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vegfa -vascular endothelial growth factor A
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Pubmed
VEGF expression and response to sunitinib in patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Journal: Anticancer research
January/6/2014
Description

OBJECTIVE

To verify whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is associated with distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) and Overall Survival (OS) of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated with sunitinib.

METHODS

We have studied 41 patients with metastatic RCC treated with radical nephrectomy, between 2008 and 2010, and sunitinib. Pathological features were compared with the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) score, DMFS, and with OS, and PFS after first-line therapy.

RESULTS

Tumor stage and grade, VEGF expression and H-score correlated with MSKCC score, DMFS, and with OS; VEGF expression correlated with stage and OS. Patients with higher H-score and higher VEGF expression had a significantly shorter survival; OS after first-line sunitinib therapy and PFS correlated with MSKCC score and DMFS but not with VEGF expression and H score.

CONCLUSIONS

Our data suggest the potential use of tumor cell VEGF expression as a prognostic marker for DMFS and OS, but VEGF does not appear promising as a marker of response to therapy.

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Pubmed
In vivo growth of mantle cell lymphoma xenografts in immunodeficient mice is positively regulated by VEGF and associated with significant up-regulation of CD31/PECAM1.
Journal: Folia biologica
January/9/2014
Description

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive lymphoma subtype with dismal prognosis. New treatments are needed to improve outcome of relapsed/ refractory disease. Recently, several drugs targeting at least partially the process of angiogenesis have been successfully tested in the therapy of MCL. Molecular mechanisms that regulate MCL-induced angiogenesis and that might represent potential new druggable targets remain, however, incompletely understood. We established two mouse models of human MCL by subcutaneous xenotransplantation of JEKO-1 and HBL-2 cell lines into immunodeficient mice. Histological analyses of xenografts confirmed their neovascularization. The growth of xenografts was significantly suppressed by single-agent therapy with bevacizumab, monoclonal antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Subsequently, we analysed expression of 94 angiogenesis related genes in ex vivo isolated JEKO-1 and HBL-2 cells compared to in vitro growing cells using TaqMan low-density arrays. The most up-regulated genes in both JEKO-1 and HBL-2 xenografts were genes encoding platelet/endothelial cell-adhesion molecule (CD31/PECAM1), VEGF receptor 1 (FLT1), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), angiogenin (ANG) and transcription factor PROX1. The most downregulated genes in both JEKO-1 and HBL-2 xenografts were midkine (MDK) and ephrine B2 (EPHB2). In summary, our results demonstrate an important role of angiogenesis in the biology of MCL and provide preclinical evidence of potent anti-MCL activity of bevacizumab. In addition, gene expression profiling of 94 angiogenesis-related targets revealed several in vivo up-regulated and down-regulated transcripts. The most differentially expressed target in both MCL tumours was CD31/PECAM1. Whether any of these molecules might represent a potential druggable target in MCL patients remains to be elucidated.

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Pubmed
Role of serum VEGFA, TIMP2, MMP2 and MMP9 in monitoring response to adjuvant radiochemotherapy in patients with primary cervical cancer--results of a companion protocol of the randomized NOGGO-AGO phase III clinical trial.
Journal: Anticancer research
March/24/2014
Description

OBJECTIVE

The aim of the current study was to analyze the type of variations in expression profiles of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) before and after radiochemotherapy in patients with locally advanced FIGO stage Ib-IIb cervical cancer. We analyzed the role of these biomarkers in monitoring response to treatment.

METHODS

Serum from 72 patients with cervical cancer treated within a phase III trial with either simultaneous radiochemotherapy (S-RC) with cisplatin, or systemic paclitaxel and carboplatin followed by percutaneous radiation (PC-R) was analyzed by ELISA. Sera were obtained during surgery and after the end of adjuvant treatment.

RESULTS

The median age at time of diagnosis was 46 years (range=30-71 years). The most common histological types were squamous cell (73.6%) and adenocarcinoma (25%). Thirty-five (48.6%) patients underwent surgery followed by S-RC and 37 (51.4%) patients were treated with surgery followed by PC-R. Five patients developed recurrence within six months after radiochemotherapy. VEGFA levels were significantly higher before and after adjuvant treatment in patients who developed early recurrence (p=0.001). An increase of more than 500 pg/ml VEGFA and a decrease of more than 9% of the pre-therapeutic value of TIMP2 were significantly associated with a higher risk of early recurrence (RR=8.5, 95% CI=1.8-39.8 and RR=11.0, 95% CI=2.5-48.2, respectively). TIMP2 expression and risk score for early relapse (which is calculated using values of VEGFA and TIMP2) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (p=0.043, HR=0.96, 95% CI=0.93-0.99 and p=0.002, HR=1.09, 95% CI=1.03-1.15, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

Our results indicate a predictive value of VEGFA and TIMP2 in monitoring cervical cancer patients undergoing radiochemotherapy.

