An approach is described for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of oxidant-sensitive cysteine thiols in a complex protein mixture using a thiol-specific, acid-cleavable isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) reagent (Applied Biosystems, USA). The approach is based on the fact that only free cysteine thiols are susceptible to labeling by the iodoacetamide-based ICAT, and that mass spectrometry can be used to quantitate the relative labeling of free thiols. Applying this approach, we have identified cysteine thiols of proteins in a rabbit heart membrane fraction that are sensitive to a high concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Previously known and some novel proteins with oxidant-sensitive cysteines were identified. Of the many protein thiols labeled by the ICAT, only relatively few were oxidized more than 50% despite the high concentration of oxidant used, indicating that oxidant-sensitive thiols are relatively rare, and denoting their specificity and potential functional relevance.
This communication reports the development of an LC/MS platform for the analysis of permethylated oligosaccharide alditols that, for the first time, demonstrates routine online oligosaccharide isomer separation of these compounds before introduction into the mass spectrometer. The method leverages a high-resolution liquid chromatography system with the superior fragmentation pattern characteristics of permethylated oligosaccharide alditols that are dissociated under low-energy collision conditions using quadrupole orthogonal time-of-flight (QoTOF) instrumentation and up to pseudo MS(3) mass spectrometry. Glycoforms, including isomers, are readily identified and their structures assigned. The isomer-specific spectra include highly informative cross-ring and elimination fragments, branch position specific signatures, and glycosidic bond fragments, thus facilitating linkage, branch, and sequence assignment. The method is sensitive and can be applied using as little as 40 fmol of derivatized oligosaccharide. Because permethylation renders oligosaccharides nearly chemically equivalent in the mass spectrometer, the method is semiquantitative and, in this regard, is comparable to methods reported using high field NMR and capillary electrophoresis. In this postgenomic age, the importance of glycosylation in biological processes has become clear. The nature of many of the important questions in glycomics is such that sample material is often extremely limited, thus necessitating the development of highly sensitive methods for rigorous structural assignment of the oligosaccharides in complex mixtures. The glycomics platform presented here fulfills these criteria and should lead to more facile glycomics analyses.
The functions of heparan sulfate (HS) depend on the expression of structural domains that interact with protein partners. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) exhibit a high degree of polydispersity in their composition, chain length, sulfation, acetylation, and epimerization patterns. It is essential for the understanding of GAG biochemistry to produce detailed structural information as a function of spatial and temporal factors in biological systems. Toward this end, we developed a set of procedures to extract GAGs from various rat organ tissues and examined and compared HS expression levels using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Here we demonstrate detailed variations in HS GAG chains as a function of organ location. These studies shed new light on the structural variation of GAG chains with respect to average length, disaccharide composition, and expression of low abundance structural epitopes, including unsubstituted amino groups and lyase-resistant oligosaccharides. The data show the presence of a disaccharide with an unsubstituted amino group that is endogenous and widely expressed in mammalian organ tissues.
CD1a is expressed on Langerhans cells (LCs) and dendritic cells (DCs), where it mediates T cell recognition of glycolipid and lipopeptide antigens that contain either one or two alkyl chains. We demonstrate here that CD1a-restricted T cells can discriminate the peptide component of didehydroxymycobactin lipopeptides. Structure analysis of CD1a cocrystallized with a synthetic mycobactin lipopeptide at 2.8 A resolution further reveals that the single alkyl chain is inserted deep within the A' pocket of the groove, whereas its two peptidic branches protrude along the F' pocket to the outer, alpha-helical surface of CD1a for recognition by the TCR. Remarkably, the cyclized lysine branch of the peptide moiety lies in the shallow F' pocket in a conformation that closely mimics that of the alkyl chain in the CD1a-sulfatide structure. Thus, this structural study illustrates how a single chain lipid can be presented by CD1 and that the peptide moiety of the lipopeptide is recognized by the TCR.
