TP53
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TP53 -tumor protein p53
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Pubmed
Conformational altered p53 affects neuronal function: relevance for the response to toxic insult and growth-associated protein 43 expression.
Journal: Cell death & disease
June/16/2013
Description

The role of p53 in neurodegenerative diseases is essentially associated with neuronal death. Recently an alternative point of view is emerging, as altered p53 conformation and impaired protein function have been found in fibroblasts and blood cells derived from Alzheimer's disease patients. Here, using stable transfected SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing APP751wt (SY5Y-APP) we demonstrated that the expression of an unfolded p53 conformation compromised neuronal functionality. In particular, these cells showed (i) augmented expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its metabolites, including the C-terminal fragments C99 and C83 and β-amyloid peptide (ii) high levels of oxidative markers, such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal Michael-adducts and 3-nitro-tyrosine and (iii) altered p53 conformation, mainly due to nitration of its tyrosine residues. The consequences of high-unfolded p53 expression resulted in loss of p53 pro-apoptotic activity, and reduction of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) mRNA and protein levels. The role of unfolded p53 in cell death resistance and lack of GAP-43 transcription was demonstrated by ZnCl(2) treatment. Zinc supplementation reverted p53 wild-type tertiary structure, increased cells sensitivity to acute cytotoxic injury and GAP-43 levels in SY5Y-APP clone.

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Pubmed
Co-chaperon DnaJC7/TPR2 enhances p53 stability and activity through blocking the complex formation between p53 and MDM2.
Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications
July/21/2013
Description

Tumor suppressor p53 plays a critical role in the regulation of DNA damage response. Upon severe DNA damage, p53 promotes apoptosis to eliminate cells with seriously damaged DNA to maintain genomic integrity. Pro-apoptotic function of p53 is tightly linked to its sequence-specific transactivation ability. In the present study, we have identified co-chaperon DnaJC7/TPR2 as a novel binding partner of p53 by yeast-based two-hybrid screening. In the two-hybrid screening, we used the central DNA-binding domain of p53 as a bait. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that DnaJC7 is associated with p53 in mammalian cells. Luciferase reporter and colony formation assays revealed that DnaJC7 enhances p53-dependent transcriptional as well as growth-suppressive activity. Forced expression of DnaJC7 induced to extend a half-life of p53, indicating that DnaJC7-mediated activation of p53 might be at least in part due to its prolonged half-life. Consistent with these observations, the amount of p53/MDM2 complex was markedly reduced in the presence of DnaJC7, suggesting that DnaJC7 dissociates MDM2 from p53. Taken together, our present findings strongly suggest that DnaJC7 participates in p53/MDM2 negative feedback regulatory pathway, and thereby enhancing the stability and activity of p53.

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Pubmed
Mdm2 is a novel activator of ApoCIII promoter which is antagonized by p53 and SHP inhibition.
Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications
March/11/2012
Description

We examined the effect of Mdm2 on regulation of the ApoCIII promoter and its cross-talk with p53 and nuclear receptor SHP. Overexpression of Mdm2 markedly enhanced ApoCIII promoter activity by HNF4α. A direct association of Mdm2 protein with the HNF4α protein was observed by co-immunoprecipitation. Ectopic expression of p53 decreased HNF4α activation of the ApoCIII promoter and antagonized the effect of Mdm2. Co-expression of SHP further strengthened p53 inhibition and abolished Mdm2 activation of the ApoCIII promoter. Mdm2 inhibited p53-mediated enrichment of HNF4α to the ApoCIII promoter while simultaneously reducing p53 binding and increasing recruitment of SHP to the ApoCIII promoter. The results from this study implicate a potentially important function of Mdm2 in regulation of lipoprotein metabolism.

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Pubmed
A deacetylase-deficient SIRT1 variant opposes full-length SIRT1 in regulating tumor suppressor p53 and governs expression of cancer-related genes.
Journal: Molecular and cellular biology
March/11/2012
Description

