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Clinical trials
Journal: Nature
The activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains the least curable form of this malignancy despite recent advances in therapy. Constitutive nuclear factor (NF)-κB and JAK kinase signalling promotes malignant cell survival in these lymphomas, but the genetic basis for this signalling is incompletely understood. Here we describe the dependence of ABC DLBCLs on MYD88, an adaptor protein that mediates toll and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor signalling, and the discovery of highly recurrent oncogenic mutations affecting MYD88 in ABC DLBCL tumours. RNA interference screening revealed that MYD88 and the associated kinases IRAK1 and IRAK4 are essential for ABC DLBCL survival. High-throughput RNA resequencing uncovered MYD88 mutations in ABC DLBCL lines. Notably, 29% of ABC DLBCL tumours harboured the same amino acid substitution, L265P, in the MYD88 Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain at an evolutionarily invariant residue in its hydrophobic core. This mutation was rare or absent in other DLBCL subtypes and Burkitt's lymphoma, but was observed in 9% of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. At a lower frequency, additional mutations were observed in the MYD88 TIR domain, occurring in both the ABC and germinal centre B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCL subtypes. Survival of ABC DLBCL cells bearing the L265P mutation was sustained by the mutant but not the wild-type MYD88 isoform, demonstrating that L265P is a gain-of-function driver mutation. The L265P mutant promoted cell survival by spontaneously assembling a protein complex containing IRAK1 and IRAK4, leading to IRAK4 kinase activity, IRAK1 phosphorylation, NF-κB signalling, JAK kinase activation of STAT3, and secretion of IL-6, IL-10 and interferon-β. Hence, the MYD88 signalling pathway is integral to the pathogenesis of ABC DLBCL, supporting the development of inhibitors of IRAK4 kinase and other components of this pathway for the treatment of tumours bearing oncogenic MYD88 mutations.
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Although papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) displays strong heritability, no predisposing germ-line mutations have been found. We show that a common G/C polymorphism (rs2910164) within the pre-miR-146a sequence reduced the amount of pre- and mature miR-146a from the C allele 1.9- and 1.8-fold, respectively, compared with the G allele. This is matched by a similar decrease in the amount of each pre-miR generated from the corresponding pri-miR-146a in an in vitro processing reaction. The C allele also interfered with the binding of a nuclear factor to pre-miR-146a. The reduction in miR-146a led to less efficient inhibition of target genes involved in the Toll-like receptor and cytokine signaling pathway (TRAF6, IRAK1), and PTC1 (also known as CCDC6 or H4), a gene frequently rearranged with RET proto-oncogene in PTC. In an association study of 608 PTC patients and 901 controls, we found marked differences in genotype distribution of rs2910164 (P = 0.000002), the GC heterozygous state being associated with an increased risk of acquiring PTC (odds ratio = 1.62, P = 0.000007), and both homozygous states protective with odds ratio = 0.42 for the CC genotype (P = 0.003) and odds ratio = 0.69 for the GG genotype (P = 0.0006). Moreover, 4.7% of tumors had undergone somatic mutations of the SNP sequence. Thus, our data suggest that a common polymorphism in pre-miR-146a affects the miR expression, contributes to the genetic predisposition to PTC, and plays a role in the tumorigenesis through somatic mutation. Preliminary evidence suggests that these effects are mediated through target genes whose expression is affected by the SNP status.