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Publication
Journal: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
February/17/2020
Abstract
Since December 2019, an outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, and rapidly spread to almost all parts of China. This was followed by prevention programs recommending Chinese medicine (CM) for the prevention. In order to provide evidence for CM recommendations, we reviewed ancient classics and human studies.Historical records on prevention and treatment of infections in CM classics, clinical evidence of CM on the prevention of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and H1N1 influenza, and CM prevention programs issued by health authorities in China since the COVID-19 outbreak were retrieved from different databases and websites till 12 February, 2020. Research evidence included data from clinical trials, cohort or other population studies using CM for preventing contagious respiratory virus diseases.The use of CM to prevent epidemics of infectious diseases was traced back to ancient Chinese practice cited in Huangdi's Internal Classic (Huang Di Nei Jing) where preventive effects were recorded. There were 3 studies using CM for prevention of SARS and 4 studies for H1N1 influenza. None of the participants who took CM contracted SARS in the 3 studies. The infection rate of H1N1 influenza in the CM group was significantly lower than the non-CM group (relative risk 0.36, 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.52; n=4). For prevention of COVID-19, 23 provinces in China issued CM programs. The main principles of CM use were to tonify qi to protect from external pathogens, disperse wind and discharge heat, and resolve dampness. The most frequently used herbs included Radix astragali (Huangqi), Radix glycyrrhizae (Gancao), Radix saposhnikoviae (Fangfeng), Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (Baizhu), Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (Jinyinhua), and Fructus forsythia (Lianqiao).Based on historical records and human evidence of SARS and H1N1 influenza prevention, Chinese herbal formula could be an alternative approach for prevention of COVID-19 in high-risk population. Prospective, rigorous population studies are warranted to confirm the potential preventive effect of CM.
Publication
Journal: Scientific Reports
December/12/2016
Abstract
Adulterant herbal materials are a threat to consumer safety. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to investigate the proportions and varieties of adulterant species in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) markets. We used a DNA barcode database of TCM (TCMD) that was established by our group to investigate 1436 samples representing 295 medicinal species from 7 primary TCM markets in China. The results indicate that ITS2 barcodes could be generated for most of the samples (87.7%) using a standard protocol. Of the 1260 samples, approximately 4.2% were identified as adulterants. The adulterant focused on medicinal species such as Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (Renshen), Radix Rubi Parvifolii (Maomeigen), Dalbergiae odoriferae Lignum (Jiangxiang), Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (Shichangpu), Inulae Flos (Xuanfuhua), Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (Jinyinhua), Acanthopanacis Cortex (Wujiapi) and Bupleuri Radix (Chaihu). The survey revealed that adulterant species are present in the Chinese market, and these adulterants pose a risk to consumer health. Thus, regulatory measures should be adopted immediately. We suggest that a traceable platform based on DNA barcode sequences be established for TCM market supervision.
Publication
Journal: BMC Genomics
January/24/2013
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Traditional Chinese medicine uses various herbs for the treatment of various diseases for thousands of years and it is now time to assess the characteristics and effectiveness of these medicinal plants based on modern genetic and molecular tools. The herb Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ or Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is used as an anti-inflammatory agent but the chemical quality of FLJ and its medicinal efficacy has not been consistent. Here, we analyzed the transcriptomes and metabolic pathways to evaluate the active medicinal compounds in FLJ and hope that this approach can be used for a variety of medicinal herbs in the future.
RESULTS
We assess transcriptomic differences between FLJ and L. japonica Thunb. var. chinensis (Watts) (rFLJ), which may explain the variable medicinal effects. We acquired transcriptomic data (over 100 million reads) from the two herbs, using RNA-seq method and the Illumina GAII platform. The transcriptomic profiles contain over 6,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for each of the three flower development stages from FLJ, as well as comparable amount of ESTs from the rFLJ flower bud. To elucidate enzymatic divergence on biosynthetic pathways between the two varieties, we correlated genes and their expression profiles to known metabolic activities involving the relevant active compounds, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and fatty acids. We also analyzed the diversification of genes that process the active compounds to distinguish orthologs and paralogs together with the pathways concerning biosynthesis of phenolic acid and its connections with other related pathways.