SIRT1 is an NAD-dependent deacetylase and epigenetic regulator essential for normal mammalian development and homeostasis. Here we describe a human SIRT1 splice variant, designated SIRT1-Δ2/9, in which the deacetylase coding sequence is lost due to splicing between exons 2 and 9. This work aimed to determine if SIRT1-Δ2/9 is a novel functional product of the SIRT1 gene. Endogenous SIRT1-Δ2/9 protein was identified in human cell lysate by immunoblotting and splice variant-specific RNA interference (RNAi). SIRT1-Δ2/9 mRNA is bound by CUGBP2, which downregulates its translation. Using pulldown assays, we demonstrate that SIRT1-Δ2/9 binds p53 protein. SIRT1-Δ2/9 maintains basal p53 protein levels and supports p53 function in response to DNA damage, as evidenced by RNAi-mediated depletion of SIRT1-Δ2/9 prior to damage. In turn, basal p53 downregulates SIRT1-Δ2/9 RNA levels, while stress-activated p53 eliminates SIRT1-Δ2/9. Loss of wild-type (wt) p53 has been correlated with overexpression of SIRT1-Δ2/9 in a range of human cancers. Exogenous SIRT1-Δ2/9 protein associates with specific promoters in chromatin and can regulate cancer-related gene expression, as evidenced by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis and RNAi/genomic array data. SIRT1 is of major therapeutic importance, and potential therapeutic drugs are screened against SIRT1 deacetylase activity. Our discovery of SIRT1-Δ2/9 identifies a new, deacetylase-independent therapeutic target for SIRT1-related diseases, including cancer.

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Pubmed
Pooled-matrix protein interaction screens using Barcode Fusion Genetics.
Journal: Molecular systems biology
December/20/2016
Description

High-throughput binary protein interaction mapping is continuing to extend our understanding of cellular function and disease mechanisms. However, we remain one or two orders of magnitude away from a complete interaction map for humans and other major model organisms. Completion will require screening at substantially larger scales with many complementary assays, requiring further efficiency gains in proteome-scale interaction mapping. Here, we report Barcode Fusion Genetics-Yeast Two-Hybrid (BFG-Y2H), by which a full matrix of protein pairs can be screened in a single multiplexed strain pool. BFG-Y2H uses Cre recombination to fuse DNA barcodes from distinct plasmids, generating chimeric protein-pair barcodes that can be quantified via next-generation sequencing. We applied BFG-Y2H to four different matrices ranging in scale from ~25 K to 2.5 M protein pairs. The results show that BFG-Y2H increases the efficiency of protein matrix screening, with quality that is on par with state-of-the-art Y2H methods.

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Pubmed
Mutational landscape of uterine and ovarian carcinosarcomas implicates histone genes in epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
October/9/2017
Description

Carcinosarcomas (CSs) of the uterus and ovary are highly aggressive neoplasms containing both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. We analyzed the mutational landscape of 68 uterine and ovarian CSs by whole-exome sequencing. We also performed multiregion whole-exome sequencing comprising two carcinoma and sarcoma samples from six tumors to resolve their evolutionary histories. The results demonstrated that carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements derive from a common precursor having mutations typical of carcinomas. In addition to mutations in cancer genes previously identified in uterine and ovarian carcinomas such as TP53, PIK3CA, PPP2R1A, KRAS, PTEN, CHD4, and BCOR, we found an excess of mutations in genes encoding histone H2A and H2B, as well as significant amplification of the segment of chromosome 6p harboring the histone gene cluster containing these genes. We also found frequent deletions of the genes TP53 and MBD3 (a member with CHD4 of the nucleosome remodeling deacetylase complex) and frequent amplification of chromosome segments containing the genes PIK3CA, TERT, and MYC Stable transgenic expression of H2A and H2B in a uterine serous carcinoma cell line demonstrated that mutant, but not wild-type, histones increased expression of markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as well as tumor migratory and invasive properties, suggesting a role in sarcomatous transformation. Comparison of the phylogenetic relationships of carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements of the same tumors demonstrated separate lineages leading to these two components. These findings define the genetic landscape of CSs and suggest therapeutic targets for these highly aggressive neoplasms.

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Pubmed
Aberrant splicing of the DMP1-ARF-MDM2-p53 pathway in cancer.
Journal: International journal of cancer
August/25/2016
Description

Alternative splicing (AS) of mRNA precursors is a ubiquitous mechanism for generating numerous transcripts with different activities from one genomic locus in mammalian cells. The gene products from a single locus can thus have similar, dominant-negative or even opposing functions. Aberrant AS has been found in cancer to express proteins that promote cell growth, local invasion and metastasis. This review will focus on the aberrant splicing of tumor suppressor/oncogenes that belong to the DMP1-ARF-MDM2-p53 pathway. Our recent study shows that the DMP1 locus generates both tumor-suppressive DMP1α (p53-dependent) and oncogenic DMP1β (p53-independent) splice variants, and the DMP1β/α ratio increases with neoplastic transformation of breast epithelial cells. This process is associated with high DMP1β protein expression and shorter survival of breast cancer (BC) patients. Accumulating pieces of evidence show that ARF is frequently inactivated by aberrant splicing in human cancers, demonstrating its involvement in human malignancies. Splice variants from the MDM2 locus promote cell growth in culture and accelerate tumorigenesis in vivo. Human cancers expressing these splice variants are associated with advanced stage/metastasis, and thus have negative clinical impacts. Although they lack most of the p53-binding domain, their activities are mostly dependent on p53 since they bind to wild-type MDM2. The p53 locus produces splice isoforms that have either favorable (β/γ at the C-terminus) or negative impact (Δ40, Δ133 at the N-terminus) on patients' survival. As the oncogenic AS products from these loci are expressed only in cancer cells, they may eventually become targets for molecular therapies.

