p-2: risk prediction of platinum-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy outcome
Best match
All
Search in:AllTitleAbstractAuthor name
Publications
(42)
Publication
Journal: Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
November/5/2017
Abstract
Despite recent advances in cancer therapy, the overall 5-year survival rate of patients with lung cancer remains low. The aim of our study was to search for novel markers for early diagnosis in patients with lung cancer.
Complementary DNA microarray analysis was performed in primary lung adenocarcinomas and cell lines to search for differentially expressed genes, followed by in vivo and in vitro tumorigenic assays to characterize the oncogenic potential of the candidate genes. Gene body methylation was analyzed by 450K methylation array, bisulfite sequencing, and quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assays. In silico analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas data set was also performed.
Inositol-trisphosphate 3-kinase A gene (ITPKA), a kinase with limited tissue distribution, was identified as a potential oncogene. We showed that ITPKA expression is up-regulated in many forms of cancers, including lung and breast cancers, and that overexpressed ITPKA contributes to tumorigenesis. We also demonstrated that ITPKA expression is regulated by epigenetic DNA methylation of ITPKA gene body through modulation of the binding of SP1 transcription factor to the ITPKA promoter. ITPKA gene body displayed low or absent levels of methylation in most normal tissue but was significantly methylated in malignant tumors. In lung cancer, ITPKA gene body methylation first appeared at the in situ carcinoma stage and progressively increased after invasion.
ITPKA is a potential oncogene that it is overexpressed in most tumors, and its overexpression promotes tumorigenesis. ITPKA gene body methylation regulates its expression and thus serves as a novel and potential biomarker for early cancer detection.
Publication
Journal: Cancer research
August/6/2017
Abstract
SUMOylation modifies the interactome, localization, activity, and lifespan of its target proteins. This process regulates several cellular machineries, including transcription, DNA damage repair, cell-cycle progression, and apoptosis. Accordingly, SUMOylation is critical in maintaining cellular homeostasis, and its deregulation leads to the corruption of a plethora of cellular processes that contribute to disease states. Among the proteins involved in SUMOylation, the protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) E3-ligases were initially described as transcriptional coregulators. Recent findings also indicate that they have a role in regulating protein stability and signaling transduction pathways. PIAS proteins interact with up to 60 cellular partners affecting several cellular processes, most notably immune regulation and DNA repair, but also cellular proliferation and survival. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about their role in tumorigenesis and cancer-related processes. Cancer Res; 77(7); 1542-7. ©2017 AACR.
Publication
Journal: Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
June/26/2017
Abstract
The acyltransferase Porcupine (Porcn) is essential for the secretion of Wnt proteins which contribute to embryonic development, tissue regeneration, and tumorigenesis. We have previously discovered four molecular scaffolds harboring Porcn-inhibitory activity. Comparison of their structures led to the identification of a general scaffold that can be readily assembled by modular synthesis. We report herein the development of a triazole version of this new class of Porcn inhibitors. This study yielded IWP-O1, a Porcn inhibitor with an EC50 value of 80pM in a cultured cell reporter assay of Wnt signaling. Additionally, IWP-O1 has significantly improved metabolic stability over our previously reported Porcn inhibitors.
Publication
Journal: Oncogene
October/14/2014
Abstract
The disabled homolog 2 (DAB2) gene was recently identified as a tumor suppressor gene with its expression downregulated in multiple cancer types. The role of DAB2 in lung tumorigenesis, however, is not fully characterized, and the mechanisms of DAB2 dysregulation in lung cancer are not defined. Here we show that low DAB2 levels in lung tumor specimens are significantly correlated with poor patient survival, and that DAB2 overexpression significantly inhibits cell growth in cultured lung cancer cells, indicating its potent tumor suppressor function. We next identify that microRNA miR-93 functions as a potent repressor of DAB2 expression by directly targeting the 3'UTR of the DAB2 mRNA. Using in vitro and in vivo approaches, we demonstrate that miR-93 overexpression has an important role in promoting lung cancer cell growth, and that its oncogenic function is primarily mediated by downregulating DAB2 expression. Our clinical investigations further indicate that high tumor levels of miR-93 are correlated with poor survival of lung cancer patients. The correlations of both low DAB2 and high miR-93 expression levels with poor patient survival strongly support the critical role of the miR-93/DAB2 pathway in determining lung cancer progression.
Authors
Publication
Journal: Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.)