CONCLUSIONS
Our study provides both an initial description of gene expression profiles in flowers of FLJ and its counterfeit rFLJ and the enzyme pool that can be used to evaluate FLJ quality. Detailed molecular-level analyses allow us to decipher the relationship between metabolic pathways involved in processing active medicinal compounds and gene expressions of their processing enzymes. Our evolutionary analysis revealed specific functional divergence of orthologs and paralogs, which lead to variation in gene functions that govern the profile of active compounds.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Separation Science
January/21/2009
Abstract
A rapid and simple method has been developed for the screening and identification of natural antioxidants of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ), derived from the flower buds of Lonicera japonica. The hypothesis is that upon reaction with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), the peak areas (PAs) of compounds with potential antioxidant effects in the HPLC chromatograms will be significantly reduced or disappeared, and the identity confirmation could be achieved by HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS hyphenated technique. Using the proposed approach, about 14 compounds in the FLJ extract were found to possess a potential antioxidant activity. They were identified as chlorogenic acid (1), 1-O-caffeoylquinic acid (1-O-CQA, 2), caffeic acid (4), 4-O-CQA (5), rutin (7), isoquercitrin (8), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (9), lonicerin (10), 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4,5-O-diCQA, 11), 3,5-O-diCQA (12), 1,3-O-diCQA (13), 3,4-O-diCQA (14), 1,4-O-diCQA (16), and luteolin (17). In addition, the free radical scavenging capacities of the available identified compounds were also investigated by HPLC assay. The results indicated that the compounds with PAs significantly decreasing were natural antioxidants, whereas those with PAs not changing presented no activities, which accordingly indicated that this newly proposed method could be widely applied for rapid screening and identification of natural antioxidants from complex matrices including Chinese herbal medicines.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
September/21/2010
Abstract
Twenty traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against four common oral bacteria. TCMs were tested for sensitivity against Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Aliquots of suspension of each bacterial species were inoculated onto a horse blood agar plate with TCMs soaked separately on 6mm paper disks. The plates were incubated for 48h anaerobically and the mean diameters of growth inhibition of three different areas obtained. 0.2% (w/v) chlorhexidine was used as a positive control. Broth microdilution assay was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Fructus armeniaca mume was effective against all four bacteria. Thirteen TCMs demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis, including Cortex magnoliae officinalis, Cortex phellodendri, Flos caryophylli, Flos lonicerae japonicae, Fructus armeniaca mume, Fructus forsythiae suspensae, Herba cum radice violae yedoensitis, Herba menthae haplocalycis, Pericarpium granati, Radix et rhizoma rhei, Radix gentianae, Ramulus cinnamomi cassia and Rhizoma cimicifugae. Cortex phellodendri showed antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, while Radix et rhizoma rhei was effective against Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis. Fructus armeniaca mume had inhibitory effects against Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
January/8/2015
Abstract
BACKGROUND
A herbal formula (RL) consisting of Rosae Multiflorae Fructus (Yingshi) and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (Jinyinhua) has been traditionally used to treat inflammatory disorders. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory mode and mechanism of action of the ethanol extract of RL so as to provide a pharmacological basis for the use of RL in treating inflammatory diseases.
METHODS
RL consisting of Yingshi and Jinyinhua (in 5:3 ratio) was extracted using absolute ethanol. We investigated its effects on nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor κB (NFκB) in mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
RESULTS
RL could decrease the secretion of NO, IL-6 and TNF-α into the culture medium and the cellular protein levels of iNOS and COX-2, which were associated with the reduction of the phosphorylation/activation of JNK and p38, and the inhibition of the transcriptional activity of NF-κB.
CONCLUSIONS
The present study demonstrated an inhibitory effect of RL on the inflammatory mediators regulated by the NF-κB and MAPK signalling pathways in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, providing a pharmacological basis for RL in the control of inflammatory disorders.
