value of TRAF6 and MMP9 were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. The effect of TRAF6 and MMP9 on GBM cell invasion and proliferation was detected with experiments in vitro, and the correlation between TRAF6 and MMP9 expression was explored by regulating their expression with overexpression or knockdown. The expression of TRAF6 and MMP9 in GBM tissues was significantly higher than that in adjacent tissues. The expression of TRAF6 and MMP9 was significantly associated in GBM tissues. Both TRAF6 and MMP9 correlated with poor prognosis of GBM, and TRAF6 was identified as an independent prognostic factor of GBM. TRAF6 could promote invasion instead of proliferation of GBM cells via elevating expression of MMP9. TRAF6 was identified as an independent prognostic factor of GBM, with ability to promote invasion of GBM cells via elevating expression of MMP9.
Publication
Journal: JAMA psychiatry
April/10/2019
Abstract
Despite the high prevalence, evidence-based treatments for abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescents have rarely been studied.To examine whether developmentally adapted cognitive processing therapy (D-CPT) is more effective than a wait-list condition with treatment advice (WL/TA) among adolescents with PTSD related to childhood abuse.This rater-blinded, multicenter, randomized clinical trial (stratified by center) enrolled treatment-seeking adolescents and young adults (aged 14-21 years) with childhood abuse-related PTSD at 3 university outpatient clinics in Germany from July 2013 to June 2015, with the last follow-up interview conducted by May 2016. Of 194 patients, 88 were eligible for randomization.Participants received D-CPT or WL/TA. Cognitive processing therapy was enhanced by a motivational and alliance-building phase, by including emotion regulation and consideration of typical developmental tasks, and by higher session frequency in the trauma-focused core CPT phase. In WL/TA, participants received treatment advice with respective recommendations of clinicians and were offered D-CPT after 7 months.All outcomes were assessed before treatment (baseline), approximately 8 weeks after the start of treatment, after the end of treatment (posttreatment), and at the 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome, PTSD symptom severity, was assessed in clinical interview (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents for DSM-IV [CAPS-CA]). Secondary outcomes were self-reported PTSD severity, depression, borderline symptoms, behavior problems, and dissociation.The 88 participants (75 [85%] female) had a mean age of 18.1 years (95% CI, 17.6-18.6 years). In the intention-to-treat analysis, the 44 participants receiving D-CPT (39 [89%] female) demonstrated greater improvement than the 44 WL/TA participants (36 [82%] female) in terms of PTSD severity (mean CAPS-CA scores, 24.7 [95% CI, 16.6-32.7] vs 47.5 [95% CI, 37.9-57.1]; Hedges g = 0.90). This difference was maintained through the follow-up (mean CAPS-CA scores, 25.9 [95% CI, 16.2-35.6] vs 47.3 [95% CI, 37.8-56.8]; Hedges g = 0.80). Treatment success was greatest during the trauma-focused core phase. The D-CPT participants also showed greater and stable improvement in all secondary outcomes, with between-groups effect sizes ranging from 0.65 to 1.08 at the posttreatment assessment (eg, for borderline symptoms, 14.1 [95% CI, 8.0-20.2] vs 32.0 [95% CI, 23.8-40.2]; Hedges g = 0.91).Adolescents and young adults with abuse-related PTSD benefited more from D-CPT than from WL/TA. Treatment success was stable at the follow-up and generalized to borderline symptoms and other comorbidities.German Clinical Trials Register identifier: DRKS00004787.
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