Citations
All
Search in:AllTitleAbstractAuthor name
Publications
(419)
Patents
Grants
Pathways
Clinical trials
Publication
Journal: The EMBO journal
March/27/2006
Abstract
We used a combination of genome-wide and promoter-specific DNA binding and expression analyses to assess the functional roles of Myod and Myog in regulating the program of skeletal muscle gene expression. Our findings indicate that Myod and Myog have distinct regulatory roles at a similar set of target genes. At genes expressed throughout the program of myogenic differentiation, Myod can bind and recruit histone acetyltransferases. At early targets, Myod is sufficient for near full expression, whereas, at late expressed genes, Myod initiates regional histone modification but is not sufficient for gene expression. At these late genes, Myog does not bind efficiently without Myod; however, transcriptional activation requires the combined activity of Myod and Myog. Therefore, the role of Myog in mediating terminal differentiation is, in part, to enhance expression of a subset of genes previously initiated by Myod.
Publication
Journal: PloS one
November/2/2010
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Dramatic changes in gene expression occur in response to extracellular stimuli and during differentiation. Although transcriptional effects are important, alterations in mRNA decay also play a major role in achieving rapid and massive changes in mRNA abundance. Moreover, just as transcription factor activity varies between different cell types, the factors influencing mRNA decay are also cell-type specific.
RESULTS
We have established the rates of decay for over 7000 transcripts expressed in mouse C2C12 myoblasts. We found that GU-rich (GRE) and AU-rich (ARE) elements are over-represented in the 3'UTRs of short-lived mRNAs and that these mRNAs tend to encode factors involved in cell cycle and transcription regulation. Stabilizing elements were also identified. By comparing mRNA decay rates in C2C12 cells with those previously measured for pluripotent and differentiating embryonic stem (ES) cells, we identified several groups of transcripts that exhibit cell-type specific decay rates. Further, whereas in C2C12 cells the impact of GREs on mRNA decay appears to be greater than that of AREs, AREs are more significant in ES cells, supporting the idea that cis elements make a cell-specific contribution to mRNA stability. GREs are recognized by CUGBP1, an RNA-binding protein and instability factor whose function is affected in several neuromuscular diseases. We therefore utilized RNA immunoprecipitation followed by microarray (RIP-Chip) to identify CUGBP1-associated transcripts. These mRNAs also showed dramatic enrichment of GREs in their 3'UTRs and encode proteins linked with cell cycle, and intracellular transport. Interestingly several CUGBP1 substrate mRNAs, including those encoding the myogenic transcription factors Myod1 and Myog, are also bound by the stabilizing factor HuR in C2C12 cells. Finally, we show that several CUGBP1-associated mRNAs containing 3'UTR GREs, including Myod1, are stabilized in cells depleted of CUGBP1, consistent with the role of CUGBP1 as a destabilizing factor.
CONCLUSIONS
Taken together, our results systematically establish cis-acting determinants of mRNA decay rates in C2C12 myoblast cells and demonstrate that CUGBP1 associates with GREs to regulate decay of a wide range of mRNAs including several that are critical for muscle development.
Publication
Journal: Biomaterials
January/14/2010
Abstract
Recent studies have demonstrated the effect of matrix stiffness on the phenotype and differentiation pathway of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs differentiated into neural, myogenic or osteogenic phenotypes depending on whether they were cultured on two-dimensional (2D) substrates of elastic moduli in the lower (0.1-1 kPa), intermediate (8-17 kPa) or higher ranges (34 kPa). In this study, MSCs were cultured in thixotropic gels of varying rheological properties, and similar results were found for the three-dimensional (3D) culture as for the previous findings in 2D culture. For the 3D cell cultures in thixotropic gels, the liquefaction stress (tau(y)), the minimum shear stress required to liquefy the gel, was used to characterize the matrix stiffness. The highest expressions of neural (ENO2), myogenic (MYOG) and osteogenic (Runx2, OC) transcription factors were obtained for gels with tau(y) of 7, 25 and 75 Pa, respectively. Immobilization of the cell-adhesion peptide, RGD, promoted both proliferation and differentiation of MSCs, especially for the case of the stiffer gels >>75 Pa). This study demonstrated the usefulness of thixotropic gels for 3D cell culture studies, as well as the use of tau(y) as an effective measure of matrix stiffness that could be correlated to MSC differentiation.
Publication
Journal: Molecular reproduction and development
March/11/2002
Abstract
We have devised a PCR-based sexing method that is quick, simple, and highly reproducible. DNA is first extracted from embryonic mouse yolk sac via a 15 min, two-step incubation procedure utilizing PCR-compatible proteinase K buffer. Without any further manipulation the lysate is subjected to 30 cycles of PCR, optimized to run in less than 1 hr. The reaction includes multiplexed primer pairs for Sry and Myog (myogenin) that generate a male specific band of 441 bp and an internal control band of 245 bp, respectively. This robust method is used routinely in our laboratory and gives rapid genotyping results with 98% reliability and 100% accuracy.
