Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by rapid growth, invasion and resistance to chemo-/radiotherapy. The complex cell surface morphology with abundant membrane folds, microvilli, filopodia and other membrane extensions is believed to contribute to the highly invasive behavior and therapy resistance of GBM cells. The present study addresses the mechanisms leading to the excessive cell membrane area in five GBM lines differing in mutational status for PTEN and p53. In addition to scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the membrane area and folding were quantified by dielectric measurements of membrane capacitance using the single-cell electrorotation (ROT) technique. The osmotic stability and volume regulation of GBM cells were analyzed by video microscopy. The expression of PTEN, p53, mTOR and several other marker proteins involved in cell growth and membrane synthesis were examined by Western blotting. The combined SEM, ROT and osmotic data provided independent lines of evidence for a large variability in membrane area and folding among tested GBM lines. Thus, DK-MG cells (wild type p53 and wild type PTEN) exhibited the lowest degree of membrane folding, probed by the area-specific capacitance C m = 1.9 µF/cm(2). In contrast, cell lines carrying mutations in both p53 and PTEN (U373-MG and SNB19) showed the highest C m values of 3.7-4.0 µF/cm(2), which corroborate well with their heavily villated cell surface revealed by SEM. Since PTEN and p53 are well-known inhibitors of mTOR, the increased membrane area/folding in mutant GBM lines may be related to the enhanced protein and lipid synthesis due to a deregulation of the mTOR-dependent downstream signaling pathway. Given that membrane folds and extensions are implicated in tumor cell motility and metastasis, the dielectric approach presented here provides a rapid and simple tool for screening the biophysical cell properties in studies on targeting chemo- or radiotherapeutically the migration and invasion of GBM and other tumor types.Read more
Capsaicin is the major pungent ingredient in red peppers which is world widely consumed. Except its potent pain relieving efficacy as reported, capsaicin also exerted its antitumor activity in several tumor models. Here, we reported that capsaicin had a profound anti-proliferative effect on human colon cancer cells via inducing cell cycle G0/G1 phase arrest and apoptosis, which was associated with an increase of p21, Bax and cleaved PARP. The underlying mechanism of capsaicin's antitumor potency was mainly attributed to the stabilization and activation of p53. Capsaicin substantially prolonged the half-life of p53 and significantly elevated the transcriptional activity of p53. Through suppressing the interaction between p53 and MDM2, MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination was remarkably decreased after capsaicin treatment, which resulted in the stabilization and accumulation of p53. The results of p53-shRNA experiment further demonstrated that p53 knockdown severely impaired the sensitivity of tested cells to capsaicin, G0/G1 phase arrest and the apoptosis induced by capsaicin in p53-knockdown cells was also dramatically decreased, implicating the important role of p53 played in capsaicin's antitumor activity. In summary, our data suggested that capsaicin, or a related analogue, may have a role in the management of human colon cancer.Read more
TP53 mutations confer subgroup specific poor survival for children with medulloblastoma. We hypothesized that WNT activation which is associated with improved survival for such children abrogates TP53 related radioresistance and can be used to sensitize TP53 mutant tumors for radiation. We examined the subgroup-specific role of TP53 mutations in a cohort of 314 patients treated with radiation. TP53 wild-type or mutant human medulloblastoma cell-lines and normal neural stem cells were used to test radioresistance of TP53 mutations and the radiosensitizing effect of WNT activation on tumors and the developing brain. Children with WNT/TP53 mutant medulloblastoma had higher 5-year survival than those with SHH/TP53 mutant tumours (100% and 36.6%±8.7%, respectively (p<0.001)). Introduction of TP53 mutation into medulloblastoma cells induced radioresistance (survival fractions at 2Gy (SF2) of 89%±2% vs. 57.4%±1.8% (p<0.01)). In contrast, β-catenin mutation sensitized TP53 mutant cells to radiation (p<0.05). Lithium, an activator of the WNT pathway, sensitized TP53 mutant medulloblastoma to radiation (SF2 of 43.5%±1.5% in lithium treated cells vs. 56.6±3% (p<0.01)) accompanied by increased number of γH2AX foci. Normal neural stem cells were protected from lithium induced radiation damage (SF2 of 33%±8% for lithium treated cells vs. 27%±3% for untreated controls (p=0.05). Poor survival of patients with TP53 mutant medulloblastoma may be related to radiation resistance. Since constitutive activation of the WNT pathway by lithium sensitizes TP53 mutant medulloblastoma cells and protect normal neural stem cells from radiation, this oral drug may represent an attractive novel therapy for high-risk medulloblastomas.Read more