Publication
Journal: Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi
April/13/2020
Abstract
Since the outbreak of 2019-nCoV, the epidemic has developed rapidly and the situation is grim. LANCET figured out that the 2019-nCoV is closely related to "cytokine storm". "Cytokine storm" is an excessive immune response of the body to external stimuli such as viruses and bacteria. As the virus attacking the body, it stimulates the secretion of a large number of inflammatory factors: interleukin(IL), interferon(IFN), C-X-C motif chemokine(CXCL) and so on, which lead to cytokine cascade reaction. With the exudation of inflammatory factors, cytokines increase abnormally in tissues and organs, interfering with the immune system, causing excessive immune response of the body, resulting in diffuse damage of lung cells, pulmonary fibrosis, and multiple organ damage, even death. Arachidonic acid(AA) metabolic pathway is principally used to synthesize inflammatory cytokines, such as monocyte chemotactic protein 1(MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor(TNF), IL, IFN, etc., which is closely related to the occurrence, development and regression of inflammation. Therefore, the inhibition of AA metabolism pathway is benefit for inhibiting the release of inflammatory factors in the body and alleviating the "cytokine storm". Based on the pharmacophore models of the targets on AA metabolic pathway, the traditional Chinese medicine database 2009(TCMD 2009) was screened. The potential herbs were ranked by the number of hit molecules, which were scored by pharmacophore fit value. In the end, we obtained the potential active prescriptions on "cytokine storm" according to the potential herbs in the "National novel coronavirus pneumonia diagnosis and treatment plan(trial version sixth)". The results showed that the hit components with the inhibitory effect on AA were magnolignan Ⅰ, lonicerin and physcion-8-O-β-D-glucopy-ranoside, which mostly extracted from Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Gardeniae Fructus, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Arctii Fructus, Dryopteridis Crassirhizomatis Rhizoma, Paeoniaeradix Rubra, Dioscoreae Rhizoma. Finally the anti-2019-nCoV prescriptions were analyzed to obtain the potential active prescriptions on AA metabolic pathway, Huoxiang Zhengqi Capsules, Jinhua Qinggan Granules, Lianhua Qingwen Capsules, Qingfei Paidu Decoction, Xuebijing Injection, Reduning Injection and Tanreqing Injection were found that may prevent 2019-nCoV via regulate cytokines. This study intends to provide reference for clinical use of traditional Chinese medicine to resist new coronavirus.
Publication
Journal: Phytomedicine
December/14/2014
Abstract
Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL) is a traditional Chinese compound formula prepared from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Scutellariae Radix and Fructus Forsythiae. In this study, we demonstrate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities of SHL in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine alveolar macrophages (MH-S). SHL significantly reduces the transcriptional and translational levels of iNOS and COX-2 as well as the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). It also suppresses the transcription and translation of inflammatory cytokines production, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. These inhibitory effects mainly act via ERK1/2- and p38-mediated AP-1 rather than the NF-κB pathway. In parallel with the anti-inflammatory activity, SHL suppresses LPS-induced intracellular total ROS levels by weakening NADPH oxidase activity, enhancing SOD activity and increasing GSH content. In addition, SHL directly scavenges OH and O2(-). Thus, our study elucidates the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms of SHL in LPS-stimulated MH-S.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
August/17/2016
Abstract
BACKGROUND
As documented in the Chinese Materia Medica Grand Dictionary (), a herbal formula (RL) consisting of Rosae Multiflorae Fructus (multiflora rose hips) and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (Japanese honeysuckle flowers) has traditionally been used in treating inflammatory disorders. RL was previously reported to inhibit the expression of various inflammatory mediators regulated by NF-κB and MAPKs that are components of the TLR4 signalling pathways.
OBJECTIVE
This study aims to provide further justification for clinical application of RL in treating inflammatory disorders by further delineating the involvement of the TLR4 signalling cascades in the effects of RL on inflammatory mediators.
METHODS
RL consisting of Rosae Multiflorae Fructus and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (in 5:3 ratio) was extracted using absolute ethanol. We investigated the effect of RL on the production of cytokines and chemokines that are regulated by three key transcription factors of the TLR4 signalling pathways AP-1, NF-κB and IRF3 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells using the multiplex biometric immunoassay. Phosphorylation of AP-1, NF-κB, IRF3, IκB-α, IKKα/β, Akt, TAK1, TBK1, IRAK-1 and IRAK-4 were examined in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and THP-1 cells using Western blotting. Nuclear localizations of AP-1, NF-κB and IRF3 were also examined using Western blotting.
RESULTS
RL reduced the secretion of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines regulated by transcription factors AP-1, NF-κB and IRF3. Phosphorylation and nuclear protein levels of these transcription factors were decreased by RL treatment. Moreover, RL inhibited the activation/phosphorylation of IκB-α, IKKα/β, TAK1, TBK1 and IRAK-1.
CONCLUSIONS
Suppression of the IRAK-1/TAK1 and TBK1/IRF3 signalling pathways was associated with the effect of RL on inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells. This provides further pharmacological basis for the clinical application of RL in the treatment of inflammatory disorders.