Cyclin A is regulated primarily through transcription control during the mammalian cell cycle. A dual mechanism of cyclin A transcriptional repression involves, on the one hand, promoter-bound inhibitory complexes of E2F transcription factors and RB (retinoblastoma) family proteins, and on the other, chromatin-directed histone deacetylase activity that is recruited to the cyclin A promoter early in the cell cycle in association with these RB proteins. This dual regulation maintains transcriptional silence of the cyclin A locus until its transcription is required in S-phase. At that time, RB family members dissociate from E2F proteins and nucleosomal restructuring of the locus takes place, to permit transcriptional activation and resultant S-phase progression to proceed. We have identified a double bromo-domain-containing protein Brd2, which exhibits apparent 'scaffold' or transcriptional adapter functions and mediates recruitment of both E2F transcription factors and chromatin-remodelling activity to the cyclin A promoter. We have shown previously that Brd2-containing nuclear, multiprotein complexes contain E2F-1 and -2. In the present study, we show that, in S-phase, they also contain histone H4-directed acetylase activity. Overexpression of Brd2 in fibroblasts accelerates the cell cycle through increased expression of cyclin A and its associated cyclin-dependent kinase activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that Brd2 is physically present at the cyclin A promoter and its overexpression promotes increased histone H4 acetylation at the promoter as it becomes transcriptionally active, suggesting a new model for the dual regulation of cyclin A.
Deamidation of asparaginyl and isomerization of aspartyl residues in proteins proceed through a succinimide intermediate producing a mixture of aspartyl and isoaspartyl residues. Isoaspartic acid is an isomer of aspartic acid with the C(beta) incorporated into the backbone, thus increasing the length of the protein backbone by one methylene unit. This post-translation modification is suspected to contribute to the aging of proteins and to protein folding disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, so that differentiating the two isomers becomes important. This manuscript reports that distinguishing aspartyl from isoaspartyl residues in peptides has been accomplished by electron capture dissociation (ECD) using a Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS). Model peptides with aspartyl residues and their isoaspartyl analogs were examined and unique peaks corresponding to c(n)*+58 and z(l-n)-57 fragment ions (n, position of Asp; l, total number of amino acids in the peptide) were found only in the spectra of the peptides with isoaspartyl residues. The proposed fragmentation mechanism involves cleavage of the C(alpha)-C(beta) backbone bond, therefore splitting the isoaspartyl residue between the two fragments. Also, a complementary feature observed specific to aspartyl residues was the neutral loss of the aspartic acid side chain from the charge reduced species. CAD spectra of the peptides from the same instrument demonstrated the improved method because previously published CAD methods rely on the comparison to the spectra of standards with aspartyl residues. The potential use of the top-down approach to detect and resolve products from the deamidation of asparaginyl and isomerization of aspartyl residues is discussed.
Although stable isotopic labeling has found widespread use in the proteomics field, its application to carbohydrate quantification has been limited. Herein we report the design, synthesis, and application of a novel series of compounds that allow for the incorporation of isotopic variation within glycan structures. The novel feature of the compounds is the ability to incorporate the isotopes in a controlled manner, allowing for the generation of four tags that vary only in their isotopic content. This allows for the direct comparisons of three samples or triplicate measurements with an internal standard within one mass spectral analysis. Quantitation of partially depolymerized glycosaminoglycan mixtures, as well as N-linked glycans released from fetuin, is used to demonstrate the utility of the tetraplex tagging strategy.
The use of a new electrospray qQq Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometer (qQq-FTICR MS) instrument for biologic applications is described. This qQq-FTICR mass spectrometer was designed for the study of post-translationally modified proteins and for top-down analysis of biologically relevant protein samples. The utility of the instrument for the analysis of phosphorylation, a common and important post-translational modification, was investigated. Phosphorylation was chosen as an example because it is ubiquitous and challenging to analyze. In addition, the use of the instrument for top-down sequencing of proteins was explored since this instrument offers particular advantages to this approach. Top-down sequencing was performed on different proteins, including commercially available proteins and biologically derived samples such as the human E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, UbCH10. A good sequence tag was obtained for the human UbCH10, allowing the unambiguous identification of the protein. The instrument was built with a commercially produced front end: a focusing rf-only quadrupole (Q0), followed by a resolving quadrupole (Q1), and a LINAC quadrupole collision cell (Q2), in combination with an FTICR mass analyzer. It has utility in the analysis of samples found in substoichiometric concentrations, as ions can be isolated in the mass resolving Q1 and accumulated in Q2 before analysis in the ICR cell. The speed and efficacy of the Q2 cooling and fragmentation was demonstrated on an LCMS-compatible time scale, and detection limits for phosphopeptides in the 10 amol/muL range (pM) were demonstrated. The instrument was designed to make several fragmentation methods available, including nozzle-skimmer fragmentation, Q2 collisionally activated dissociation (Q2 CAD), multipole storage assisted dissociation (MSAD), electron capture dissociation (ECD), infrared multiphoton induced dissociation (IRMPD), and sustained off resonance irradiation (SORI) CAD, thus allowing a variety of MS(n) experiments. A particularly useful aspect of the system was the use of Q1 to isolate ions from complex mixtures with narrow windows of isolation less than 1 m/z. These features enable top-down protein analysis experiments as well structural characterization of minor components of complex mixtures.