This study aimed to investigate the effects of Ser/Cys polymorphism in hOGG1 gene, Arg/Pro polymorphism in p53 gene, smoking and their interactions on the development of lung cancer. Ser/Cys polymorphism in hOGG1 and Arg/Pro polymorphism in p53 among 124 patients with lung cancer and 128 normal people were detected using PCR-RFLP. At the same time, smoking status was investigated between the two groups. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of Ser/Cys polymorphism and Arg/Pro polymorphisms, smoking and their interactions on the development of lung cancer. ORs (95% CI) of smoking, hOGG1 Cys/Cys and p53 Pro/ Pro genotypes were 2.34 (1.41-3.88), 2.12 (1.03-4.39), and 2.12 (1.15-3.94), respectively. The interaction model of smoking and Cys/Cys was super-multiplicative or multiplicative, and the OR (95% CI) for their interaction item was 1.67 (0.36 -7.78). The interaction model of smoking and Pro/Pro was super-multiplicative with an OR (95%CI) of their interaction item of 5.03 (1.26-20.1). The interaction model of Pro/Pro and Cys/Cys was multiplicative and the OR (95%CI) of their interaction item was 0.99 (0.19-5.28). Smoking, hOGG1 Cys/Cys, p53 Pro/Pro and their interactions may be the important factors leading to the development of lung cancer.Read more
Two molecular dynamics simulations of the region E17-N29 of p53 (p53(17-29)) at different temperatures were performed for a total time of 0.2 micros, to study the conformational landscape of this region. Previous studies have suggested that this region displays different structural motifs, such as helix of a double beta-turn, and that its secondary structure might be transiently stable. Interestingly, in this study it was found that the region F19-L25, and particularly its fragment F19-L22, display a stable, transient helical pattern at sub-microsecond periods. The region F19-L22, which contains one of the most important residues needed for the interaction of p53 with MDM2, seems to be formed and stabilized by the existence of one hydrophobic and one aromatic cluster. The main function of these clusters is to help their surrounding area to desolvate, to allow the hydrogen bond network, therefore favoring the formation of a stable helix. This preliminary study would be useful for a better understanding of the structure and function of the N-terminal domain of p53 and its implications for the control of different types of cancer.Read more
The PTEN and TP53 genes participate in the carcinogenesis of many malignancies, but the role of both genes in endometrial carcinogenesis is not fully elucidated. The aim of the study was to determine the quality and the frequency of incidence of TP53 and PTEN gene mutations and to assess their coexistence in endometrial cancers. Besides that, the correlation was studied between the detected defects and clinicohistopathological characteristics of the studied endometrial cancers.
The study material included DNA isolated from 81 endometrial cancers. The incidence of TP53 and PTEN gene mutations was assessed using polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing techniques. The statistical analysis of the results was performed using [chi]2 test.
In 64.2% of the 81 endometrial cancers, mutations occurred in TP53 and/or PTEN genes: in 16.1%, mutations occurred only in TP53; in 33.3%, only in PTEN gene; and in 14.8%, in both TP53 and PTEN genes. In 35.8% of cases, no mutations were found in these genes. No statistically significant relationship was found between the incidence of mutations in TP53 gene and that in PTEN gene (P = 0.986). The incidence of mutations in PTEN gene was higher in medium and poorly differentiated endometrial cancers than in well-differentiated ones and was statistically significant (G2 + G3 vs G1; P = 0.049). Besides that, mutations in PTEN gene occurred significantly more frequently in patients younger than 55 years than in older women (> or =55 years; P = 0.027). No similar differences were found in TP53 gene.
