clopidogrel versus aspirin in patients at risk of ischemic events
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Pubmed
Journal: Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
June/7/1987
Abstract

A pharmacokinetic comparison of the two recommended dosages of vancomycin given as multiple doses has not been previously performed. Eleven adult subjects with normal renal function randomly received 500 mg every 6 h (five doses) and, later, 1,000 mg every 12 h (three doses). Each dose was infused over 1 h, and regimens were separated by 1 week. Compared with the two-compartment fit, a three-compartment fit significantly reduced the residual weighted sums of squares. Accumulation occurred for both regimens after repeated dosing and was independent of dose. At steady state, concentrations in serum at 1 h showed little variation for the 1,000- or the 500-mg dose regimen (33.7 +/- 3.8 versus 22.6 +/- 3.2 micrograms/ml); trough concentrations were 7.9 +/- 1.7 versus 11.2 +/- 2.2 micrograms/ml, respectively. With the 1,000-mg dose, the terminal half-life was 7.7 +/- 1.8 h, steady-state area under the curve for the dose interval was 227 +/- 28.3 micrograms X h/ml, and total body clearance was 86.1 +/- 8.9 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The red-man syndrome occurred in 9 of 11 volunteers who received 1,000-mg doses and in none of those who received 500-mg doses. We concluded that vancomycin disposition in healthy adults with normal renal function is best described by a three-compartment model, there is relatively little variation in vancomycin disposition in normal volunteers, significant accumulation occurs with multiple dosing, it is inappropriate to use the same therapeutic window for both regimens, and the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin justify a 12-h dose interval; however, a 1-g dose is associated with a significantly greater incidence of the red-man syndrome.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of hepatology
April/26/2007
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Although the antiviral and histological benefits of peginterferon/ribavirin therapy are well established, the effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and sexual health are less certain. This study assessed HRQOL and sexual health in patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis in the HALT-C Trial.

METHODS

Subjects completed SF-36 and sexual health questionnaires prior to and after 24 weeks of peginterferon/ribavirin therapy (n=1144). Three hundred and seventy-three (33%) subjects were HCV RNA negative at week 20 and continued therapy through week 48; 258 were seen at week 72. One hundred and eighty achieved sustained virological responses (SVR) and 78 relapsed.

RESULTS

At baseline, patients had poorer scores for all eight SF-36 domains compared to healthy controls. Patients with cirrhosis had lower HRQOL scores than those with bridging fibrosis, as did patients with higher depression scores. SVR patients had significant improvements in seven domains, whereas relapsers had significant worsening in one domain. Sexual scores improved in SVR patients and decreased in relapsers (p=0.03). In multivariate analyses, improvements in HRQOL and sexual scores were significantly associated with SVR but were less striking in patients with lower depression scores.

CONCLUSIONS

Achievement of SVR after peginterferon/ribavirin therapy improves HRQOL and sexual health in chronic hepatitis C patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis.

Pubmed
Journal: Therapeutic drug monitoring
October/16/2006
Abstract

The opioid partial agonist medication, buprenorphine (BUP), and its primary metabolite, norbuprenorphine (NBUP), are extensively glucuronidated. Sensitive analytical methods that include determination of buprenorphine-3-glucuronide (BUPG) and norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide (NBUPG) are needed to more fully understand the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine. A method has now been developed that uses solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. BUP-d4, NBUP-d3, and morphine-3-glucuronide-d3 were used as internal standards. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.1 and 0.5 ng/mL for each of the analytes in 1-mL of human plasma and urine, respectively, except for NBUP in urine in which it was 2.5 ng/mL. The analytes were stable under the following conditions: plasma and urine at room temperature, up to 20 hours; plasma and urine at -20 degrees C for 119 and 85 days, respectively; plasma freeze-thaw, up to 3 cycles; processed sample, up to 96 hours at -20 degrees C and up to 48 hours on the autosampler; stock solutions at room temperature and at -20 degrees C, up to 6 hours and 128 days, respectively. In plasma collected from 5 subjects on maintenance daily sublingual doses of 16 mg BUP and 4 mg naloxone, respective 0- to 24-hour areas under the curve were 32, 88, 26, and 316 ng/mL x h for BUP, NBUP, BUPG, and NBUPG. In urine samples respective percent of daily dose excreted in the 24-hour urine were 0.014%, 1.89%, 1.01%, and 7.76%. This method allowed us to determine that NBUPG is a major metabolite present in plasma and urine of BUP. Because urinary elimination is limited ( approximately 11% of daily dose), the role of NBUPG in total clearance of buprenorphine is not yet known.