Electron-transfer dissociation allows differentiation of isoaspartic acid and aspartic acid residues using the same c + 57 and z - 57 peaks that were previously observed with electron capture dissociation. These peaks clearly define both the presence and the position of isoaspartic acid residues and they are relatively abundant. The lower resolution of the ion trap instrument makes detection of the aspartic acid residue's diagnostic peak difficult because of interference with side-chain fragment ions from arginine residues, but the aspartic acid residues are still clearly observed in the backbone cleavages and can be inferred from the absence of the isoaspartic acid diagnostic ions.
Nonenzymatic deamidation of asparagine residues in proteins generates aspartyl (Asp) and isoaspartyl (isoAsp) residues via a succinimide intermediate in a neutral or basic environment. Electron capture dissociation (ECD) can differentiate and quantify the relative abundance of these isomeric products in the deamidated proteins. This method requires the proteins to be digested, usually by trypsin, into peptides that are amenable to ECD. ECD of these peptides can produce diagnostic ions for each isomer; the c. + 58 and z - 57 fragment ions for the isoAsp residue and the fragment ion ((M + nH)((n-1)+.) - 60) corresponding to the side-chain loss from the Asp residue. However, deamidation can also occur as an artifact during sample preparation, particularly when using typical tryptic digestion protocols. With 18O labeling, it is possible to differentiate deamidation occurring during trypsin digestion which causes a +3 Da (18O1 + 1D) mass shift from the pre-existing deamidation, which leads to a +1-Da mass shift. This paper demonstrates the use of (18)O labeling to monitor three rapidly deamidating peptides released from proteins (calmodulin, ribonuclease A, and lysozyme) during the time course of trypsin digestion processes, and shows that the fast (approximately 4 h) trypsin digestion process generates no additional detectable peptide deamidations.
Electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance tandem mass spectrometry is used to study the influence of charge state on the product ion spectra of chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides for determination of the sulfate position on N-acetylgalactosamine residues. Sustained off-resonance irradiation collision-induced dissociation and infrared multiphoton dissociation are investigated for tandem mass spectrometry of chondroitin sulfate. Product ion spectra were obtained for ions of varying charge states from (4,5)-unsaturated (delta-unsaturated), reduced delta-unsaturated, and saturated oligosaccharides from chondroitin sulfate A and chondroitin sulfate C, separately. It was observed that ions in which the charge (z) is less than the number of sulfates dissociate to produce predominantly even-numbered B(n), C(n), Y(n), and Z(n) ions, and that odd-numbered fragment ions are observed for ions that have z equal to the number of sulfates. Sulfate adducted ions were observed in the product ion spectra of singly charged tetramer and hexamer oligosaccharides. This sulfate adduction was determined to result from migration of neutral sulfate during excitation.
p21ras GTPase is the protein product of the most commonly mutated human oncogene and has been identified as a target for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Posttranslational modification of reactive thiols, by reversible S-glutathiolation and S-nitrosation, and potentially also by irreversible oxidation, may have significant effects on p21ras activity. Here we used an isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) and mass spectrometry to quantitate the reversible and irreversible oxidative posttranslational thiol modifications of p21ras caused by peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) or glutathione disulfide (GSSG). The activity of p21ras was significantly increased after exposure to GSSG, but not to ONOO(-). The results of LC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic peptides of p21ras treated with ONOO(-) showed that ICAT labeling of Cys(118) was decreased by 47%, whereas Cys(80) was not significantly affected and was thereby shown to be less reactive. The extent of S-glutathiolation of Cys(118) by GSSG was 53%, and that of the terminal cysteines was 85%, as estimated by the decrease in ICAT labeling. The changes in ICAT labeling caused by GSSG were reversible by chemical reduction, but those caused by peroxynitrite were irreversible. The quantitative changes in thiol modification caused by GSSG associated with increased activity demonstrate the potential importance of redox modulation of p21ras.