July/18/2013
Abstract
Lung cancers express lower levels of prostacyclin than normal lung tissues. Prostacyclin prevents lung cancer in a variety of mouse models. A randomized phase II trial comparing oral iloprost (a prostacyclin analog) with placebo in high-risk subjects showed improvement in bronchial histology in former, but not current, smokers. This placebo-controlled study offered the opportunity for investigation of other potential intermediate endpoint and predictive biomarkers to incorporate into chemoprevention trials. Matched bronchial biopsies were obtained at baseline and at 6-month follow-up from 125 high-risk individuals who completed the trial: 31/29 and 37/28 current/former smokers in the iloprost and placebo arm, respectively. We analyzed the expression of 14 selected miRNAs by Real Time PCR in 496 biopsies. The expression of seven miRNAs was significantly correlated with histology at baseline. The expression of miR-34c was inversely correlated with histology at baseline (P < 0.0001) and with change in histology at follow-up (P = 0.0003), independent of treatment or smoking status. Several miRNAs were also found to be differentially expressed in current smokers as compared with former smokers. In current smokers, miR-375 was upregulated at baseline (P < 0.0001) and downregulated after treatment with iloprost (P = 0.0023). No miRNA at baseline reliably predicted a response to iloprost. No biomarker predictive of response to iloprost was found. MiR-34c was inversely correlated with baseline histology and with histology changes. Mir-34c changes at follow-up could be used as a quantitative biomarker that parallels histologic response in formalin-fixed bronchial biopsies in future lung cancer chemoprevention studies.
Publication
Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
April/26/2012
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
EML4-ALK fusions define a subset of lung cancers that can be effectively treated with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors. Unfortunately, the duration of response is heterogeneous and acquired resistance limits their ultimate efficacy. Thus, a better understanding of resistance mechanisms will help to enhance tumor control in EML4-ALK-positive tumors.
METHODS
By applying orthogonal functional mutagenesis screening approaches, we screened for mutations inducing resistance to the aminopyridine PF02341066 (crizotinib) and/or the diaminopyrimidine TAE684.
RESULTS
Here, we show that the resistance mutation, L1196M, as well as other crizotinib resistance mutations (F1174L and G1269S), are highly sensitive to the structurally unrelated ALK inhibitor TAE684. In addition, we identified two novel EML4-ALK resistance mutations (L1198P and D1203N), which unlike previously reported mutations, induced resistance to both ALK inhibitors. An independent resistance screen in ALK-mutant neuroblastoma cells yielded the same L1198P resistance mutation but defined two additional mutations conferring resistance to TAE684 but not to PF02341066.
CONCLUSIONS
Our results show that different ALK resistance mutations as well as different ALK inhibitors impact the therapeutic efficacy in the setting of EML4-ALK fusions and ALK mutations.
Publication
Journal: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
December/28/2009
Publication
Journal: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
April/19/2009
Publication
Journal: Nature medicine
August/20/2008
Publication
Journal: Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
October/17/2007
Publication
Journal: Cancer detection and prevention
June/12/2003
Abstract
Green tea is widely consumed throughout the world and is known to possess various beneficial properties that may affect carcinogen metabolism, free radical scavenging, or formation of DNA adducts. Therefore, it is plausible that green tea extract may modify BPDE-induced DNA damage. In this report, we utilized the comet assay to (1) evaluate BPDE-induced DNA damage as a potential marker of cancer susceptibility and (2) assess the ability of green tea to modify BPDE-induced DNA damage. DNA damage in individual comet cells was quantified by (1) visually measuring the proportion of cells exhibiting migration versus those without and (2) the length of damaged DNA migration (comet tail). We detected a dose-response between BDPE concentration and mean comet tail length in EBV-immortalized lymphoblastiod (lymphoid) cell lines. As the concentration of BPDE increased from 0.5 to 3 microM, the length of the mean comet tail length increased proportionally in the 3590P (derived from a healthy subject) and 3640P (derived from a patient with head and neck cancer) cell lines. In separate experiments using lymphoid cells from 21 lung cancer cases and 12 healthy subjects, the mean comet tail length was significantly higher in the lung cancer cases (80.19 +/- 15.55) versus the healthy subjects (59.94 +/- 14.23) (P < 0.01). Similar findings were observed when analyzing the mean percentage of comet induced cells (84.57 +/- 8.85 and 69.04 +/- 12.50, respectively) (P < 0.01). When green tea extract was added in conjunction with BPDE, there was a notable reduction of the mean comet tail length (13.29 +/- 0.97) as compared to BPDE treatment alone (80.19 +/- 15.55) (P < 0.01) in lung cancer cases. There were no statistical differences between the baseline (no treatments) (12.74 +/- 0.63) and the green tea extract treatment (13.06 +/- 0.97) (P = 0.21). These data suggest the modification of lung cancer susceptibility by the green tea extract. Similar results were observed for the percentage of induced comet cells and the statistical trends were similar for the 12 healthy subjects. This preliminary study demonstrated that the detection of BPDE-induced DNA damage via the comet assay may be a useful biologic marker of lung cancer susceptibility. The differential effects in BPDE-induced DNA damage between lung cancer cases and healthy subjects suggests predisposed cancer susceptibility to lung cancer risk. This reports also demonstrated the chemopreventive effects of green tea extract on BPDE-induced DNA damage. These observations provide further support for the application of the comet assay in molecular epidemiologic studies.