Pubmed
Journal: Gastroenterology
December/11/2006
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Iron overload may cause or contribute to hepatic injury and fibrosis. Mutations in the HFE gene may influence development or progression of chronic liver disease by increasing iron stores or modulating immune responses. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of HFE mutations and serum and hepatic measures of iron status on baseline features and response to lead-in therapy in subjects with advanced chronic hepatitis C enrolled in the Hepatitis C Anti-viral Long-term Treatment to prevent Cirrhosis (HALT-C) Trial.

METHODS

Entry criteria included an Ishak fibrosis score >2 and lack of iron overload (Scheuer iron grade <3+) according to local study pathologists. All baseline biopsy specimens were rescored by consensus of study pathologists, and detailed assessment of stainable iron was performed. Hepatic iron concentrations were measured on portions of 144 liver biopsy specimens. A total of 1051 out of 1145 subjects agreed to HFE mutational testing (C282Y, H63D, S65C).

RESULTS

Thirty-five percent carried at least one HFE gene mutation. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of HFE gene mutations among subjects with fibrosis (35.5%) versus cirrhosis (32.9%). Thirty-three percent of subjects had end-of-treatment and 16% sustained virologic responses. Presence of HFE mutations, in particular the H63D variation, was associated with increased end-of-treatment (40% vs 29%, P = .0078) and sustained virologic responses (20% with HFE mutation vs 14% sustained virologic response without HFE mutation; P = .009).

CONCLUSIONS

Although HFE mutations (especially the most frequent H63D mutation) are associated with increased iron loading, they are also associated with increased sustained virologic responses in US patients with advanced chronic hepatitis C.

Pubmed
Journal: Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
November/29/2007
Abstract

The patterns of fat distribution and their relationship to severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are unknown. The objectives of this study were to define the fat distribution patterns and their relationship to histological severity and metabolic parameters in subjects with NAFLD. Anthropometric indices and total body fat were measured in 123 subjects. Fat distribution patterns were defined as: general, abdominal, limb, truncal, and dorsocervical lipohypertrophy (DCL) a novel finding in NAFLD. Eighty-one (66%) of the subjects were obese, and 94 (76%) had abdominal obesity. Thirty-five (28.5%) had DCL. Whereas body mass index (BMI) correlated best with the presence of diabetes (r = 0.22, P < 0.05), waist circumference (WC) correlated best with hypertension (r = 0.2, P < 0.05), hypertriglyceridemia (r = 0.37, P < 0.001), and insulin resistance (homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance [r = 0.68, P < 0.0001]). None of the patterns of fat distribution were significantly associated with severity of hepatic steatosis. Abdominal obesity (WC) correlated with inflammation (r = 0.2, P < 0.05) only. DCL correlated significantly with the severity of all histological parameters except steatosis. Whereas DCL was the single greatest contributor to the variability in severity of histological parameters, a model combining BMI, WC, and DCL showed the greatest contribution to the variability in severity of individual histological parameters. The addition of steatosis grade to the model significantly increased its contribution to the range of lobular inflammation.

CONCLUSIONS

WC predicts metabolic risk profile with the most significance. However, DCL is most strongly associated with severity of steatohepatitis. WC and BMI added modestly to the contribution of DCL to severity of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

Pubmed
Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
October/6/2011
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

A phase I study was conducted to determine the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for the combination of bortezomib and alvocidib in patients with B-cell malignancies (multiple myeloma, indolent lymphoma, and mantle cell lymphoma).

METHODS

Patients received bortezomib by intravenous push on days 1, 4, 8, and 11. Patients also received alvocidib on days 1 and 8 by 30-minute bolus infusion followed by a 4-hour continuous infusion. Treatment was on a 21-day cycle, with indefinite continuation for patients experiencing responses or stable disease. Dose escalation employed a standard 3 + 3 design until the MTD was identified on the basis of DLTs. Pharmacokinetic studies and pharmacodynamic studies were conducted.

RESULTS

Sixteen patients were treated. The MTD was established as 1.3 mg/m(2) for bortezomib and 30 mg/m(2) for alvocidib (both the 30-minute bolus and 4-hour infusions). Common hematologic toxicities included leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Common nonhematologic toxicities included fatigue and febrile neutropenia. DLTs included fatigue, febrile neutropenia, and elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. Two complete responses (CR; 12%) and five partial responses (PR; 31%) were observed at the MTD (overall response rate = 44%). Pharmacokinetic results were typical for alvocidib and pharmacodynamic studies yielded variable results.

