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Publication
Journal: Annual review of biochemistry
September/16/2007
Abstract
Functional antibody genes are assembled by V-D-J joining and then diversified by somatic hypermutation. This hypermutation results from stepwise incorporation of single nucleotide substitutions into the V gene, underpinning much of antibody diversity and affinity maturation. Hypermutation is triggered by activation-induced deaminase (AID), an enzyme which catalyzes targeted deamination of deoxycytidine residues in DNA. The pathways used for processing the AID-generated U:G lesions determine the variety of base substitutions observed during somatic hypermutation. Thus, DNA replication across the uracil yields transition mutations at C:G pairs, whereas uracil excision by UNG uracil-DNA glycosylase creates abasic sites that can also yield transversions. Recognition of the U:G mismatch by MSH2/MSH6 triggers a mutagenic patch repair in which polymerase eta plays a major role and leads to mutations at A:T pairs. AID-triggered DNA deamination also underpins immunoglobulin variable (IgV) gene conversion, isotype class switching, and some oncogenic translocations in B cell tumors.
Publication
Journal: Genes & development
May/30/2000
Abstract
We report the identities of the members of a group of proteins that associate with BRCA1 to form a large complex that we have named BASC (BRCA1-associated genome surveillance complex). This complex includes tumor suppressors and DNA damage repair proteins MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, ATM, BLM, and the RAD50-MRE11-NBS1 protein complex. In addition, DNA replication factor C (RFC), a protein complex that facilitates the loading of PCNA onto DNA, is also part of BASC. We find that BRCA1, the BLM helicase, and the RAD50-MRE11-NBS1 complex colocalize to large nuclear foci that contain PCNA when cells are treated with agents that interfere with DNA synthesis. The association of BRCA1 with MSH2 and MSH6, which are required for transcription-coupled repair, provides a possible explanation for the role of BRCA1 in this pathway. Strikingly, all members of this complex have roles in recognition of abnormal DNA structures or damaged DNA, suggesting that BASC may serve as a sensor for DNA damage. Several of these proteins also have roles in DNA replication-associated repair. Collectively, these results suggest that BRCA1 may function as a coordinator of multiple activities required for maintenance of genomic integrity during the process of DNA replication and point to a central role for BRCA1 in DNA repair.
Publication
Journal: The New England journal of medicine
May/9/2005
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Germ-line mutations in the mismatch-repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 lead to the development of the Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer), conferring a strong susceptibility to cancer. We assessed the frequency of such mutations in patients with colorectal cancer and examined strategies for molecular screening to identify patients with the syndrome.
METHODS
Patients with a new diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma at the major hospitals in metropolitan Columbus, Ohio, were eligible for the study. Genotyping of the tumor for microsatellite instability was the primary screening method. Among patients whose screening results were positive for microsatellite instability, we searched for germ-line mutations in the MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 genes with the use of immunohistochemical staining for mismatch-repair proteins, genomic sequencing, and deletion studies. Family members of carriers of the mutations were counseled, and those found to be at risk were offered mutation testing.
RESULTS
Of 1066 patients enrolled in the study, 208 (19.5 percent) had microsatellite instability, and 23 of these patients had a mutation causing the Lynch syndrome (2.2 percent). Among the 23 probands with the Lynch syndrome, 10 were more than 50 years of age and 5 did not meet the Amsterdam criteria or the Bethesda guidelines for the diagnosis of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (including the use of age and family history to identify patients at high risk for the Lynch syndrome). Genotyping for microsatellite instability alone and immunohistochemical analysis alone each failed to identify two probands. In the families of 21 of the probands, 117 persons at risk were tested, and of these, 52 had Lynch syndrome mutations and 65 did not.
CONCLUSIONS
Routine molecular screening of patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma for the Lynch syndrome identified mutations in patients and their family members that otherwise would not have been detected. These data suggest that the effectiveness of screening with immunohistochemical analysis of the mismatch-repair proteins would be similar to that of the more complex strategy of genotyping for microsatellite instability.
Publication
Journal: Current opinion in genetics & development
April/13/1999
Abstract
Eukaryotic mismatch repair (MMR) has been shown to require two different heterodimeric complexes of MutS-related proteins: MSH2-MSH3 and MSH2-MSH6. These two complexes have different mispair recognition properties and different abilities to support MMR. Alternative models have been proposed for how these MSH complexes function in MMR. Two different heterodimeric complexes of MutL-related proteins, MLH1-PMS1 (human PMS2) and MLH1-MLH3 (human PMS1) also function in MMR and appear to interact with other MMR proteins including the MSH complexes and replication factors. A number of other proteins have been implicated in MMR, including DNA polymerase delta, RPA (replication protein A), PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), RFC (replication factor C), Exonuclease 1, FEN1 (RAD27) and the DNA polymerase delta and epsilon associated exonucleases. MMR proteins have also been shown to function in other types of repair and recombination that appear distinct from MMR. MMR proteins function in these processes in conjunction with components of nucleotide excision repair (NER) and, possibly, recombination.