Publication
Journal: Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi
April/13/2020
Abstract
With the rapid outbreak of COVID-19, traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has been playing an active role against the epidemic. However, the screening of TCM is limited by the development cycle and laboratory conditions, which greatly limits the screening speed. This study established optimization docking models and virtual screening to discovery potential active herbs for the prevention and treatment of the novel coronavirus based on molecular docking technology. The crystal structures of 3 CL protease(Mpro) and papain-like protease(PLP) were obtained from PDB database and homologous modeling respectively, and were used to conduct virtual screening of TCMD 2009 database by CDOCKER program. The ingredients scored in the top 100 were selected respectively, and the candidate herbs were ranked by the numbers of hit molecules. Based on Mpro inhibitors screening, 12 322 potential active components were obtained, and the representative active components included aster pentapeptide A, ligustrazine, salvianolic acid B, etc., and Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens, Asteris Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Zingiberis Rhizoma, Dianthi Herba, Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Cistanches Herba were obtained. While 11 294 potential active ingredients were obtained by PLP inhibitor screening, representative active ingredients included gingerketophenol, ginkgol alcohol, ferulic acid, etc., and Codonopsis Radix, Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens, Ginkgo Semen, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Trichosanthis Fructus, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Psoraleae Fructus, Sophorae Flavescentis Radix, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Angelicae Sinensis Radix were chosen. By combining the diagnosis and treatment scheme of Hunan province's and angiotensin converting enzyme 2(ACE2) inhibitors screening from literature, present study also discussed the rational application of candidate herbs to this epidemic situation. Trichosanthis Fructus obtained by PLP inhibitors screening and Fritillaria verticillata obtained by ACE2 inhibitors screening were parts of the Sangbei Zhisou Powder and Xiaoxianxiong Decoction, which might be applicable to the syndromes of cough and dyspnea. Rhei Radix et Rhizoma screened by Mpro and Trichosanthis Fructus screened by PLP were contained in Maxing Shigan Decoction and Xuanbai Chengqi Decoction, and could be applied to the syndromes of epidemic virus blocking lung. Mori Folium, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Forsythiae Fructus obtained by ACE2 inhibitors screening were included in the Sangju Decoction and Yinqiaosan, which might be applicable to the syndromes of warm pathogen attacking lung and cough and dyspnea. The results of this study are intended to provide a reference for the further development of traditional Chinese medicine to deal with the new epidemic.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
January/25/2007
Abstract
Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL) is a traditional Chinese formula containing Lonicerae japonicae flos (LJF), Scutellariae radix (SR) and Forsythiae fructus (FF), and is commonly used to treat acute upper respiratory tract infection, acute bronchitis and light pneumonia. The aim of this study is to compare the pharmacokinetics of SHL and the different combinations of its constitutional herbs, and to investigate the influence of compatibility on the pharmacokinetics of the main active ingredient baicalein. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups and orally administered with SHL, SR, SR+FF and SR+LJF, respectively. At different time points (0, 0.167, 0.333, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 3, 5, 8, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 72 h) after administration, the concentrations of baicalein in rat serum were determined by using HPLC, and main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. It was found that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the parameters, t(1/2) (beta) and C(max) among different combinations of herbs. The results indicate that SHL has delayed the elimination and reduced the bioavailability of baicalein in rat serum.
Publication
Journal: Analytica Chimica Acta
June/11/2012
Abstract
Ethanol precipitation plays a major role in the pretreatment of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae of Qingkailing injection, and is also one of the most popular purification techniques in Chinese herbal medicines. In order to monitor and have a better understanding of the ethanol precipitation process, a PLS model was built based on NIR spectroscopy and HPLC analysis of chlorogenic acid content within the framework of FDA's PAT initiative. Nevertheless, due to the complex mechanism of and the raw materials' natural variability introduced into the ethanol precipitation process, it was unable to foresee the variations in new batches which may jeopardize the robustness of the established model. Therefore, based on the simple interval calculation (SIC) theory, a new model expansion updating strategy which could continuously expand the variation coverage of the calibration model along with the batch proceeding of ethanol precipitation process was proposed. Effects of model updating were validated by an individual batch with 60 samples. After two times of updating, the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) decreased from 0.268 mg mL(-1) to 0.199 mg mL(-1), while the insiders in the object status plot (OSP) increased from 44 to 58, demonstrating the good performance of the proposed approach.