CONCLUSIONS

The combination of bortezomib and alvocidib is tolerable and an MTD has been established for the tested schedule. The regimen appears active in patients with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, justifying phase II studies to determine the activity of this regimen more definitively.

Pubmed
Journal: Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
January/14/2013
Abstract

Hepcidin regulation is linked to both iron and inflammatory signals and may influence iron loading in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among HFE genotype, serum hepcidin level, hepatic iron deposition, and histology in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping for C282Y (rs1800562) and H63D (rs1799945) HFE mutations was performed in 786 adult subjects in the NASH Clinical Research Network (CRN). Clinical, histologic, and laboratory data were compared using nonparametric statistics and multivariate logistic regression. NAFLD patients with C282Y, but not H63D mutations, had lower median serum hepcidin levels (57 versus 65 ng/mL; P = 0.01) and higher mean hepatocellular (HC) iron grades (0.59 versus 0.28; P < 0.001), compared to wild-type (WT) subjects. Subjects with hepatic iron deposition had higher serum hepcidin levels than subjects without iron for all HFE genotypes (P < 0.0001). Hepcidin levels were highest among patients with mixed HC/reticuloendothelial system cell (RES) iron deposition. H63D mutations were associated with higher steatosis grades and NAFLD activity scores (odds ratio [OR], ≥1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: >1.0, ≤2.5; P ≤ 0.041), compared to WT, but not with either HC or RES iron. NAFLD patients with C282Y mutations had less ballooning or NASH (OR, ≤0.62; 95% CI: >0.39, <0.94; P ≤ 0.024), compared to WT subjects.

CONCLUSIONS

The presence of C282Y mutations in patients with NAFLD is associated with greater HC iron deposition and decreased serum hepcidin levels, and there is a positive relationship between hepatic iron stores and serum hepcidin level across all HFE genotypes. These data suggest that body iron stores are the major determinant of hepcidin regulation in NAFLD, regardless of HFE genotype. A potential role for H63D mutations in NAFLD pathogenesis is possible through iron-independent mechanisms.

Pubmed
Journal: Gastroenterology
November/22/2011
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The gradual accumulation of hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease results in clinical complications. The rate of hepatic fibrosis score progression (RFSP) in predicting clinical outcomes was assessed by extending the 4-year Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-term Treatment Against Cirrhosis (HALT-C) Trial to include preenrollment liver biopsies.

METHODS

The RFSP was calculated from the linear regression slope of Ishak fibrosis score vs time in 457 patients with liver biopsies (≥10-mm length) prior to the HALT-C Trial (575 biopsies) plus 1101 on-study biopsies (total 1676 biopsies). Individual slopes were calculated if duration from first to last biopsy was > 4 years.

RESULTS

The RFSP as average fibrosis score vs average time in intervals (0-3 and >3 years prestudy, screening, month 24 and 48 on-study) in 455 patients in cohorts of baseline Ishak score ranged from 0.005 with Ishak score 2 to 0.124 with Ishak 6. The RFSP in individual patients (-0.35 to +0.97 Ishak units/year) had a mean of 0.12 ± 0.23 in 344 patients with prestudy and on-study biopsies (group A) and only 0.17 ± 0.22 in 169 with prestudy and screening biopsies (group B). Group A patients with RFSP slope ≥ 0.2 (95 patients, 27.6%) had higher 7-year cumulative rates of non-hepatocellular carcinoma outcomes (46% vs 8%, respectively) and with a hepatocellular carcinoma (10% vs 3%, respectively) than RFSP slope < 02 (249 patients, 72.4%) (P < .0001). RFSP and screening Ishak score correlated independently (P <.0001) with clinical outcomes in multivariate analysis.

CONCLUSIONS

Rapid RFSP (>0.2), which occurred in 26.7% of HALT-C Trial patients, correlated strongly with clinical outcomes.

