In this study, the ErbB3-binding protein (Ebp1) and p53 protein expression in cervical cancer tissues, and its significance in the prognosis of the disease was investigated. Ebp1 and p53 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemical analysis in cervical cancer tissues (N = 60) and normal tissues adjacent to the cancer tissues (N = 60). The rates of positive Ebp1 and p53 protein expression were 35.0 and 60.0%, respectively. Ebp1 and p53 were overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues, compared to normal tissues (P < 0.05). Ebp1 and p53 protein expression was not correlated with age, tumor size, or family tumor history (P > 0.05). However, high levels of expression of Ebp1 and p53 were positively correlated with the TNM stage and lymphatic metastasis in cervical cancer patients (P < 0.05). The combined determination of Ebp1 and p53 expression levels in cervical cancer patients could support the effective prediction of metastatic potential and patient prognosis.Read more
Tumor onset and progression are associated with dysfunction of the nuclear transport machinery at the level of import and export receptors. However, the role of Karyopherin α2 (KPNA2) in human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) remains unknown. We assessed the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of TSCC CAL-27 cells using wound healing, Transwell and MTT assays, western blotting, electron microscopy and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining following knockdown of KPNA2. The results revealed the antiproliferative, proapoptotic and anti-migratory effects of KPNA2 silencing on the TSCC CAL-27 cells. Moreover, the knockdown of KPNA2 proved to be accompanied by the upregulation of active caspase-3, cytochrome c, Bax, Bad and decreased expression of Bcl-2, p-Bad and XIAP. KPNA2 activated the caspase-dependent pathway in the CAL-27 cells with upregulation of p53, p21Cip1/Waf1 and p16INK4a. Thus, the present study demonstrated that p53/p21Cip1/Waf1/p16INK4a may be an important pathway involved in the function of KPNA2 in TSCC CAL-27 cells.Read more
The influenza virus integral membrane proteins BM2 (M2 of influenza B virus) and A/M2 (M2 of influenza A virus) functions as an ion channel, important for virus uncoating in endosomes of virus-infected cells and essential for viral replication. M2 ion channel activity is also required to stimulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation by perturbing ionic concentrations in the Golgi. In the present study, we have investigated further the interaction between BM2 and p53 to confirm our previous studies using yeast two-hybrid assays. The interaction between BM2 and p53 was confirmed by GST pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation assays, and confocal microscopy. Expression of BM2 results in down-regulation of p53 mRNA and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we demonstrated that exogenous expression of BM2 functionally blocked p53-mediated transcriptional activity and apoptosis by luciferase reporter assay and TUNEL assay, respectively. Together, the present results indicate that BM2 is able to functionally interact with p53, and provide valuable insights into the modulation of p53 functions by influenza virus.Read more
To identify the relationships between key components of the proliferative and apoptotic pathways in bladder tumors.
A tissue array of 88 bladder tumors was assembled. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to investigate the relationship between nine different parameters: stage, proliferation (Ki67), apoptosis (in situ DNA nick end labeling), the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, tumor suppressors p53 and retinoblastoma protein (Rb), the Rb-related protein p130, cyclin E, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27. The protein expression in each tumor was reported as the percentage of positively staining cells.
The analysis focused on Stage 1 to 3 tumors. Analysis found that p53 expression increased progressively with stage, and Rb and p27 decreased with increasing stage. Overall, the cyclin E levels correlated with the proliferative index. Cyclin E levels were low in Stage 1 tumors and elevated in Stage 2 tumors, but were decreased in Stage 3 tumors. Multivariate analysis uncovered a correlation between cyclin E and proliferation (Ki67) and a weak correlation between p53 and Bcl-2 and between p27 and Rb. A strong correlation was found between the expression of p53 and p130, which was apparent in Stages 1 and 3, but not in Stage 2. Furthermore, high levels of p130 protein were detected primarily in the cytoplasm.