Articular cartilage is a highly specialized smooth connective tissue whose proper functioning depends on the maintenance of an extracellular matrix consisting of an integrated assembly of collagens, glycoproteins, proteoglycans (PG), and glycosaminoglycans. Isomeric chondroitin sulfate glycoforms differing in position and degree of sulfation and uronic acid epimerization play specific and distinct functional roles during development and disease onset. This work introduces a novel glycosaminoglycan extraction method for the quantification of mixtures of chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides from intact cartilage tissue for mass spectral analysis. Glycosaminoglycans were extracted from intact cartilage samples using a combination of ethanol precipitation and enzymatic release followed by reversed-phase and strong anion exchange solid-phase extraction steps. Extracted chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans were partially depolymerized using chondroitinases, labeled with 2-anthranilic acid-d(4) (2-AA) and subjected to size exclusion chromatography with online electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection in the negative ion mode. The method presented herein enabled simultaneous determination of sulfate position and uronic acid epimerization in juvenile bovine and adult human cartilage samples. The method was applied to a series of 13 adult human cartilage explants. Standard deviation of the mean for the measurements was 1.6 on average. Coefficients of variation were approximately 4% for all compositions of 40% or greater. These results show that the new method has sufficient accuracy to allow determination of topographical distribution of glycoforms in connective tissue.
Thin-layer chromatography (TLC), which is widely used for separation of glycolipids, oligosaccharides, lipids, and compounds of environmental and pharmaceutical interest, can be readily coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometers, but this arrangement usually compromises mass spectral resolution due to the irregularity of the TLC surface. However, TLC can be coupled to an external ion source MALDI-Fourier transform (FT) MS instrument without compromising mass accuracy and resolution of the spectra. Furthermore, when the FTMS has a vibrationally cooled MALDI ion source, fragile glycolipids can be desorbed from TLC plates without fragmentation, even to the point that desorption of intact molecules from "hot"matrixes such as alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid is possible. In this work, whole brain gangliosides are separated using TLC; the TLC plates are attached directly to the MALDI target, where the gangliosides are desorbed, ionized, and detected in the FTMS with >70 000 resolving power.
The MIRAGE guidelines are being developed in response to a critical need in the glycobiology community to clarify glycoanalytic results so that they are more readily evaluated (in terms of their scope and depth) and to facilitate the reproduction of important results in the laboratory. The molecular and biological complexity of the glycosylation process makes thorough reporting of the results of a glycomics experiment a highly challenging endeavor. The resulting data specify the identity and quantity of complex structures, the precise molecular features of which are sometimes inferred using prior knowledge, such as familiarity with a particular biosynthetic mechanism. Specifying the exact methods and assumptions that were used to assign and quantify reported structures allows the interested scientist to appreciate the scope and depth of the analysis. Mass spectrometry (MS) is the most widely used tool for glycomics experiments. The interpretation and reproducibility of MS-based glycomics data depend on comprehensive meta-data describing the instrumentation, instrument setup, and data acquisition protocols. The MIRAGE guidelines for MS-based glycomics have been designed to facilitate the collection and sharing of this critical information in order to assist the glycoanalyst in generating data sets with maximum information content and biological relevance.
Electron capture dissociation (ECD) studies of two modified amyloid beta peptides (20-29 and 25-35) were performed to investigate the role of H* radicals in the ECD of peptide ions and the free-radical cascade (FRC) mechanism. 2,4,6-Trimethylpyridinium (TMP) was used as the fixed charge tag, which is postulated to both trap the originally formed radical upon electron capture and inhibit the H* generation. It was found that both the number and locations of the fixed charge groups influenced the backbone and side-chain cleavages of these peptides in ECD. In general, the frequency and extent of backbone cleavages decreased and those of side-chain cleavages increased with the addition of fixed charge tags. A singly labeled peptide with the tag group farther away from the protonated site experienced a smaller abundance decrease in backbone cleavage fragments than the one with the tag group closer to the protonated site. Despite the nonprotonated nature of all charge carriers in doubly labeled peptide ions, several c and z* ions were still observed in their ECD spectra. Thus, although H* transfer may be important for the NC(alpha) bond cleavage, there also exist other pathways, which would require a radical migration via H* abstraction through space or via an amide superbase mechanism. Finally, internal fragment ions were observed in the ECD of these linear peptides, indicating that the important role of the FRC in backbone cleavages is not limited to the ECD of cyclic peptides.