Pubmed
Journal: Human pathology
July/17/2012
Abstract

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a global health dilemma. The gold standard for diagnosis is liver biopsy. Ballooned hepatocytes are histologic manifestations of hepatocellular injury and are characteristic of steatohepatitis, the more severe form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Definitive histologic identification of ballooned hepatocytes on routine stains, however, can be difficult. Immunohistochemical evidence for loss of the normal hepatocytic keratin 8/18 can serve as an objective marker of ballooned hepatocytes. We sought to explore the utility of a keratin 8/18 plus ubiquitin double immunohistochemical stain for the histologic evaluation of adult nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Double immunohistochemical staining for keratin 8/18 and ubiquitin was analyzed using 40 adult human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease core liver biopsies. Ballooned hepatocytes lack keratin 8/18 staining as previously shown by others, but normal-size hepatocytes with keratin loss are approximately 5 times greater in number than keratin-negative ballooned hepatocytes. Keratin-negative ballooned hepatocytes, normal-size hepatocytes with keratin loss, and ubiquitin deposits show a zonal distribution, are positively associated with each other, and are frequently found adjacent to or intermixed with fibrous matrix. All 3 lesions correlate with fibrosis stage and the hematoxylin and eosin diagnosis of steatohepatitis (all P < .05). Compared with hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemical staining improves the receiver operating characteristics curve for advanced fibrosis (0.77 versus 0.83, 0.89, and 0.89 for keratin-negative ballooned hepatocytes, normal-size hepatocytes with keratin loss, and ubiquitin, respectively) because immunohistochemistry is more sensitive and specific for fibrogenic hepatocellular injury than hematoxylin and eosin staining. Keratin 8/18 plus ubiquitin double immunohistochemical stain improves detection of hepatocyte injury in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Thus, it may help differentiate nonalcoholic steatohepatitis from nonalcoholic fatty liver.

Pubmed
Journal: The American journal of occupational therapy : official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
November/27/2012
Abstract

OBJECTIVE. To explore the relationship between sensory overresponsivity (SOR) and anxiety in children with autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and typical development. METHOD. Path analysis was used to examine the primary SOR model (Green & Ben-Sasson, 2010) using both physiological and behavioral data. RESULTS. The magnitude of physiological responses to sensory challenge was a mediator variable between predictors (baseline arousal and attention) and outcomes (anxiety and physiological recovery). Behavioral SOR was correlated with anxiety but not with physiological variables. CONCLUSION. The intensity or magnitude of sensory responsivity mediates the relationship between baseline arousal and attention and outcome anxiety and physiologic recovery from sensory challenge. Behavioral tools used to measure SOR do not reflect physiological responsiveness; this mismatch warrants further investigation. SOR can prevent children from participating in the occupations of childhood; the greater the understanding of SOR, the more successful occupational therapy practitioners will be in developing effective interventions.

Pubmed
Journal: Pediatrics
March/25/1982
Abstract

To confirm and extend previous observations of enhanced linear growth in children with chronic renal disease being treated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 and to characterize further the calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc disorders in renal failure, 11 children (mean age 8 +/- 5 years) with chronic renal insufficiency (glomerular filtration rate 18% +/- 13% of normal) were evaluated on the basis of their reciprocal serum creatinine concentrations, height-velocity curves, mineral balances, and radiologic findings. Reciprocal serum creatinine concentrations analyzed retrospectively and prospectively during 32 months of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 therapy showed progression of renal failure at rates linearly identical with those before treatment, thus suggesting that the treatment did not accelerate the rate of deterioration of glomerular filtration rate in chronic anal insufficiency. Indeed, one patient manifested a lesser decline in renal function (P less than .05). The height velocity of six of the children (75%) less than 12 years of age improved markedly over that expected for chronologic and bone ages after one year of treatment with orally administered 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3, 15 to 35 ng/kg/day. All other medications except vitamin D2 were continued at their pretreatment dosage levels throughout the study. Growth velocity was unimproved in two of three children older than 12 years at the initiation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 therapy. Mineral balance data showed significant retention of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc (357 +/- 32 mg/sq m/day, 250 +/- 82 mg/sq m/day, 38 +/- 32 mg/sq m/day, and 1,157 +/- 283 microgram/sq m/day, respectively), after treatment for 12 months. In addition, serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone concentrations returned toward normal. Finally, healing of renal osteodystrophy was radiologically evident after six months of therapy.

Pubmed
Journal: Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics
October/14/2010
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Primary analysis of the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-Term Treatment against Cirrhosis (HALT-C) Trial showed long-term peginterferon therapy did not reduce complications in patients with chronic hepatitis C and advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis.

OBJECTIVE

To assess the effects of long-term peginterferon therapy and disease progression on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), symptoms and sexual health in HALT-C patients.

METHODS

A total of 517 HALT-C patients received peginterferon alfa-2a (90 microg/week); 532 received no additional treatment for 3.5 years. Patients were followed up for outcomes of death, hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic decompensation. Sexual health, SF-36 scores and symptoms were serially assessed by repeated-measures analyses of covariance.