Publication
Journal: Current biology : CB
April/14/2003
Abstract
BACKGROUND
We have previously proposed that deamination of cytosine to uracil at sites within the immunoglobulin loci by activation-induced deaminase (AID) triggers antibody diversification. The pattern of diversification (phase 1 or 2 hypermutation, gene conversion, or switch recombination) is viewed as depending on the mode of resolution of the dU/dG lesion. A major resolution mode involves excising the uracil, an activity that at least four different enzymes can accomplish in the mouse.
RESULTS
Deficiency in UNG uracil-DNA glycosylase alone is sufficient to distort the pathway of hypermutation in mice. In ung(-/-) animals, mutations at dC/dG pairs are dramatically shifted toward transitions (95%), indicating that the generation of abasic sites (which can induce transversions) has been inhibited. The pattern of substitutions at dA/dT pairs is unaffected. Class-switch recombination is substantially, but not totally, inhibited.
CONCLUSIONS
The results provide strong support for the DNA deamination model for antibody diversification with respect to class-switching as well as hypermutation and, in the context of this model, suggest that (i) UNG is the major mouse DNA glycosylase responsible for processing the programmed dU/dG lesions within the immunoglobulin locus; (ii) the second (dA/dT-biased) phase of mutation is probably triggered by recognition of the initiating dU/dG lesion; and (iii) switch recombination largely proceeds via formation of an abasic site, although (iv) an UNG-independent pathway of switch recombination exists, which could reflect action by another uracil-DNA glycosylase but might alternatively be explained by a distinct pathway of resolution, for example, one involving MSH2/MSH6 recognition of the dU/dG lesion.
Publication
Journal: Nature
November/6/2000
Abstract
DNA mismatch repair ensures genomic integrity on DNA replication. Recognition of a DNA mismatch by a dimeric MutS protein initiates a cascade of reactions and results in repair of the newly synthesized strand; however, details of the molecular mechanism remain controversial. Here we present the crystal structure at 2.2 A of MutS from Escherichia coli bound to a G x T mismatch. The two MutS monomers have different conformations and form a heterodimer at the structural level. Only one monomer recognizes the mismatch specifically and has ADP bound. Mismatch recognition occurs by extensive minor groove interactions causing unusual base pairing and kinking of the DNA. Nonspecific major groove DNA-binding domains from both monomers embrace the DNA in a clamp-like structure. The interleaved nucleotide-binding sites are located far from the DNA. Mutations in human MutS alpha (MSH2/MSH6) that lead to hereditary predisposition for cancer, such as hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, can be mapped to this crystal structure.
Publication
Journal: Genes & development
May/1/1996
Abstract
Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes six genes, MSH1-6, which encode proteins related to the bacterial MutS protein. In this study the role of MSH2, MSH3, and MSH6 in mismatch repair has been examined by measuring the rate of accumulating mutations and mutation spectrum in strains containing different combinations of msh2, msh3, and msh6 mutations and by studying the physical interaction between the MSH2 protein and the MSH3 and MSH6 proteins. The results indicate that S. cerevisiae has two pathways of MSH2-dependent mismatch repair: one that recognized single-base mispairs and requires MSH2 and MSH6, and a second that recognizes insertion/deletion mispairs and requires a combination of either MSH2 and MSH6 or MSH2 and MSH3. The redundancy of MSH3 and MSH6 explains the greater prevalence of hmsh2 mutations in HNPCC families and suggests how the role of hmsh3 and hmsh6 mutations in cancer susceptibility could be analyzed.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
January/8/2012
Abstract
Inherited loss-of-function mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and other tumor suppressor genes predispose to ovarian carcinomas, but the overall burden of disease due to inherited mutations is not known. Using targeted capture and massively parallel genomic sequencing, we screened for germ-line mutations in 21 tumor suppressor genes in genomic DNA from women with primary ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma. Subjects were consecutively enrolled at diagnosis and not selected for age or family history. All classes of mutations, including point mutations and large genomic deletions and insertions, were detected. Of 360 subjects, 24% carried germ-line loss-of-function mutations: 18% in BRCA1 or BRCA2 and 6% in BARD1, BRIP1, CHEK2, MRE11A, MSH6, NBN, PALB2, RAD50, RAD51C, or TP53. Six of these genes were not previously implicated in inherited ovarian carcinoma. Primary carcinomas were generally characterized by genomic loss of normal alleles of the mutant genes. Of women with inherited mutations,>>30% had no family history of breast or ovarian carcinoma, and>>35% were 60 y or older at diagnosis. More patients with ovarian carcinoma carry cancer-predisposing mutations and in more genes than previously appreciated. Comprehensive genetic testing for inherited carcinoma is warranted for all women with ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma, regardless of age or family history. Clinical genetic testing is currently done gene by gene, with each test costing thousands of dollars. In contrast, massively parallel sequencing allows such testing for many genes simultaneously at low cost.
