vegfa
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vegfa -vascular endothelial growth factor A
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Vascular endothelial growth factor is a secreted angiogenic mitogen.
Journal: Science (New York, N.Y.)
January/10/1990
Description

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was purified from media conditioned by bovine pituitary folliculostellate cells (FC). VEGF is a heparin-binding growth factor specific for vascular endothelial cells that is able to induce angiogenesis in vivo. Complementary DNA clones for bovine and human VEGF were isolated from cDNA libraries prepared from FC and HL60 leukemia cells, respectively. These cDNAs encode hydrophilic proteins with sequences related to those of the A and B chains of platelet-derived growth factor. DNA sequencing suggests the existence of several molecular species of VEGF. VEGFs are secreted proteins, in contrast to other endothelial cell mitogens such as acidic or basic fibroblast growth factors and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor. Human 293 cells transfected with an expression vector containing a bovine or human VEGF cDNA insert secrete an endothelial cell mitogen that behaves like native VEGF.

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Activation of vascular endothelial growth factor gene transcription by hypoxia-inducible factor 1.
Journal: Molecular and cellular biology
September/25/1996
Description

Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is induced in cells exposed to hypoxia or ischemia. Neovascularization stimulated by VEGF occurs in several important clinical contexts, including myocardial ischemia, retinal disease, and tumor growth. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric basic helix-loop-helix protein that activates transcription of the human erythropoietin gene in hypoxic cells. Here we demonstrate the involvement of HIF-1 in the activation of VEGF transcription. VEGF 5'-flanking sequences mediated transcriptional activation of reporter gene expression in hypoxic Hep3B cells. A 47-bp sequence located 985 to 939 bp 5' to the VEGF transcription initiation site mediated hypoxia-inducible reporter gene expression directed by a simian virus 40 promoter element that was otherwise minimally responsive to hypoxia. When reporters containing VEGF sequences, in the context of the native VEGF or heterologous simian virus 40 promoter, were cotransfected with expression vectors encoding HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta (ARNT [aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator]), reporter gene transcription was much greater in both hypoxic and nonhypoxic cells than in cells transfected with the reporter alone. A HIF-1 binding site was demonstrated in the 47-bp hypoxia response element, and a 3-bp substitution eliminated the ability of the element to bind HIF-1 and to activate transcription in response to hypoxia and/or recombinant HIF-1. Cotransfection of cells with an expression vector encoding a dominant negative form of HIF-1alpha inhibited the activation of reporter transcription in hypoxic cells in a dose-dependent manner. VEGF mRNA was not induced by hypoxia in mutant cells that do not express the HIF-1beta (ARNT) subunit. These findings implicate HIF-1 in the activation of VEGF transcription in hypoxic cells.

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Pubmed
Meta-analysis of genome-wide association data and large-scale replication identifies additional susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes.
Journal: Nature genetics
May/21/2008
Description

Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified multiple loci at which common variants modestly but reproducibly influence risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Established associations to common and rare variants explain only a small proportion of the heritability of T2D. As previously published analyses had limited power to identify variants with modest effects, we carried out meta-analysis of three T2D GWA scans comprising 10,128 individuals of European descent and approximately 2.2 million SNPs (directly genotyped and imputed), followed by replication testing in an independent sample with an effective sample size of up to 53,975. We detected at least six previously unknown loci with robust evidence for association, including the JAZF1 (P = 5.0 x 10(-14)), CDC123-CAMK1D (P = 1.2 x 10(-10)), TSPAN8-LGR5 (P = 1.1 x 10(-9)), THADA (P = 1.1 x 10(-9)), ADAMTS9 (P = 1.2 x 10(-8)) and NOTCH2 (P = 4.1 x 10(-8)) gene regions. Our results illustrate the value of large discovery and follow-up samples for gaining further insights into the inherited basis of T2D.

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Pubmed
Abnormal blood vessel development and lethality in embryos lacking a single VEGF allele.
Journal: Nature
May/2/1996
Description

The endothelial cell-specific vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its cellular receptors Flt-1 and Flk-1 have been implicated in the formation of the embryonic vasculature. This is suggested by their colocalized expression during embryogenesis and the impaired vessel formation in Flk-1 and Flt-1 deficient embryos. However, because Flt-1 also binds placental growth factor, a VEGF homologue, the precise role of VEGF was unknown. Here we report that formation of blood vessels was abnormal, but not abolished, in heterozygous VEGF-deficient (VEGF+/-) embryos, generated by aggregation of embryonic stem (ES) cells with tetraploid embryos (T-ES) and even more impaired in homozygous VEGF-deficient (VEGF-/-) T-ES embryos, resulting in death at mid-gestation. Similar phenotypes were observed in F1-VEGF+/- embryos, generated by germline transmission. We believe that this heterozygous lethal phenotype, which differs from the homozygous lethality in VEGF-receptor-deficient embryos, is unprecedented for a targeted autosomal gene inactivation, and is indicative of a tight dose-dependent regulation of embryonic vessel development by VEGF.