It has been known for decades that the adipocyte cell surface is particularly rich in small invaginations we now know to be caveolae. These structures are common to many cell types but are not ubiquitous. They have generated considerable curiosity, as manifested by the numerous publications on the topic that describe various, sometimes contradictory, caveolae functions. Here, we review the field from an "adipocentric" point of view and suggest that caveolae may have a function of particular use for the fat cell, namely the modulation of fatty acid flux across the plasma membrane. Other functions for adipocyte caveolae that have been postulated include participation in signal transduction and membrane trafficking pathways, and it will require further experimental scrutiny to resolve controversies surrounding these possible activities.
This study illustrates the utility of tetraplex stable isotope coded tags in mass spectrometric glycomics using three carbohydrate classes. The teteraplex tags allow for the direct comparison of glycan compositions within four samples using capillary scale hydrophilic interaction chromatography with online mass spectrometry. In addition, the ability to discern glycan structural isomers is shown based on the tandem mass spectra of each composition using nanospray ionization. Results are shown for chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, low molecular weight heparins, full length heparins, and N-glycans from alpha-1-acid glycoproteins from four mammalian species. The data demonstrate the value of the tetraplex stable isotope tagging approach for producing high-quality glycomics compositional profiling and fine structural analysis.
The recent discovery of dideoxymycobactin (DDM) as a ligand for CD1a demonstrates how a nonribosomal lipopeptide antigen is presented to T cells. DDM contains an unusual acylation motif and a peptide sequence present only in mycobacteria, but its discovery raises the possibility that ribosomally produced viral or mammalian proteins that commonly undergo lipidation might also function as antigens. To test this, we measured T cell responses to synthetic acylpeptides that mimic lipoproteins produced by cells and viruses. CD1c presented an N-acyl glycine dodecamer peptide (lipo-12) to human T cells, and the response was specific for the acyl linkage as well as the peptide length and sequence. Thus, CD1c represents the second member of the CD1 family to present lipopeptides. lipo-12 was efficiently recognized when presented by intact cells, and unlike DDM, it was inactivated by proteases and augmented by protease inhibitors. Although lysosomes often promote antigen presentation by CD1, rerouting CD1c to lysosomes by mutating CD1 tail sequences caused reduction in lipo-12 presentation. Thus, although certain antigens require antigen processing in lysosomes, others are destroyed there, providing a hypothesis for the evolutionary conservation of large CD1 families containing isoforms that survey early endosomal pathways.
Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection linked to increased risk of premature birth, cervical cancer and HIV. This study defines molecular domains of the parasite surface glycoconjugate lipophosphoglycan (LPG) with distinct functions in the host immunoinflammatory response. The ceramide phospho-inositol glycan core (CPI-GC) released by mild acid had Mr of approximately 8,700 Da determined by MALDI-TOF MS. Rha, GlcN, Gal and Xyl and small amounts of GalN and Glc were found in CPI-GC. N-acetyllactosamine repeats were identified by endo-beta-galactosidase treatment followed by MALDI-MS and MS/MS and capLC/ESI-MS/MS analyses. Mild acid hydrolysis led to products rich in internal deoxyhexose residues. The CPI-GC induced chemokine production, NF-kappaB and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activation in human cervicovaginal epithelial cells, but neither the released saccharide components nor the lipid-devoid LPG showed these activities. These results suggest a dominant role for CPI-GC in the pathogenic epithelial response to trichomoniasis.