Publication
Journal: Development (Cambridge, England)
November/27/2007
Abstract
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Myod directly regulates gene expression throughout the program of skeletal muscle differentiation. It is not known how a Myod-driven myogenic program is modulated to achieve muscle fiber-type-specific gene expression. Pbx homeodomain proteins mark promoters of a subset of Myod target genes, including myogenin (Myog); thus, Pbx proteins might modulate the program of myogenesis driven by Myod. By inhibiting Pbx function in zebrafish embryos, we show that Pbx proteins are required in order for Myod to induce the expression of a subset of muscle genes in the somites. In the absence of Pbx function, expression of myog and of fast-muscle genes is inhibited, whereas slow-muscle gene expression appears normal. By knocking down Pbx or Myod function in combination with another bHLH myogenic factor, Myf5, we show that Pbx is required for Myod to regulate fast-muscle, but not slow-muscle, development. Furthermore, we show that Sonic hedgehog requires Myod in order to induce both fast- and slow-muscle markers but requires Pbx only to induce fast-muscle markers. Our results reveal that Pbx proteins modulate Myod activity to drive fast-muscle gene expression, thus showing that homeodomain proteins can direct bHLH proteins to establish a specific cell-type identity.
Publication
Journal: Molecular biology of the cell
October/1/2006
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue can differentiate into mesodermal lineages. Differentiation potential, however, varies between clones of adipose stem cells (ASCs), raising the hypothesis that epigenetic differences account for this variability. We report here a bisulfite sequencing analysis of CpG methylation of adipogenic (leptin [LEP], peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 [PPARG2], fatty acid-binding protein 4 [FABP4], and lipoprotein lipase [LPL]) promoters and of nonadipogenic (myogenin [MYOG], CD31, and GAPDH) loci in freshly isolated human ASCs and in cultured ASCs, in relation to gene expression and differentiation potential. Uncultured ASCs display hypomethylated adipogenic promoters, in contrast to myogenic and endothelial loci, which are methylated. Adipogenic promoters exhibit mosaic CpG methylation, on the basis of heterogeneous methylation between cells and of variation in the extent of methylation of a given CpG between donors, and both between and within clonal cell lines. DNA methylation reflects neither transcriptional status nor potential for gene expression upon differentiation. ASC culture preserves hypomethylation of adipogenic promoters; however, between- and within-clone mosaic methylation is detected. Adipogenic differentiation also maintains the overall CpG hypomethylation of LEP, PPARG2, FABP4, and LPL despite demethylation of specific CpGs and transcriptional induction. Furthermore, enhanced methylation at adipogenic loci in primary differentiated cells unrelated to adipogenesis argues for ASC specificity of the hypomethylated state of these loci. Therefore, mosaic hypomethylation of adipogenic promoters may constitute a molecular signature of ASCs, and DNA methylation does not seem to be a determinant of differentiation potential of these cells.
Publication
Journal: Epigenetics & chromatin
November/9/2011
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Polycomb group (PcG) genes code for chromatin multiprotein complexes that are responsible for maintaining gene silencing of transcriptional programs during differentiation and in adult tissues. Despite the large amount of information on PcG function during development and cell identity homeostasis, little is known regarding the dynamics of PcG complexes and their role during terminal differentiation.
RESULTS
We show that two distinct polycomb repressive complex (PRC)2 complexes contribute to skeletal muscle cell differentiation: the PRC2-Ezh2 complex, which is bound to the myogenin (MyoG) promoter and muscle creatine kinase (mCK) enhancer in proliferating myoblasts, and the PRC2-Ezh1 complex, which replaces PRC2-Ezh2 on MyoG promoter in post-mitotic myotubes. Interestingly, the opposing dynamics of PRC2-Ezh2 and PRC2-Ezh1 at these muscle regulatory regions is differentially regulated at the chromatin level by Msk1 dependent methyl/phospho switch mechanism involving phosphorylation of serine 28 of the H3 histone (H3S28ph). While Msk1/H3S28ph is critical for the displacement of the PRC2-Ezh2 complex, this pathway does not influence the binding of PRC2-Ezh1 on the chromatin. Importantly, depletion of Ezh1 impairs muscle differentiation and the chromatin recruitment of MyoD to the MyoG promoter in differentiating myotubes. We propose that PRC2-Ezh1 is necessary for controlling the proper timing of MyoG transcriptional activation and thus, in contrast to PRC2-Ezh2, is required for myogenic differentiation.
CONCLUSIONS
Our data reveal another important layer of epigenetic control orchestrating skeletal muscle cell terminal differentiation, and introduce a novel function of the PRC2-Ezh1 complex in promoter setting.