RESULTS

Patients with cirrhosis (n = 427) reported lower general well-being and more fatigue (P < 0.001) than patients with fibrosis (n = 622). Physical scores declined significantly over time, independent of treatment, and patients with cirrhosis reported lower scores. Vitality scores were lower in those with cirrhosis, and treated patients experienced a greater decline over time than untreated patients; HRQOL rebounded after treatment ended. Patients with a clinical outcome had significantly greater declines in all SF-36 and symptom scores. Among men, Sexual Health scores were significantly worse in treated patients and in those with a clinical outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

Clinical progression of chronic hepatitis C and maintenance peginterferon therapy led to worsening of symptoms, HRQOL and, in men, sexual health in a large patient cohort followed up over 4 years (NCT00006164).

Pubmed
Journal: Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
October/15/2012
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Physiological changes that occur during puberty might affect pathologic features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated associations between pubertal development and clinical and histopathologic features of NAFLD.

METHODS

We studied 186 children (age <18 years, 143 boys) with biopsy-proven NAFLD. The population was divided into 3 groups on the basis of Tanner stage (prepuberty, puberty, and postpuberty). Clinical characteristics and histologic features were compared among groups. Multivariable regression models were used to adjust for potential confounders.

RESULTS

After adjusting for other factors, hyperuricemia and low levels of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol were more prevalent among children who entered puberty with lower levels of quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (P < .05). The degree of steatosis, numbers of Mallory-Denk bodies, and diagnostic categories of NAFLD differed among groups (P < .05). There were potential sex differences in associations between stages of puberty and lobular inflammation, hepatocyte ballooning, and borderline steatohepatitis of zone 3; these were therefore not included in multivariable analyses of the overall population. After adjustment for different sets of confounders, patients at or beyond puberty were less likely to have high-grade steatosis, severe portal inflammation, borderline steatohepatitis (zone 1), or a high stage of fibrosis than patients who had not entered puberty (P < .05). On the contrary, the prevalence of Mallory-Denk body was greater among postpuberty subjects (P = .06).

CONCLUSIONS

Steatosis, portal inflammation, and fibrosis are less severe during or after puberty than before puberty among subjects with NAFLD. Postpubescent individuals have a lower prevalence of borderline steatohepatitis of zone 1 but are more likely to have Mallory-Denk bodies. These findings indicate that puberty affects the pathologic features of NAFLD.

Pubmed
Journal: Mineral and electrolyte metabolism
January/17/1985
Abstract

To compare the effects of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) alone and in combination with amiloride on urinary calcium excretion we performed 14 acute studies on 7 patients with vitamin-D-induced calciuria. Each patient was studied first with HCTZ alone, and 1-32 weeks later with the same or lower dose of HCTZ combined with amiloride. Administration of HCTZ alone did not change UCaV during the 1st day of therapy, and caused a significant reduction from 44.4 +/- 28.8 to 26.0 +/- 14.4 mg/m2/24 h (p less than 0.02) on the 4th day. In contrast, combined diuretic regimen caused a significant reduction in UCaV from 36.0 +/- 16.7 to 23.6 +/- 14.4 mg/m2/24 h (p less than 0.02) on the 1st day and further reduction to 13.3 +/- 6.9 mg/m2/24 h (p less than 0.01) on the 4th day. UCaV on the 4th day was significantly lower with the HCTZ-amiloride combination (p less than 0.05). The combined therapy caused a greater reduction in FECa/FENa than HCTZ alone on the 1st day (p less than 0.02) and on the 4th day (p less than 0.01). HCTZ-induced hyperkaluria, hypokalemia and alkalosis were prevented by the addition of amiloride. In another patient, low-dose HCTZ-amiloride had a maximal dissociative effect on FECa/FENa and was more effective than HCTZ given alone in a double dose. 3 patients were treated with the low-dose HCTZ-amiloride regimen for a total of 23 months. UCaV was kept persistently low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Pubmed
Journal: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
April/19/1984
Abstract