Publication
Journal: Oncogene
July/28/2002
Abstract
The human homologue of the Drosophila Roundabout gene DUTT1 (Deleted in U Twenty Twenty) or ROBO1 (Locus Link ID 6091), a member of the NCAM family of receptors, was recently cloned from the lung cancer tumour suppressor gene region 2 (LCTSGR2 or U2020 region) at 3p12. DUTT1 maps within a region of overlapping homozygous deletions characterized in both small cell lung cancer lines (SCLC) and in a breast cancer line. In this report we (a) defined the genomic organization of the DUTT1 gene, (b) performed mutation and expression analysis of DUTT1 in lung, breast and kidney cancers, (c) identified tumour specific promoter region methylation of DUTT1 in human cancers. The gene was found to contain 29 exons and spans at least 240 kb of genomic sequence. The 5' region contains a CpG island, and the poly(A)(+) tail has an atypical 5'-GATAAA-3' signal. We analysed DUTT1 for mutations in lung, breast and kidney cancers, no inactivating mutations were detected by PCR-SSCP. However, seven germline missense changes were found and characterized. DUTT1 expression was not detectable in one out of 18 breast tumour lines analysed by RT-PCR. Bisulfite sequencing of the promoter region of DUTT1 gene in the HTB-19 breast tumour cell line (not expressing DUTT1) showed complete hypermethylation of CpG sites within the promoter region of the DUTT1 gene (-244 to +27 relative to the translation start site). The expression of DUTT1 gene was reactivated in HTB-19 after treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. The same region was also found to be hypermethylated in six out of 32 (19%) primary invasive breast carcinomas and eight out of 44 (18%) primary clear cell renal cell carcinomas (CC-RCC) and in one out of 26 (4%) primary NSCLC tumours. Furthermore 80% of breast and 75% of CC-RCC tumours showing DUTT1 methylation had allelic losses for 3p12 markers hence obeying Knudson's two hit hypothesis. Our findings suggest that DUTT1 warrants further analysis as a candidate for the tumour suppressor gene (TSG) at 3p12, a region defined by hemi and homozygous deletions and functional analysis.
Publication
Journal: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
March/8/1999
Publication
Journal: ACS nano
February/7/2013
Abstract
RNA interference (RNAi)--using antisense DNA or RNA oligonucleotides to silence activity of a specific pathogenic gene transcript and reduce expression of the encoded protein--is very useful in dissecting genetic function and holds significant promise as a molecular therapeutic. A major obstacle in achieving gene silencing with RNAi technology is the systemic delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides. Here we demonstrate an engineered gold nanoshell (NS)-based therapeutic oligonucleotide delivery vehicle, designed to release its cargo on demand upon illumination with a near-infrared (NIR) laser. A poly-L-lysine peptide (PLL) epilayer covalently attached to the NS surface (NS-PLL) is used to capture intact, single-stranded antisense DNA oligonucleotides, or alternatively, double-stranded short-interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules. Controlled release of the captured therapeutic oligonucleotides in each case is accomplished by continuous wave NIR laser irradiation at 800 nm, near the resonance wavelength of the nanoshell. Fluorescently tagged oligonucleotides were used to monitor the time-dependent release process and light-triggered endosomal release. A green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing human lung cancer H1299 cell line was used to determine cellular uptake and gene silencing mediated by the NS-PLL carrying GFP gene-specific single-stranded DNA antisense oligonucleotide (AON-GFP), or a double-stranded siRNA (siRNA-GFP), in vitro. Light-triggered delivery resulted in ~47% and ~49% downregulation of the targeted GFP expression by AON-GFP and siRNA-GFP, respectively. Cytotoxicity induced by both the NS-PLL delivery vector and by laser irradiation is minimal, as demonstrated by a XTT cell proliferation assay.
Publication
Journal: Cancer discovery
November/2/2017
Abstract
Epigenetic targets are exciting new avenues for cancer drug discovery. Zhang and colleagues have designed the open-source EZH2 inhibitor JQEZ5 and shown antitumor efficacy in vitro and in vivo in preclinical studies in murine and human lung adenocarcinoma models expressing high levels of EZH2. Cancer Discov; 6(9); 949-52. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Zhang and colleagues, p. 1006.