Publication
Journal: Molecular cell
December/13/2004
Abstract
AID-mediated deamination of dC residues within the immunoglobulin locus generates dU:dG lesions whose resolution leads to class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. The dU:dG pair is a mismatch and comprises a base foreign to DNA and is, thus, recognized by proteins from both base excision (uracil-DNA glycosylase, UNG) and mismatch recognition (MSH2/MSH6) pathways. Strikingly, while antibody diversification is perturbed by single deficiency in either UNG or MSH2, combined UNG/MSH2 deficiency leads to a total ablation both of switch recombination and of IgV hypermutation at dA:dT pairs. The initiating dU:dG lesions appear not to be recognized and are simply replicated over. The results indicate that the major pathway for switch recombination occurs through uracil excision with mismatch recognition of dU:dG providing a backup; the second phase of hypermutation (essentially introducing mutations solely at dA:dT pairs) is triggered by mismatch recognition of the dU:dG lesion with uracil excision providing a backup.
Publication
Journal: JAMA
September/28/2006
Abstract
BACKGROUND
About 2% of all colorectal cancer occurs in the context of the autosomal dominantly inherited Lynch syndrome, which is due to mutations in mismatch repair genes. Potential risk-reducing interventions are recommended for individuals known to have these mutations.
OBJECTIVE
To review cancer risks and data on screening efficacy in the context of Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) and to provide recommendations for clinical management for affected families, based on available evidence and expert opinion.
METHODS
A systematic literature search using PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, reference list review of retrieved articles, manual searches of relevant articles, and direct communication with other researchers in the field. Search terms included hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer, Lynch syndrome, microsatellite instability, mismatch repair genes, and terms related to the biology of Lynch syndrome. Only peer-reviewed, full-text, English-language articles concerning human subjects published between January 1, 1996, and February 2006 were included. The US Preventive Services Task Force's 2-tier system was adapted to describe the quality of evidence and to assign strength to the recommendations for each guideline.
RESULTS
The evidence supports colonoscopic surveillance for individuals with Lynch syndrome, although the optimal age at initiation and frequency of examinations is unresolved. Colonoscopy is recommended every 1 to 2 years starting at ages 20 to 25 years (age 30 years for those with MSH6 mutations), or 10 years younger than the youngest age of the person diagnosed in the family. While fully acknowledging absence of demonstrated efficacy, the following are also recommended annually: endometrial sampling and transvaginal ultrasound of the uterus and ovaries (ages 30-35 years); urinalysis with cytology (ages 25-35 years); history, examination, review of systems, education and genetic counseling regarding Lynch syndrome (age 21 years). Regular colonoscopy was favored for at-risk persons without colorectal neoplasia. For individuals who will undergo surgical resection of a colon cancer, subtotal colectomy is favored. Evidence supports the efficacy of prophylactic hysterectomy and oophorectomy.
CONCLUSIONS
The past 10 years have seen major advances in the understanding of Lynch syndrome. Current recommendations regarding cancer screening and prevention require careful consultation between clinicians, clinical cancer genetic services, and well-informed patients.
Publication
Journal: Journal of medical genetics
January/12/2000
Abstract
Familial colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major public health problem by virtue of its relatively high frequency. Some 15-20% of all CRCs are familial. Among these, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), caused by germline mutations in the APC gene, accounts for less than 1%. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also called Lynch syndrome, accounts for approximately 5-8% of all CRC patients. Among these, some 3% are mutation positive, that is, caused by germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes that have so far been implicated (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS1, and PMS2). Most of the remaining patients belonging to HNPCC or HNPCC-like families are still molecularly unexplained. Among the remaining familial CRCs, a large proportion is probably caused by gene mutations and polymorphisms of low penetrance, of which the I1307K polymorphism in the APC gene is a prime example. Molecular genetic findings have enabled hereditary CRC to be divided into two groups: (1) tumours that show microsatellite instability (MSI), occur more frequently in the right colon, have diploid DNA, harbour characteristic mutations such as transforming growth factor beta type II receptor and BAX, and behave indolently, of which HNPCC is an example; and (2) tumours with chromosomal instability (CIN), which tend to be left sided, show aneuploid DNA, harbour characteristic mutations such as K-ras, APC, and p53, and behave aggressively, of which FAP is an example. This review focuses most heavily on the clinical features, pathology, molecular genetics, surveillance, and management including prophylactic surgery in HNPCC. Because of the difficulty in diagnosing HNPCC, a detailed differential diagnosis of the several hereditary CRC variants is provided. The extant genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity in CRC leads to the conclusion that it is no longer appropriate to discuss the genetics of CRC without defining the specific hereditary CRC syndrome of concern. Therefore, it is important to ascertain cancer of all anatomical sites, as well as non-cancer phenotypic stigmata (such as the perioral and mucosal pigmentations in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome), when taking a family cancer history.
Authors