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Pubmed
Antiangiogenic therapy elicits malignant progression of tumors to increased local invasion and distant metastasis.
Journal: Cancer cell
March/24/2009
Description

Multiple angiogenesis inhibitors have been therapeutically validated in preclinical cancer models, and several in clinical trials. Here we report that angiogenesis inhibitors targeting the VEGF pathway demonstrate antitumor effects in mouse models of pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma and glioblastoma but concomitantly elicit tumor adaptation and progression to stages of greater malignancy, with heightened invasiveness and in some cases increased lymphatic and distant metastasis. Increased invasiveness is also seen by genetic ablation of the Vegf-A gene in both models, substantiating the results of the pharmacological inhibitors. The realization that potent angiogenesis inhibition can alter the natural history of tumors by increasing invasion and metastasis warrants clinical investigation, as the prospect has important implications for the development of enduring antiangiogenic therapies.

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Pubmed
VEGF receptor signalling - in control of vascular function.
Journal: Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology
June/1/2006
Description

Vascular endothelial growth-factor receptors (VEGFRs) regulate the cardiovascular system. VEGFR1 is required for the recruitment of haematopoietic precursors and migration of monocytes and macrophages, whereas VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 are essential for the functions of vascular endothelial and lymphendothelial cells, respectively. Recent insights have shed light onto VEGFR signal transduction and the interplay between different VEGFRs and VEGF co-receptors in development, adult physiology and disease.

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Pubmed
Heterozygous embryonic lethality induced by targeted inactivation of the VEGF gene.
Journal: Nature
May/2/1996
Description

Angiogenesis is required for a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes. The endothelial cell-specific mitogen vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major mediator of pathological angiogenesis. Also, the expression of VEGF and its two receptors, Flt-1 and Flk-1/KDR, is related to the formation of blood vessels in mouse and rat embryos. Mice homozygous for mutations that inactivate either receptor die in utero between days 8.5 and 9.5. However, ligand(s) other than VEGF might activate such receptors. To assess the role of VEGF directly, we disrupted the VEGF gene in embryonic stem cells. Here we report the unexpected finding that loss of a single VEGF allele is lethal in the mouse embryo between days 11 and 12. Angiogenesis and blood-island formation were impaired, resulting in several developmental anomalies. Furthermore, VEGF-null embryonic stem cells exhibit a dramatically reduced ability to form tumours in nude mice.

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Pubmed
VEGF guides angiogenic sprouting utilizing endothelial tip cell filopodia.
Journal: The Journal of cell biology
August/13/2003
Description

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) is a major regulator of blood vessel formation and function. It controls several processes in endothelial cells, such as proliferation, survival, and migration, but it is not known how these are coordinately regulated to result in more complex morphogenetic events, such as tubular sprouting, fusion, and network formation. We show here that VEGF-A controls angiogenic sprouting in the early postnatal retina by guiding filopodial extension from specialized endothelial cells situated at the tips of the vascular sprouts. The tip cells respond to VEGF-A only by guided migration; the proliferative response to VEGF-A occurs in the sprout stalks. These two cellular responses are both mediated by agonistic activity of VEGF-A on VEGF receptor 2. Whereas tip cell migration depends on a gradient of VEGF-A, proliferation is regulated by its concentration. Thus, vessel patterning during retinal angiogenesis depends on the balance between two different qualities of the extracellular VEGF-A distribution, which regulate distinct cellular responses in defined populations of endothelial cells.

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Pubmed
Neuropilin-1 is expressed by endothelial and tumor cells as an isoform-specific receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor.
Journal: Cell
April/12/1998
Description

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a major regulator of angiogenesis, binds to two receptor tyrosine kinases, KDR/Flk-1 and Flt-1. We now describe the purification and the expression cloning from tumor cells of a third VEGF receptor, one that binds VEGF165 but not VEGF121. This isoform-specific VEGF receptor (VEGF165R) is identical to human neuropilin-1, a receptor for the collapsin/semaphorin family that mediates neuronal cell guidance. When coexpressed in cells with KDR, neuropilin-1 enhances the binding of VEGF165 to KDR and VEGF165-mediated chemotaxis. Conversely, inhibition of VEGF165 binding to neuropilin-1 inhibits its binding to KDR and its mitogenic activity for endothelial cells. We propose that neuropilin-1 is a novel VEGF receptor that modulates VEGF binding to KDR and subsequent bioactivity and therefore may regulate VEGF-induced angiogenesis.

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Pubmed
Substrate and functional diversity of lysine acetylation revealed by a proteomics survey.
Journal: Molecular cell
September/18/2006
Description

Acetylation of proteins on lysine residues is a dynamic posttranslational modification that is known to play a key role in regulating transcription and other DNA-dependent nuclear processes. However, the extent of this modification in diverse cellular proteins remains largely unknown, presenting a major bottleneck for lysine-acetylation biology. Here we report the first proteomic survey of this modification, identifying 388 acetylation sites in 195 proteins among proteins derived from HeLa cells and mouse liver mitochondria. In addition to regulators of chromatin-based cellular processes, nonnuclear localized proteins with diverse functions were identified. Most strikingly, acetyllysine was found in more than 20% of mitochondrial proteins, including many longevity regulators and metabolism enzymes. Our study reveals previously unappreciated roles for lysine acetylation in the regulation of diverse cellular pathways outside of the nucleus. The combined data sets offer a rich source for further characterization of the contribution of this modification to cellular physiology and human diseases.

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