These results suggest a novel p53/p130 axis in bladder tumors.Read more
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is regarded as a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mostly in patients with liver cirrhosis. Present study aimed at evaluation of cellular expression of p53 protein, genetic TP53 changes in liver samples and anti-p53 in serum of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. The expression of p53 protein were analysed by immunocytochemistry in liver biopsies from adult patients with chronic, long-lasting hepatitis C. In order to detect TP53 mutations, PCR/SSCP and sequencing were performed. Antibodies against p53 in serum were determined using enzyme immunoassay (ELISA).In two out of 14 examined patients TP53 point mutations were detected in the liver samples. In the first patient, a substitution of C to T was demonstrated in position 1 of the codon 250, resulting in substitution of proline by serine. The other patient carried a substitution of C to G in position 13274 of the intron 6. The patient carrying mutation in the codon 250 demonstrated morphological traits of liver cirrhosis and had high number of p53-immunoreactive cell nuclei in tissue. None of the patients manifested elevated titres of serum anti-p53. In the liver, significant positive correlations were disclosed between expression of p53 on one hand and grading and staging on the other. A negative correlation was disclosed between cellular expression of p53 and duration time of infection. In conclusions, genetic changes in TP53 can be detected also in non-neoplastic lesions linked to chronic HCV infection.Read more
The interaction between the E6 protein of the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) with p53 seems to be crucial in cervical carcinogenesis. The presence of Arg/Arg genotype at codon 72 of TP53 gene was characterized as a risk factor in development of cervical cancer. However, the role of this polymorphism remains controversial and some authors suggested that the origin of DNA (blood or exfoliated cervical cells) might influence these results. This study analyzed the effect of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism (R72P) in exfoliated cervical cells of women from the northern region of Portugal using two methodologies: allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and real-time polymerase chain reaction. We studied 700 cervical exfoliated cells which showed: 334 cases from women without cervical cancer or cervical lesion (N), 114 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 107 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), 20 invasive cervical cancers (ICC) and 125 atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS). No statistically significant differences between cases and controls were found, regarding the influence of the R72P polymorphism with cytological classification, high risk-HPV infection and HPV16 presence (P = 0.336, P = 0.945, and P = 0.964, respectively). Also, the influence of this polymorphism in the median age of onset for LSIL, HSIL, and ICC was not statistically significant (P = 0.674, P = 0.810, and P = 0.928, respectively). Therefore, the hypothesis that women with Arg/Arg genotype have an increased risk of developing cervical cancer failed to be proven in this study. Moreover, our study reveals that results using exfoliated cervical cells are reliable as compared with studies on blood.Read more
Two major pathways are described in bladder carcinogenesis: one for invasive or high grade tumors characterized by alteration of the p53 tumor suppressor gene and the other for non-invasive tumors or low grade involving mutations FGFR3. The objective of our study was to validate the research in the urine of mutations in these two genes in patients with a bladder tumor.
In our preliminary study, we investigated 36 patients the FGFR3 and p53 mutations in tumors and urine collected during endoscopic resection. The p53 mutations were sought in FASAY, which allows a functional analysis of the protein P53. The FGFR3 mutations were sought in SNaPshot that searches the eight most frequent mutation points of this gene.
For 24 patients (66% of cases), we found at least one of the two mutations in the tumor. This mutation was present in the urine in 15 patients (sensitivity=62.5%). In only one patient, we found a mutation in the urinary sediment that did not exist in the tumor (specificity=91.7%).