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Pubmed
Up-regulation of endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor but not vascular endothelial growth factor in human ectopic endometriotic tissue.
Journal: Fertility and sterility
March/31/2010
Description

OBJECTIVE

To study the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endocrine gland-derived VEGF (EG-VEGF/PK1), and its receptors (PKR1 and PKR2) in eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues.

METHODS

A case-control study.

METHODS

University reproduction unit.

METHODS

Infertile women undergoing diagnostic laparoscopy for tubal patency.

METHODS

Endometrial and endometriotic tissue sampling from women with and without endometriosis.

METHODS

Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of genes in eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues. The EG-VEGF protein was studied by immunohistochemistry.

RESULTS

In normal endometrium, EG-VEGF messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was 50-fold higher in the secretory than in the proliferative phase, but that of PKR1 was 6-fold higher in the latter than in the former. The PKR2 transcript was detected in the proliferative but not the secretory endometrium. In patients with endometriosis, eutopic endometrial PKR2 transcript level was 4-fold higher in the proliferative than in the secretory phase. No differences in EG-VEGF or PKR1 were found in proliferative versus secretory endometrium in these patients. There were no significant differences in the expression of EG-VEGF in eutopic endometrium of normal women and in those with endometriosis. In the paired laser-captured microdissected eutopic endometrial and ectopic endometriotic samples, a significantly higher EG-VEGF, but not VEGF, transcript level was detected in the ectopic when compared with eutopic samples; whereas the expressions of PKR1 and PKR2 were barely detectable. The H-scoring confirmed that the stroma of endometriotic samples had a significantly higher EG-VEGF protein expression than that in the paired eutopic endometrium.

CONCLUSIONS

High levels of EG-VEGF expression may play an important role in angiogenesis in endometriotic tissues.

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Pubmed
[Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta 1 in nasal polyps].
Journal: Zhonghua er bi yan hou ke za zhi
March/3/2004
Description

OBJECTIVE

To study the expression and significance of vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor (VEGF/VPF) and transforming growth factor-beta 1(TGF-beta 1) in nasal polyps.

METHODS

Expression of VEGF/VPF and TGF-beta 1 in nasal polyps from 34 patients and middle turbinates from 30 patients with deviation of nasal septum was prospectively studied with immunohistochemistry. Tissue sections were observed under optical microscope.

RESULTS

(1) The VEGF/VPF positivity in vascular endothelium and in glandular cell was significantly higher in nasal polyps than in middle turbinates (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively); (2) The TGF-beta 1 positivity in extracellular matrix and in cells in the stroma was significantly higher in nasal polyps than in middle turbinates(P < 0.005); (3) The distribution and shape of TGF-beta 1 expressing cells in nasal polyps were similar to that of eosinophil, their positivities were significantly correlative; (4) The positivity of VEGF/VPF and TGF-beta 1 did not correlate with clinical type in nasal polyps (P > 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

(1) The VEGF/VPF may play a key role in the formation of heavy edema of nasal polyps; (2) The TGF-beta 1 may contribute to some of the pathologic changes observed in nasal polyps, such as thickening of the epithelial basement membrane and stromal fibrosis; (3) Eosinophils in nasal polyps represent a major source of TGF-beta 1.

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Pubmed
Rosiglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist, inhibits VEGF secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and ROS production by human leukocytes.
Journal: Inflammation research : official journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et al.]
April/29/2012
Description

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the effects of rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist, on the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes.

METHODS

PBMCs and leukocytes were obtained from venous blood samples collected from 20 healthy individuals. VEGF secretion was evaluated using a commercial ELISA kit, while ROS production was determined using a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay.

RESULTS

Rosiglitazone and calphostin C (a protein kinase C inhibitor) inhibited VEGF secretion by PBMCs by 63.7 and 62.3%, respectively. Both agents reduced ROS production in non-stimulated human leukocytes and down-regulated the enhanced generation of ROS in leukocytes that had been stimulated with the PKC activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate.

CONCLUSIONS

The results support the involvement of PKC as a direct, and/or NADPH-oxidase as an indirect, target for the action of rosiglitazone on VEGF secretion by PBMCs and ROS production in human leukocytes.

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Pubmed
Effects of androgen on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in the penile corpus cavernosum.
Journal: Urology
August/11/2011
Description

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the effect of orchiectomy and androgen replacement on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in rat penile tissue.

METHODS

Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (12 weeks old) were left intact (control) or surgically castrated. Orchiectomized rats were left untreated or received testosterone propionate (TP) for 7 days, beginning 1 or 2 weeks after castration. Erectile function was assessed by measuring intracavernosal pressure in response to cavernous nerve stimulation, and the expression of VEGF protein and mRNA was determined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Serum testosterone values were measured in each animal by radioimmunoassay.