A controlled metabolic study to examine the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) treatment on the renal handling of phosphate was conducted in nine patients with X-linked dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, including one with autonomous secondary hyperparathyroidism. Administration of 1,25(OH)2D3 resulted in uniform reduction in serum PTH from 63.6 +/- 14.7 (SD) to 49.3 +/- 14.8 muleq/ml (P less than 0.01), elevation of the tubular threshold for phosphate (TmP/GFR) from 1.41 +/- 0.30 to 1.90 +/- 0.31 mg/dl (P less than 0.01) and increase in serum phosphate from 2.6 +/- 0.7 to 3.4 +/- 1.1 mg/dl (P less than 0.01) in eight PTH-suppressible patients. Four patients treated with phosphate before and during the study (group A) excreted significantly more phosphate than those not treated with phosphate (group B) (P less than 0.001). In the control period, group A also had depressed TmP/GFR and higher concentrations of serum phosphate and PTH. With 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment, serum phosphate in group A became remarkably higher than in group B, 4.28 +/- 0.99 vs. 2.55 +/- 0.31 mg/dl (P less than 0.02), whereas serum PTH and TmP/GFR were similar in both groups. A good inverse linear correlation was found between mean serum PTH and mean TmP/GFR of the groups before and after treatment (r = 0.947); whereas, no correlation was found between TmP/GFR and serum calcium. The patient with autonomous secondary hyperparathyroidism, who was also treated with phosphate, had the lowest TmP/GFR. Administration of 1,25(OH)2D3 had no effect on the serum PTH and phosphate concentrations or on TmP/GFR. We conclude that in patients with X-linked dominant hypophosphatemic rickets PTH modulates to some extent the tubular handling of phosphate, and that the importance of this mechanism increases with therapeutic phosphate supplementation. Simultaneous administration of 1,25(OH)2D3 suppressed PTH activity, raised serum phosphate concentrations, and elevated TmP/GFR.

Pubmed
Journal: Nephron
July/24/1986
Abstract

Peritonitis has proven to be the major deterrent to the further growth of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) as a treatment strategy for end-stage renal disease. The correct treatment of peritonitis remains unsettled as evidenced by the presence of advocates for oral, intravenous or intraperitoneal antibiotic administration. This study examines the pharmacokinetic parameters of intravenous vancomycin when employed in the therapy of peritonitis. One gram of intravenous vancomycin was administered during 7 episodes of peritonitis in 5 patients. Plasma and end-of-dwell dialysate levels were maintained above the minimum inhibitory concentration for Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis for 7 days following this single dose of vancomycin. These data establish the existence of sustained intraperitoneal entry of intravenous vancomycin during peritonitis and raise for speculation its use as the sole therapy in most episodes of gram-positive peritonitis.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
May/14/2016
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common cause of liver disease among US children, may be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The present study sought to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia in children with NAFLD and assess dyslipidemia by liver histology and histologic changes.

METHODS

Individuals in the Treatment of NAFLD in Children (TONIC) trial were included (N = 173). In the TONIC trial, children with NAFLD were randomized to vitamin E, metformin, or placebo for 96 weeks. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) improved in 56 children. Change in lipid levels from baseline and 96 weeks was compared between patients with and without histologic improvement and with and without NASH.

RESULTS

Dyslipidemia was frequent, with low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (< 40 mg/dL) in 61.8%, hypertriglyceridemia (≥ 130 mg/dL) in 50.3%, hypercholesterolemia (≥ 200 mg/dL) in 23.7%, elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (≥ 130 mg/dL) in 21.5%, elevated non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) (≥ 145 mg/dL) in 35.2%, and triglycerides/HDL > 3.0 in 57.2% of patients. Histologic improvement was associated with significant decreases in cholesterol (-11.4 mg/dL vs -1.9 mg/dL, P = 0.04), LDL (-11.2 mg/dL vs -2.1 mg/dL, P = 0.04), and non-HDL-C (-8.8 mg/dL vs 0.5 mg/dL, P = 0.03) compared with those without improvement. Children with NASH resolution had significant decreases in cholesterol (-10.0 mg/dL vs -0.9 mg/dL, P = 0.02) and non-HDL-C (-7.3 mg/dL vs 1.1 mg/dL, P = 0.01) compared with those without NASH resolution. There was no improvement in triglycerides, HDL level, or triglycerides/HDL ratio in either group.

CONCLUSIONS

Dyslipidemia is frequent in children with NAFLD. NASH resolution and histologic improvement are associated with improvements in some forms of dyslipidemia.