Human fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) regulates cellular processes including proliferation, adhesion, motility, and angiogenesis. FGF2 exerts its biological function by binding and dimerizing its receptor (FGFR), which activates signal transduction cascades. Effective binding of FGF2 to its receptor requires the presence of heparan sulfate (HS), a linear polysaccharide with N-sulfated domains (NS) localized at the cell surface and extracellular matrix. HS acts as a platform facilitating the formation of a functional FGF-FGFR-HS ternary complex. Crystal structures of the signaling ternary complex revealed two conflicting architectures. In the asymmetrical model, two FGFs and two FGFRs bind a single HS chain. In contrast, the symmetrical model postulates that one FGF and one FGFR bind to the free end of the HS chain and dimerization require these ends to join, bringing the two half-complexes together. In this study, we screened a hexasaccharide HS library for compositions that are able to bind FGF2. The library was composed primarily of NS domains internal to the HS chain with minor presence of non-reducing end (NRE) NS. The binders were categorized into low versus high affinity binders. The low affinity fraction contained primarily hexasaccharides with low degree of sulfation that were internal to the HS chains. In contrast, the high affinity bound fraction was enriched in NRE oligosaccharides that were considerably more sulfated and had the ability to promote FGFR-mediated cell proliferation. The results suggest a role of the NRE of HS in FGF2 signaling and favor the formation of the symmetrical architecture on short NS domains.
Automated interpretation of high-resolution mass spectra in a reliable and efficient manner represents a highly challenging computational problem. This work aims at developing methods for reducing a high-resolution mass spectrum into its monoisotopic peak list, and automatically assigning observed masses to known fragment ion masses if the protein sequence is available. The methods are compiled into a suite of data reduction algorithms which is called MasSPIKE (Mass Spectrum Interpretation and Kernel Extraction). MasSPIKE includes modules for modeling noise across the spectrum, isotopic cluster identification, charge state determination, separation of overlapping isotopic distributions, picking isotopic peaks, aligning experimental and theoretical isotopic distributions for estimating a monoisotopic peak's location, generating the monoisotopic mass list, and assigning the observed monoisotopic masses to possible protein fragments. The method is tested against a complex top-down spectrum of bovine carbonic anhydrase. Results of each of the individual modules are compared with previously published work.
More than half of all human proteins are glycosylated. Glycosylation defines the adhesive properties of glycoconjugates and it is largely through glycan-protein interactions that cell-cell and cell-pathogen contacts occur. Not surprisingly, considering the central role they play in molecular encounters, glycoprotein and carbohydrate-based drugs and therapeutics represent a greater than $20 billion market. Glycomics, the study of glycan expression in biological systems, relies on effective analytical techniques for correlation of glycan structure with function. This overview summarizes techniques developed historically for glycan characterization as well as recent trends. Derivatization methods key to both traditional and modern approaches for glycoanalysis are described. Monosaccharide compositional analysis is fundamental to any effort to understand glycan structure-function relationships. Chromatographic and electrophoretic separations are key parts of any glycoanalytical workflow. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance are complementary instrumental techniques for glycan analysis. Finally, microarrays are emerging as powerful new tools for dynamic analysis of glycan expression.
Primary amyloidosis (AL) results from overproduction of unstable monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains (LCs) and the deposition of insoluble fibrils in tissues, leading to fatal organ disease. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are associated with AL fibrils and have been successfully targeted in the treatment of other forms of amyloidosis. We investigated the role of GAGs in LC fibrillogenesis. Ex vivo tissue amyloid fibrils were extracted and examined for structure and associated GAGs. The GAGs were detected along the length of the fibril strand, and the periodicity of heparan sulfate (HS) along the LC fibrils generated in vitro was similar to that of the ex vivo fibrils. To examine the role of sulfated GAGs on AL oligomer and fibril formation in vitro, a κ1 LC purified from urine of a patient with AL amyloidosis was incubated in the presence or absence of GAGs. The fibrils generated in vitro at physiologic concentration, temperature, and pH shared morphologic characteristics with the ex vivo κ1 amyloid fibrils. The presence of HS and over-O-sulfated-heparin enhanced the formation of oligomers and fibrils with HS promoting the most rapid transition. In contrast, GAGs did not enhance fibril formation of a non-amyloidogenic κ1 LC purified from urine of a patient with multiple myeloma. The data indicate that the characteristics of the full-length κ1 amyloidogenic LC, containing post-translational modifications, possess key elements that influence interactions of the LC with HS. These findings highlight the importance of the variable and constant LC regions in GAG interaction and suggest potential therapeutic targets for treatment.