RESULTS

Serum androgen levels decreased significantly in castrated animals, whereas TP injection normalized the serum levels of testosterone. Intracavernosal pressure was significantly decreased in untreated castrated rats (31.3 ± 15.7% at 2 weeks postcastration; 18.6 ± 4.6% at 3 weeks postcastration) compared with intact controls (58.0 ± 11.4% and 58.9 ± 8.2%, respectively). Erectile function was normalized in androgen-replaced rats, irrespective of treatment was initiation 1 or 2 weeks after orchiectomy. The expression of VEGF protein and mRNA was decreased in the corpus cavernosum of castrated animals compared with controls, whereas androgen replacement normalized the expression of VEGF. These results were consistently observed by all 3 methods of assessment.

CONCLUSIONS

These data suggest that androgen regulates the expression of VEGF in rat penile corpus cavernosum and confirms the importance of androgens in the maintenance of erectile function.

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Pubmed
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A isoform mRNA expression in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
Journal: Pediatric blood & cancer
January/20/2011
Description

In AML high VEGFA protein expression correlates with poor overall and relapse-free survival (OS/RFS). To date, the relevance of the various VEGFA isoforms is unclear. We determined VEGF121, VEGF145, VEGF148, VEGF165, VEGF183, and VEGF189 mRNA expression in pediatric AML samples and investigated the relation between VEGFA isoform expression and clinicopatholologic characteristics and outcome. A significant co-expression of VEGF121, VEGF165, VEGF183, and VEGF189 isoforms was apparent (mean rho = 0.716, P < 0.0001). This co-expression justifies measuring a single VEGFA isoform (e.g., 121, 165, 183, and 189) as representative expression of all VEGFA isoforms in future studies designed to determine the prognostic importance of VEGFA isoforms.

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Pubmed
Hypoxia-inducible factor and vascular endothelial growth factor pathway for the study of hypoxia in a new model of otitis media with effusion.
Journal: Audiology & neuro-otology
March/26/2013
Description

The hypoxia-inducible factor and vascular endothelial growth factor (HIF-VEGF) pathway in hypoxic conditions of the middle ear due to dysfunction of the eustachian tube is still unknown, but it is considered as one pathogenetic mechanism in otitis media. This study was designed to investigate the possible involvement of the HIF-VEFG pathway in otitis media with effusion induced by dysfunction of the eustachian tube. We adopted a soft palate approach to obstruct the orifice of the eustachian tube to establish otitis media in a rat model. Auditory evoked brainstem response and tympanometry were used as hearing function tests, hypoxia-related factors were examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of hypoxia-related proteins was detected by Western blot and immunostaining. The model of otitis media with effusion was successfully induced by cauterizing the orifice of the eustachian tube. RT-PCR showed up-regulation of hypoxia-related factors in cauterized ears. Western blot and immunostaining showed that the expression of hypoxia-related proteins in cauterized ears was increased. Hypoxia-induced vascular proliferation and an increase in permeability may be one pathogenetic mechanism of otitis media due to dysfunction of the eustachian tube.

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Pubmed
Regulated expression of the renin-angiotensin-system in human granulosa lutein cells: angiotensin II increases VEGF expression but its synthesis is reduced by hCG.
Journal: Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
June/1/2010
Description

BACKGROUND

The Renin-Angiotensin-System (RAS) has been suspected not only to control vascular tone but also to regulate angiogenesis. Angiotensin II has been shown to influence angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The Corpus luteum undergoes intense VEGF-dependent angiogenesis, regulated by luteinising hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). We therefore hypothesised, that locally produced Angiotensin II could act as a physiological co-regulator with hCG in luteal VEGF expression.

METHODS

We investigated the expression of RAS components and their regulation by hCG in human granulosa lutein cells using RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. In addition, we studied the effect of Angiotensin II on basal and hCG-stimulated VEGF expression using TaqMan-analysis, ELISA, and Western blot analysis.

RESULTS

Human granulosa lutein cells express angiotensinogen and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and synthesise Angiotensin. In addition, they express both Angiotensin receptors. Angiotensin II stimulated VEGF mRNA (p < 0.05) and protein expression (p < 0.05). However, hCG decreased angiotensinogen (p < 0.05) and Angiotensin II (p < 0.05). Both, the addition of Angiotensin II and its inhibition using Candesartan did not change the magnitude of hCG-increased VEGF expression.

CONCLUSIONS

These findings suggest a role for locally synthesised Angiotensin II in the regulation of luteal VEGF expression. However, Angiotensin II does not appear to have a major contribution in the presence of hCG when the RAS pathway is down-regulated.

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