A method has been devised for the electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets. The method results in quantitative transfer of ribosomal proteins from gels containing urea. For sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, the original band pattern was obtained with no loss of resolution, but the transfer was not quantitative. The method allows detection of proteins by autoradiography and is simpler than conventional procedures. The immobilized proteins were detectable by immunological procedures. All additional binding capacity on the nitrocellulose was blocked with excess protein; then a specific antibody was bound and, finally, a second antibody directed against the first antibody. The second antibody was either radioactively labeled or conjugated to fluorescein or to peroxidase. The specific protein was then detected by either autoradiography, under UV light, or by the peroxidase reaction product, respectively. In the latter case, as little as 100 pg of protein was clearly detectable. It is anticipated that the procedure will be applicable to analysis of a wide variety of proteins with specific reactions or ligands.
This paper briefly reviews commonly used procedures for separation of mononuclear cells (MNC) and granulocytes from human blood with X-ray contrast media as gradient material, and also presents new and modified procedures for leucocyte preparation. Standard techniques for human blood do not always yield satisfactory results with blood from other species. In general pure MNC are easily obtained (top fraction), but often the granulocyte fraction has a low purity, due to contamination with MNC that move to the bottom during centrifugation and contaminate the granulocyte suspension. Obviously the density distribution of MNC differs between species. However, the separation can be improved by fine adjustment of gradient medium osmolality. For this purpose we have used Nycodenz, a non-ionic X-ray contrast medium. A favourable property of Nycodenz solutions is that the osmolality and density can easily be varied over a broad range. The cells react promptly to a change of medium osmolality. In hypertonic medium the cells expel water, shrink, their density increases and they sediment faster, in spite of a smaller radius. Further, the cells may pass what was initially a density barrier. A hypotonic environment has the opposite effect. In the present work we were able to show that a slight change of medium osmolality clearly improved different techniques for separation of leucocyte subgroups. For instance, the Isopaque-Ficoll (IF) technique consistently yielded MNC and granulocytes of high purity with human blood. However, with blood from rabbits, rats and mice the granulocyte suspensions were contaminated by 40-60% MNC. By utilizing Nycodenz, and lowering the osmolality by 10-12 per cent (at constant density--1.077 g/ml) we obtained satisfactory separation of MNC as well as granulocytes with blood from these species. A problem in the routine separation of granulocytes (IF) is a high contamination of erythrocytes (2-5 per cell) in the granulocyte suspension. With a two-layer technique with Nycodenz solutions of different densities it was possible to separate granulocytes almost devoid of erythrocytes, after proper adjustment of osmolality. By appropriate combination of density and osmolality, Nycodenz was a suitable gradient material in other separation procedures as well, e.g. the separation of monocytes and mast cells. To facilitate the use of Nycodenz as a versatile gradient material, a computer program providing recipes for various Nycodenz solutions is included as an appendix.
Ral-interacting protein (RLIP76) (RALBP1) is an anti-apoptotic non-ABC glutathione (GSH)-conjugate transporter involved in receptor-ligand endocytosis, as well as in multispecific drug transport and resistance. Partial inhibition of RLIP76 using antibodies in the absence of chemotherapy drug causes apoptosis in multiple small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and in the presence of doxorubicin (DOX), marked synergy is observed. These findings indicated that RLIP76 should be a good target for cancer cell killing; its down-regulation would promote apoptosis through both drug-dependent and drug-independent effects. To examine the effect of complete and specific RLIP76 depletion on apoptosis, we tested the effects of RLIP76 siRNA in a number of lung cancer cell lines. Growth inhibition and apoptosis was observed in all cases upon RLIP76 depletion. Consistent with these findings, augmenting cellular RLIP76 through transfection or liposomal protein delivery conferred resistance to apoptosis mediated by either DOX or 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Taken together, our results show that RLIP76 is rational and promising new target for lung cancer therapy.