Pubmed
Journal: American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology
March/1/2006
Abstract

Knowledge of the stimulatory effects of enteral and parenteral (intravenous) feeding on the synthesis and turnover of trypsin would help in the management of acute pancreatitis, because the disease is caused by the premature activation of trypsin. To investigate this, we labeled intravenous infusions with [1-(13)C]leucine and enterals with [(2)H]leucine and measured isotope enrichment of plasma, secreted trypsin, and duodenal mucosal proteins over 6 h by duodenal perfusion/aspiration and endoscopic biopsy. Thirty healthy volunteers were studied during fasting (n = 7), intravenous feeding (n = 6), or postpyloric enteral feeding [duodenal polymeric (n = 6), elemental duodenal (n = 6), and jejunal elemental (n = 5)]. All diets provided 1.5 g x kg(-1) x day(-1) protein and 40 kcal x kg(-1) x day(-1) energy. Results demonstrated that compared with fasting, enteral feeding increased the rate of appearance (71 +/- 4 vs. 91 +/- 5 min, P = 0.01) and secretion (546 +/- 80 vs. 219 +/- 37 U/h, P = 0.01) of newly labeled trypsin and expanded zymogen stores (1,660 +/- 237 vs. 749 +/- 133 units, P = 0.03). These differences persisted whether the feedings were polymeric or elemental, duodenal, or jejunal. In contrast, intravenous feeding had no effect on basal rates. Differential labeling of the plasma amino acid pool by enteral and intravenous isotope infusions suggested that 35% of absorbed amino acids were retained within the splanchnic bed during enteral feeding and that mucosal protein turnover increased from a fasting rate of 34 +/- 6 to 108 +/- 8%/day (P < 0.05) compared with no change after intravenous feeding. In conclusion, all common forms of enteral feeding stimulate the synthesis and secretion of pancreatic trypsin, and only parenteral nutrition avoids it.

Pubmed
Journal: Biological psychiatry
December/27/1984
Abstract

Dextroamphetamine 30 mg and placebo were administered by mouth in a double-blind randomized cross-over trial to ten subjects. Behavior was assessed and blood samples analyzed for growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), homovanillic acid (HVA), and amphetamine. There was a statistically significant increase in well-being following d-amphetamine as compared to baseline and placebo on both the Amphetamine Interview Rating Scale and the Hopkins Mood Scale. No subject became psychotic. There was a statistically significant increase in GH from baseline to peak following d-amphetamine ingestion. When compared to placebo, the increase in GH was invariable and statistically significant for the 90-min sampling. PRL decreased from baseline following both d-amphetamine and placebo and there was no significant drug-placebo difference. Serum HVA was measured at baseline and 120 min, for eight subjects. Six subjects had an increase in HVA following d-amphetamine but there was no significant drug effect.

Pubmed
Journal: Acta endocrinologica
March/29/1987
Abstract

In order to assess the possible effects of insulin on serum concentrations of trace metals (iron, copper, zinc) and trace metal binding proteins (ferritin, transferrin, coeruloplasmin), five normal females were studied with the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp technique. A 0.1 U/kg insulin bolus was administered, followed by an insulin infusion at a rate of 10 mU/kg/min for 12-16 h. Insulin levels of 1500-2000 microU/ml (9.21-12.28 nmol/l) were attained. When iron levels in serum were assayed colorimetrically, there appeared to be a progressive rise in the mean concentration during the course of the insulin infusion. Direct analysis of serum samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometry also showed that the level of non-haeme iron increased 3-fold in the serum of the subject with the lowest concentration of this metal at the start of the study. In contrast with the results for serum iron, the levels of ferritin, total iron binding capacity (transferrin), zinc, copper and coeruloplasmin were not altered in any subject during the insulin infusion or at 24 h following discontinuation of the infusion. Within 4 h of institution of the hyperinsulinaemic clamp significant reductions in serum levels of potassium, phosphorus, cholesterol, total protein and albumin were noted. As the insulin infusion progressed, the urea nitrogen, uric acid and bicarbonate levels fell as well. These observations suggest that supraphysiologic hyperinsulinaemia of 12-16 h duration may alter serum levels of iron, but not serum levels of zinc, copper or trace metal binding proteins in some individuals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Pubmed
Journal: American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons
July/24/2014
Abstract

The integrin αvβ6 activates latent transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) within the kidney and may be a target for the prevention of chronic allograft fibrosis after kidney transplantation. However, TGF-β also has known immunosuppressive properties that are exploited by calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs); thus, the net benefit of αvβ6 inhibition remains undetermined. To assess the acute impact of interference with αvβ6 on acute rejection, we tested a humanized αvβ6-specific monoclonal antibody (STX-100) in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled nonhuman primate renal transplantation study to evaluate whether αvβ6 blockade alters the risk of acute rejection during CNI-based immunosuppression. Rhesus monkeys underwent renal allotransplantation under standard CNI-based maintenance immunosuppression; 10 biopsy-confirmed rejection-free animals were randomized to receive weekly STX-100 or placebo. Animals treated with STX-100 experienced significantly decreased rejection-free survival compared to placebo animals (p = 0.049). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed αvβ6 ligand presence, and αvβ6 staining intensity was lower in STX-100-treated animals (p = 0.055), indicating an apparent blockade effect of STX-100. LAP, LTBP-1 and TGF-β were all decreased in animals that rejected on STX-100 compared to those that rejected on standard immunosuppression alone, suggesting a relevant effect of αvβ6 blockade on local TGF-β. These data caution against the use of αvβ6 blockade to achieve TGF-β inhibition in kidney transplantation.