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Pubmed
Involvement of N-terminally truncated variants of p73, deltaTAp73, in head and neck squamous cell cancer: a comparison with p53 mutations.
Journal: Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
September/28/2008
Description

p73, a p53-related gene, encodes two classes of isoforms with opposing functions: (1) a full-length transactivation-competent p73 protein (TAp73) with tumour suppressor activity; and (2) a group of NH2-terminally truncated, transactivation-deficient p73 proteins, deltaEx2p73, deltaEx2-3p73, deltaNp73 and deltaN'p73 (collectively named deltaTAp73) with oncogenic activity. In this study, for the first time, we analyse the deregulations of TAp73 and deltaTAp73 in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) and compare them to p53 status. We found that all the p73 isoforms in HNSCC tissue were upregulated with respect to those in normal adjacent tissue. Concomitant upregulations of p73 transcripts were often found in cancer tissue but not in normal tissue. p53 mutations and p73 transcript alterations are not mutually exclusive. All the HNSCC specimens studied had at least one p53 mutation and/or one deltaTAp73 transcript alteration. Although both the deltaNp73 and the TAp73 transcripts were found to be upregulated in head and neck cancers, the predominant protein in the cancers analysed was deltaNp73. TAp73, in contrast, was only weakly expressed. This finding is highly relevant and sheds light on the puzzling question of the biological significance of TAp73 upregulation in cancers. deltaNp73 protein levels were significantly overexpressed in HNSCC tissue compared to matched normal tissue (p = 0.003). Furthermore, a trend was found for better overall survival in patients with a low expression of deltaNp73. Our results show that the deregulation of both the p53 and the p73 pathways plays an important role in inducing head and neck cancers.

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Pubmed
p53 deacetylation by SIRT1 decreases during protein kinase CKII downregulation-mediated cellular senescence.
Journal: FEBS letters
December/13/2011
Description

Cellular senescence is thought to be an important tumor suppression process in vivo. We have previously shown that p53 activation is necessary for CKII inhibition-mediated cellular senescence. Here, CKII inhibition induced acetylation of p53 at K382 in HCT116 and HEK293 cells. This acetylation event was suppressed by SIRT1 activation. CKIIα and CKIIβ were co-immunoprecipitated with SIRT1 in a p53-independent manner. Maltose binding protein pull-down and yeast two-hybrid indicated that SIRT1 bound to CKIIβ, but not to CKIIα. CKII inhibition reduced SIRT1 activity in cells. CKII phosphorylated and activated human SIRT1 in vitro. Finally, SIRT1 overexpression antagonized CKII inhibition-mediated cellular senescence. These results reveal that CKII downregulation induces p53 stabilization by negatively regulating SIRT1 deacetylase activity during senescence.

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Pubmed
Reactivation of p53 function in synovial sarcoma cells by inhibition of p53-HDM2 interaction.
Journal: Cancer letters
February/23/2009
Description

Mutations of the p53 gene are relatively rare in synovial sarcoma. With this in mind we investigated the potential of the HDM2 antagonist, nutlin-3 to induce p53 activity in synovial sarcoma cells lines. Nutlin-3 effectively promoted p53 stability which was concurrent with the activation of p53 target genes, growth arrest and apoptosis. Analysis of synovial sarcoma cells showed that p53 is effectively stabilized in response to DNA damage; however transcriptional activation of p53 target genes p21 and HDM2 is abrogated. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed the presence of high levels of p53-HDM2 complexes in doxorubicin but not nutlin-3 treated cells suggesting that HDM2 association is responsible for the loss of p53 activity. Our results support the hypothesis that p53 function is suppressed by aberrant HDM2 activity and suggest the possibility of targeting the p53-HDM2 regulatory axis as a therapeutic strategy in synovial sarcoma.

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