Vinorelbine (Navelbine), an amphiphilic semisynthetic Vinca alkaloid, has displayed superior activity and decreased resistance in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared with other members of its class. Recently, vinorelbine and cisplatin combination chemotherapy has been shown for the first time to confer a significant survival advantage in early-stage lung cancer after surgical therapy. The biological mechanisms underlying the differential response of NSCLC to cytocidal activity of vinorelbine have yet to be elucidated. Our recent findings indicate a role of RLIP76, a non-ATP binding cassette transport protein, in catalyzing the ATP-dependent efflux of structurally and functionally unrelated chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin and vinblastine in NSCLC. Present studies were conducted to assess whether RLIP76 mediates vinorelbine transport and resistance. Here we show that RLIP76 catalyzes the transport of vinorelbine in a saturable manner with respect to vinorelbine (K(m) 75 nmol/L) and ATP (K(m) = 3.4 mmol/L). Three-fold overexpression of RLIP76 in NSCLC and SCLC confers increased resistance to cytotoxicity. RLIP76 overexpression causes a sustained intracellular decrease in vinorelbine concentration because of increased efflux, and anti-RLIP76 antibodies sensitize lung cancer cells to vinorelbine by inhibiting its efflux. These studies for the first time show that RLIP76 mediates vinorelbine transport and is capable of conferring drug accumulation defect and resistance to lung cancer cells.
Although detection of autoantibodies in the peripheral blood from patients with immune-mediated endothelial dysfunctions has so far failed to provide tools of diagnostic or pathogenetic value, putative bioindicators include anti-endothelial cell antibodies, a heterogeneous family of antibodies that react with autoantigens expressed by endothelial cells. In this study, to identify endothelial autoantigens involved in the autoimmune processes causing endothelial damage, we screened a human microvascular endothelial cell cDNA library with sera from patients with Behçet's disease. We identified antibodies to the C-terminus of Ral binding protein1 (RLIP76), a protein that catalyzes the ATP-dependent transport of glutathione (GSH) conjugates including GSH-4-hydroxy-t-2,3-nonenal, in the serum of a significant percentage of patients with various diseases characterized by immune-mediated endothelial dysfunction, including Behçet disease, systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and carotid atherosclerosis. These autoantibodies increased intracellular levels of 4-hydroxy-t-2,3-nonenal, decreased levels of GSH and activated C-Jun NH2 Kinase signaling (JNK), thus inducing oxidative stress-mediated endothelial cell apoptosis. The dietary antioxidant alpha-tocopherol counteracted endothelial cell demise. These findings suggest that autoantibodies to RLIP76 play a pathogenetic role in immune-mediated vascular diseases and represent a valuable peripheral blood bioindicator of atherosclerosis and immune-mediated vascular diseases.
Pityrosporum orbiculare and Candida albicans extracts were separated by SDS-PAGE, and IgE binding was detected by immunoblotting with 21 patient sera that were RAST positive to both yeasts. Cross-wise inhibition was performed of IgE binding of a serum pool containing IgE antibodies to both yeasts. The pool was mixed with serial dilutions of P. orbiculare or C. albicans extracts, and incubated with strips containing separated allergen. IgE binding was quantified by densitometric scanning and percent inhibition was calculated as well as the respective ratios between required extract concentration for 50% inhibition in heterologous compared to homologous inhibition for each component (inhibition ratio). Ten components of P. orbiculare were detected by more than 60% of the sera. IgE binding to C. albicans was weak, and only to four bands was IgE binding detected by more than 30% of the sera. The most important C. albicans allergen was a 48-kDa band, to which IgE of half of the patient sera bound. There was little inhibition of IgE binding to P. orbiculare with C. albicans. Thus, all but three components exhibited an inhibition ratio higher than 100. The inhibition ratio of the 48-kDa C. albicans compound was 50, thus indicating some degree of cross-reactivity. Significant cross-reactivity was shown by C. albicans compounds of 18, 24, 26, 34, and 38 kDa, the inhibition ratios of which were less than 10. There was some degree of cross-reactivity between apparent protein allergens of the two yeasts, but IgE antibodies to C. albicans do not merely reflect sensitization to P. orbiculare.