Publication
Journal: Cancer research
September/25/2017
Abstract
Oncogene-specific changes in cellular signaling have been widely observed in lung cancer. Here, we investigated how these alterations could affect signaling heterogeneity and suggest novel therapeutic strategies. We compared signaling changes across six human bronchial epithelial cell (HBEC) strains that were systematically transformed with various combinations of TP53, KRAS, and MYC-oncogenic alterations commonly found in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We interrogated at single-cell resolution how these alterations could affect classic readouts (β-CATENIN, SMAD2/3, phospho-STAT3, P65, FOXO1, and phospho-ERK1/2) of key pathways commonly affected in NSCLC. All three oncogenic alterations were required concurrently to observe significant signaling changes, and significant heterogeneity arose in this condition. Unexpectedly, we found two mutually exclusive altered subpopulations: one with STAT3 upregulation and another with SMAD2/3 downregulation. Treatment with a STAT3 inhibitor eliminated the upregulated STAT3 subpopulation, but left a large surviving subpopulation with downregulated SMAD2/3. A bioinformatics search identified BCL6, a gene downstream of SMAD2/3, as a novel pharmacologically accessible target of our transformed HBECs. Combination treatment with STAT3 and BCL6 inhibitors across a panel of NSCLC cell lines and in xenografted tumors significantly reduced tumor cell growth. We conclude that BCL6 is a new therapeutic target in NSCLC and combination therapy that targets multiple vulnerabilities (STAT3 and BCL6) downstream of common oncogenes, and tumor suppressors may provide a potent way to defeat intratumor heterogeneity. Cancer Res; 77(11); 3070-81. ©2017 AACR.
Publication
Journal: International journal of cancer
February/4/2007
Abstract
Identification of a homozygous deletion in cancer cells provides strong evidence for the location of a tumor suppressor gene (TSG). We analyzed the 2p24 homozygous deletion of a non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, NCI-H2882, and found that the deletion size was 3.7 Mbp. Since RhoB, which has been suggested to be a candidate TSG, was located in this region, we analyzed RhoB for alterations in NSCLC. Although we found no mutations in 48 cell lines including 20 NSCLCs, a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis in 128 primary NSCLCs showed that 25 of 62 informative samples had LOH at the RhoB locus. Northern blot analysis of 28 cell lines (including 15 NSCLCs) indicated that RhoB expression was downregulated in 27. We analyzed RhoB expression in 112 primary NSCLCs with immunohistochemistry and found no or a weak RhoB expression in 33 (42%) of 78 adenocarcinomas, whereas we found it in 29 (94%) of 31 squamous cell carcinomas. No or a weak expression of RhoB was more frequently observed in poorly- or moderately-differentiated adenocarcinomas than in well-differentiated ones (p = 0.0014). Furthermore, no or a weak expression of RhoB indicated a tendency to poor patient prognosis. Although hypermethylation was not found at the promoter region, the RhoB expression in NSCLC cell lines was induced by histone deacetylase inhibition, suggesting that RhoB downregulation may be due to histone modification. The present study demonstrates that RhoB expression is frequently downregulated in NSCLCs by multiple mechanisms, suggesting that RhoB is a candidate TSG for NSCLC.
Publication
Journal: Genome medicine
February/23/2017
Abstract
Telomeres maintain genomic integrity in normal cells, and their progressive shortening during successive cell divisions induces chromosomal instability. In the large majority of cancer cells, telomere length is maintained by telomerase. Thus, telomere length and telomerase activity are crucial for cancer initiation and the survival of tumors. Several pathways that regulate telomere length have been identified, and genome-scale studies have helped in mapping genes that are involved in telomere length control. Additionally, genomic screening for recurrent human telomerase gene hTERT promoter mutations and mutations in genes involved in the alternative lengthening of telomeres pathway, such as ATRX and DAXX, has elucidated how these genomic changes contribute to the activation of telomere maintenance mechanisms in cancer cells. Attempts have also been made to develop telomere length- and telomerase-based diagnostic tools and anticancer therapeutics. Recent efforts have revealed key aspects of telomerase assembly, intracellular trafficking and recruitment to telomeres for completing DNA synthesis, which may provide novel targets for the development of anticancer agents. Here, we summarize telomere organization and function and its role in oncogenesis. We also highlight genomic mutations that lead to reactivation of telomerase, and mechanisms of telomerase reconstitution and trafficking that shed light on its function in cancer initiation and tumor development. Additionally, recent advances in the clinical development of telomerase inhibitors, as well as potential novel targets, will be summarized.