Pubmed
Journal: Pharmacogenetics and genomics
June/13/2012
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Genetic factors may play a role in fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). A cirrhosis risk score (CRS7) with seven single nucleotide polymorphisms was previously shown to correlate with cirrhosis in patients with CHC. This study aimed to assess the validity of CRS7 as a marker of fibrosis progression and cirrhosis and as a predictor of clinical outcomes in patients with CHC.

METHODS

A total of 938 patients (677 Caucasians, 165 African-Americans, and 96 Hispanic/Other) in the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis Trial were studied. CRS7 was categorized a priori as high risk (n=440), medium risk (n=310), or low risk (n=188). Patients were assessed for four possible outcomes: fibrosis progression, cirrhosis, clinical outcomes [decompensation or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)], or HCC alone.

RESULTS

Twenty-nine percent (142/493) developed an increase in fibrosis score by greater than or equal to 2 points on follow-up biopsies, 58% had cirrhosis on one or more biopsies, 35% developed at least one clinical outcome, and 13% developed HCC. CRS7 (trend test) was associated with risk for fibrosis progression (P=0.04) with adjusted hazard ratio of 1.27 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.58) and with cirrhosis (P=0.05) with adjusted odds ratio of 1.19 (1.00-1.41). Rates of HCC and clinical outcomes were increased in patients with higher CRS7 scores, but were not statistically significant (P=0.12 clinical outcomes, and P=0.07 HCC). A single nucleotide polymorphism in AZIN1 was significantly associated with fibrosis progression.

CONCLUSIONS

CRS7 was validated as a predictor of fibrosis progression and cirrhosis among Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis patients, who all had advanced fibrosis. CRS7 was not predictive of clinical outcome.

Pubmed
Journal: The American journal of gastroenterology
July/20/2016
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

During the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis Trial, 3.5 years of maintenance peginterferon-alfa-2a therapy did not affect liver fibrosis progression or clinical outcomes among 1,050 previous interferon nonresponders with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis. We investigated whether reduced hepatic inflammation was associated with clinical benefit in 834 patients with a baseline and follow-up biopsy 1.5 years after randomization to peginterferon or observation.

METHODS

Relationships between change in hepatic inflammation (Ishak hepatic activity index, (HAI)) and serum alanine aminotransferase level, fibrosis progression and clinical outcomes after randomization, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA decline before and after randomization were evaluated. Histological change was defined as a ≥ 2-point difference in HAI or Ishak fibrosis score between biopsies.

RESULTS

Among 657 patients who received full-dose peginterferon/ribavirin "lead-in" therapy before randomization, year-1.5 HAI improvement was associated with lead-in HCV RNA suppression in both the randomized treated (P<0.0001) and control (P=0.0001) groups, even in the presence of recurrent viremia. This relationship persisted at year 3.5 in both the treated (P=0.001) and control (P=0.01) groups. Among 834 patients followed for a median of 6 years, fewer clinical outcomes occurred in patients with improved HAI at year 1.5 compared with those without such improvement in both the treated (P=0.03) and control (P=0.05) groups. Among patients with Ishak 3-4 fibrosis at baseline, those with improved HAI at year 1.5 had less fibrosis progression at year 1.5 in both the treated (P=0.0003) and control (P=0.02) groups.

CONCLUSIONS

Reduced hepatic inflammation (measured 1.5 and 3.5 years after randomization) was associated with profound virological suppression during lead-in treatment with full-dose peginterferon/ribavirin and with decreased fibrosis progression and clinical outcomes, independent of randomized treatment.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of clinical microbiology
November/22/1983
Abstract

We studied a patient who developed acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection despite the presence of preexisting antibody to the surface antigen of HBV (anti-HBs). Anti-HBs has been reported to consist primarily of antibody against the common a determinant of HBV. Antibody directed against this major determinant appears to confer protection against HBV, regardless of the subtype. Our patient was shown to have had preexisting anti-HBs of anti-d but not anti-a specificity. She subsequently developed non-A, non-B viral hepatitis followed by an episode of acute hepatitis B after exposure to HBV of the ayw subtype.

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