Publication
Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
August/9/2015
Abstract
Lonicerae japonicae flos, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been used for several thousand years in China. Chinese Pharmacopeia once included Lonicerae japonicae flos of Caprifoliaceae family and plants of the same species named Lonicerae flos in general in the same group. Chinese Pharmacopeia (2005 Edition) lists Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos under different categories, although they have the similar history of efficacy. In this study, we research ancient books of TCM, 4 main databases of Chinese academic journals, and MEDLINE/PubMed to verify the origins and effects of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in traditional medicine and systematically summarized the research data in light of modern pharmacology and toxicology. Our results show that Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos are similar pharmacologically, but they also differ significantly in certain aspects. A comprehensive systematic review and a standard comparative pharmacological study of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos as well as other species of Lonicerae flos support their clinical safety and application. Our study provides evidence supporting separate listing of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in Chinese Pharmacopeia as well as references for revision of relevant pharmacopeial records dealing with traditional efficacy of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
March/29/2016
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Lonicerae japonicae has shown antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antioxidant, antiviral, and protective effects in animal models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
OBJECTIVE
To investigate the effects of Flos L. japonicae (FLJ), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, on acute lung inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in vivo, using a murine model.
METHODS
Thirty 6-week-old female BALB/c mice were challenged with intratracheal LPS before treatment with FLJ or vehicle. FLJ was examined for its capacity to influence an LPS-induced increase in IL-10 and decrease in TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 as measured in murine bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF).
RESULTS
FLJ increased nuclear Sp1 binding activity thereby enhancing the expression of IL-10 and decreased nuclear NF-κB binding activities thereby inhibiting the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in the lung. The up-regulation of Sp1 activity by FLJ was through incremental phosphorylation of ERK. By contrast, the down-regulation of NF-κB activity by FLJ was through suppression of the phosphorylation of IκB, p38, and JNK.
CONCLUSIONS
We demonstrated FLJ has protective activity against LPS-induced lung inflammatory cytokine release. Anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, may prove beneficial in the treatment of endotoxin-associated lung inflammation.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
July/17/2013
Abstract
A set of qualitative and quantitative methods based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was established for the geographical origin identification, quantitative determination of active compounds, and fingerprint analysis of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. The spectra of 140 samples from different origins were collected with two NIR instruments from different manufacturers (Thermo Scientific and Buchi). A Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy model was established for the identification of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos from the genuine producing area. Using the established discriminant analysis model, 22 samples from Henan province were predicted with 100% rate of accuracy, while the 68 samples from other producing areas were predicted with 9 samples incorrectly judged. Futhermore, partial least square regression method was used for developing the quantitative calibration models with the reference values determined with a validated HPLC-UV method. The RMSEP values of external validation are 0.169%, 0.048%, 0.172%, 0.007%, 0.203%, and 0.066% for NCA, CA, CfA, 3,4-DCA, 3,5-DCA, and 4,5-DCA, respectively, which indicated that the established models possess satisfactory predictive abilities. In addition, the models established on the primary instrument can also be transferred to the secondary instrument using direct standardization algorithm, which enlarged the application scope of the established models. Since the NIR spectra can reflect the comprehensive quality information of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, a fingerprint analysis method was finally proposed for the quality consistency check of raw materials. The proposed methods are rapid and effective, and possess good portability, which is helpful to the quality control of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos.
Publication
Journal: Talanta
November/13/2013
Abstract
A method of modified diagnostic fragment-ion-based extension strategy (DFIBES) coupled to DFIs (diagnostic fragmentation ions) intensity analysis was successfully established to simultaneously screen and identify the chlorogenic acids (CGAs) in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ) by HPLC-ESI-MS(n). DFIs, such as m/z 191 [quinic acid-H](-), m/z 179 [caffeic acid-H](-) and m/z 173 [quinic acid-H-H2O](-) were determined or proposed from the fragmentation patterns analysis of corresponding reference substances for every chemical family of CGAs. A "structure extension" method was then proposed based on the well-demonstrated fragmentation patterns and was successively applied into the rapid screening of CGAs in FLJ. Considering that substitution isomerism is a common phenomenon, a full ESI-MS(n) fragmentation analysis according to the intensity of DFIs has been performed to identify the CGA isomers. Based on the DFIs and intensity analysis, 41 peaks attributed to CGAs including 4 caffeoylquinic acids (CQA), 7 CQA glycosides, 6 dicaffeoylquinic acids (DiCQA), 10 DiCQA glycosides, 1 tricaffeoylquinic acids (TriCQA), 4p-coumaroylquinic acids (pCoQA), 3 feruloylquinic acids (FQA) and 6 caffeoylferuloylquinic acids (CFQA) were identified preliminarily in a 65-min chromatographic run. It was the first time to systematically report the presence of CGAs in FLJ, especially for CQA glycosides, DiCQA glycosides, TriCQA, pCoQA and CFQA. All the results indicated that the method of developed DFIBES coupled to DFIs analysis was feasible, reliable and universal for screening and identifying the constituents with the same carbon skeletons especially the isomeric compounds from the complex extract of TCMs.
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