The results of the study demonstrate that TP53 gene mutations occur in some of endometrioid endometrial cancers in the presence of PTEN gene mutations, suggesting that both these genes participate in the development of these tumors.Read more
Several oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes are involved either as early or late event in thyroid gland carcinogenesis. Human FHIT (fragile histidine triad) gene is highly conserved gene whose loss of function may be important in the development and/or progression of various types of cancer. We undertook this study to analyze FHIT and p53 gene status in different benignant and malignant thyroid tumors. Status of these genes as well as intensity of apoptosis was analyzed in tumor tissues by molecular genetic methods, immunohistochemistry, and FACS-scan analysis. The majority of the malignant thyroid cancers displayed aberrant expression of FHIT gene, concominant with p53 gene inactivation. This is followed by low rate of apoptosis, which may be important in the development and/or progression of thyroid cancer. We found higher incidence of p53 mutation and aberrant processing of FHIT mRNA in malignant tumors (papillary, follicular, medullary and anaplastic carcinomas) and in those tumors with distant metastasis. The growth of p53(-)/FHIT(-) follicular carcinoma of human origin was much faster in nude mice than p53(+)/FHIT(+) follicular carcinoma, and mice had shorter survival rate. Our results show a correlation between aberrant FHIT and p53 expression, low rate of apoptosis, and malignancy. Concomitant aberration of FHIT gene and p53 could be responsible for development of highly malignant types of thyroid cancer and may be considered as a prognostic marker for these tumors.Read more
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) functions as a key regulator for the proliferation, differentiation, and activation of lymphocytes. However, the role of IL-15 in cancer biology is not yet understood. In the present study, IL-15 treatment stimulated the wound-healing migration and invasion of bladder cancer 5637 cells, without altering the proliferation of the cells. Treatment of 5637 cells with IL-15 resulted in the promotion of the MMP-9 expression and the activation of NF-κB binding, which is a functional transcription factor that activates MMP-9 expression. In addition, IL-15 induced the activation of ERK1/2. ERK inhibitor U0126 suppressed the migration, invasion, MMP-9 expression, and NF-κB binding activity in IL-15-treated 5637 cells. In addition, the cell-cycle inhibitor p21WAF1 was induced by the addition of IL-15. Finally, the siRNA-mediated knockdown of p21WAF1 attenuated the IL-15-induced stimulation of migration, invasion, ERK1/2 activation, MMP-9 expression, and NF-κB binding activation in 5637 cells. Our results suggest that p21WAF1 regulated NF-κB-mediated MMP-9 expression via the activation of ERK1/2, which resulted in the migration and invasion of 5637 cells treated with IL-15. These unexpected results suggest a potential role for IL-15 with respect to the progression of bladder cancer.Read more
To investigate the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor-HER1 (EGFR), cerbB2 (HER2), p16, and p53, as well as the relationship of the expression of these genes with conventional parameters in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the larynx.
Samples from 92 cases of diagnosed laryngeal SCC between 2001 and 2011 from the Pathology Department of Ministry of Health Ankara D1şkapi Yildirinm Beyazit Teaching & Research Hospital were studied by immunohistochemistry using EGFR, cerbB2, p16, and p53 antibodies.
An increase in the TNM stage and pathological tumor size status correlated with an increase in EGFR and cerbB2 expression. In the cases with lymphovascular invasion, the expression was detected at a higher ratio. Cases in which high levels ofpl6 and p53 expression were observed did not show any lymphovascular invasions.
Expressions of p53 and p16 were considered to be most effective in early carcinogenesis stages of laryngeal SCC. In comparison with p53 and p16 expression levels, EGFR and cerbB2 expression levels were observed to be associated with poor prognostic parameters and were higher at later stages of laryngeal carcinogenesis development.Read more