The search for mutations of p53 and FGFR3 in the urine was a simple and non-invasive assay, which seems superior to urinary cytology for the detection of bladder tumors, raising hopes of an interest in this bio-assay for surveillance of bladder tumors and screening risk populations.Read more
Benzotriazole UV-stabilizers (BUVs) are applied in materials for protection against UV-irradiation. They are widely used, bioaccumulate and share structural similarities to benzotriazole. Benzotriazole (1HBT) finds application as corrosion inhibitor in dishwashing detergents, antifreeze (vehicles) and aircraft de-icing agent. BUVs and 1HBT are persistent and ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, but there is little understanding of the ecotoxicological implications. Here, we comparatively analyze the hormonal activity in vitro and effects in zebrafish eleuthero-embryos in vivo. 2-(2-Hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)benzotriazole (UV-P), 2-(3-t-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-5-chlorobenzotriazole (UV-326), UV-327, UV-328, UV-329 and UV-320 showed no estrogenicity (YES assay) and androgenicity (YAS assay). However, UV-P and 1HBT showed significant antiandrogenic activity. We assessed the transcription profiles of up to 26 genes associated with different toxicological pathways in zebrafish eleuthero-embryos to elucidate potential modes of action of UV-P, UV-326 and 1HBT. Embryos were experimentally exposed for 144hpf to three measured concentrations of 15.8, 70.8, and 690μg/L UV-P, 7.5, 31.7, and 84.3μg/L UV-326 and 7.9, 97.3 and 1197.3μg/L 1HBT. Among the 26 transcripts, the induction of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway by UV-P and UV-326 was the most significant finding. UV-P led to dose-related induction of AHR1, ARNT2 and cyp1a1, as well as of phase II enzymes glutathione-S-transferase (gstp1) and ugt1a. UV-326 led to a significant induction of cyp1a1 and AHR2, but down-regulation of gstp1 at 84μg/L. Only little transcriptional alterations occurred in genes related to apoptosis, oxidative stress, hormone receptors, and steroidogenesis including aromatase. 1HBT led to only a few expressional changes at 1197μg/L. Our data lead to the conclusion that UV-P and UV-326 activate the AHR-pathway, whereas 1HBT shows only little transcriptional alterations. It should be noted, however, that effects have been observed at concentration much higher than those occurring in the environment. Forthcoming studies should show whether the observed antiandrogenic activities and transcriptional changes translate into physiological effects .Read more
Previously we have reported the presence of simian virus 40 DNA in 56% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas in Tunisia. Here, we investigated the relationship between the status of simian virus 40 and t(14;18) translocation, germinal center status, and P53 and BCL2 expression to assess the clinical and biological relevance of simian virus 40 presence in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Therefore, we evaluated by immunohistochemistry the expression patterns of CD10, BCL6, MUM1, BCL2, and P53 in 86 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (48 simian virus 40-positive and 38 simian virus 40-negative cases). The t(14;18) translocation was investigated by polymerase chain reaction. Immunostaining patterns for CD10, BCL6, and MUM1 were used to subclassify diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cases as germinal center or non-germinal center phenotypes. Germinal center phenotype, t(14;18), P53, and BCL2 expression were found in 71, 30, 55, and 65% of cases, respectively. Interestingly, germinal center phenotype, t(14;18), and P53 accumulation were found to be more frequent in simian virus 40-positive cases than in simian virus 40-negative ones (81, 44, 69 vs 58, 13, 37%; P=0.018, 0.002, and 0.003, respectively). However, there were no correlations between the presence of simian virus 40 and the expression of CD10, BCL6, MUM1 and BCL2, patient's age and gender, clinical stage, or the International Prognosis Index. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the germinal center phenotype, P53 accumulation, and t(14;18) were independent factors for simian virus 40 association (P=0.029, 0.006, and 0.014, respectively). There were no significant differences in overall survival regarding P53, BCL2, or t(14;18) status. However, patients with germinal center phenotype or low International Prognosis Index scores displayed a significantly better survival than those with non-germinal center phenotype or high International Prognosis Index scores (P=0.003 and 0.0001, respectively). These two prognosis factors remain independent in multivariate analyses (P=0.001 and <0.0001, respectively). Interestingly, among patients with germinal center phenotype, simian virus 40-positive subgroup displayed a significantly shorter survival than simian virus 40-negative subgroup (P=0.034). In summary, these findings support a role of simian virus 40 in the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. On other hand, they suggest that a significant proportion of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cases with germinal center phenotype may result from early transformation by simian virus 40, mainly those harboring the t(14;18). Modern Pathology (2008) 21, 282-296; doi:10.1038/modpathol.3800993; published online 28 December 2007.Read more