TP53
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TP53 -tumor protein p53
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p53 mutations in human cancers.
Journal: Science (New York, N.Y.)
August/1/1991
Description

Mutations in the evolutionarily conserved codons of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are common in diverse types of human cancer. The p53 mutational spectrum differs among cancers of the colon, lung, esophagus, breast, liver, brain, reticuloendothelial tissues, and hemopoietic tissues. Analysis of these mutations can provide clues to the etiology of these diverse tumors and to the function of specific regions of p53. Transitions predominate in colon, brain, and lymphoid malignancies, whereas G:C to T:A transversions are the most frequent substitutions observed in cancers of the lung and liver. Mutations at A:T base pairs are seen more frequently in esophageal carcinomas than in other solid tumors. Most transitions in colorectal carcinomas, brain tumors, leukemias, and lymphomas are at CpG dinucleotide mutational hot spots. G to T transversions in lung, breast, and esophageal carcinomas are dispersed among numerous codons. In liver tumors in persons from geographic areas in which both aflatoxin B1 and hepatitis B virus are cancer risk factors, most mutations are at one nucleotide pair of codon 249. These differences may reflect the etiological contributions of both exogenous and endogenous factors to human carcinogenesis.

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Core signaling pathways in human pancreatic cancers revealed by global genomic analyses.
Journal: Science (New York, N.Y.)
October/5/2008
Description

There are currently few therapeutic options for patients with pancreatic cancer, and new insights into the pathogenesis of this lethal disease are urgently needed. Toward this end, we performed a comprehensive genetic analysis of 24 pancreatic cancers. We first determined the sequences of 23,219 transcripts, representing 20,661 protein-coding genes, in these samples. Then, we searched for homozygous deletions and amplifications in the tumor DNA by using microarrays containing probes for approximately 10(6) single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We found that pancreatic cancers contain an average of 63 genetic alterations, the majority of which are point mutations. These alterations defined a core set of 12 cellular signaling pathways and processes that were each genetically altered in 67 to 100% of the tumors. Analysis of these tumors' transcriptomes with next-generation sequencing-by-synthesis technologies provided independent evidence for the importance of these pathways and processes. Our data indicate that genetically altered core pathways and regulatory processes only become evident once the coding regions of the genome are analyzed in depth. Dysregulation of these core pathways and processes through mutation can explain the major features of pancreatic tumorigenesis.

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Oncogenic ras provokes premature cell senescence associated with accumulation of p53 and p16INK4a.
Journal: Cell
April/2/1997
Description

Oncogenic ras can transform most immortal rodent cells to a tumorigenic state. However, transformation of primary cells by ras requires either a cooperating oncogene or the inactivation of tumor suppressors such as p53 or p16. Here we show that expression of oncogenic ras in primary human or rodent cells results in a permanent G1 arrest. The arrest induced by ras is accompanied by accumulation of p53 and p16, and is phenotypically indistinguishable from cellular senescence. Inactivation of either p53 or p16 prevents ras-induced arrest in rodent cells, and E1A achieves a similar effect in human cells. These observations suggest that the onset of cellular senescence does not simply reflect the accumulation of cell divisions, but can be prematurely activated in response to an oncogenic stimulus. Negation of ras-induced senescence may be relevant during multistep tumorigenesis.

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Pubmed
In vivo activation of the p53 pathway by small-molecule antagonists of MDM2.
Journal: Science (New York, N.Y.)
March/3/2004
Description

MDM2 binds the p53 tumor suppressor protein with high affinity and negatively modulates its transcriptional activity and stability. Overexpression of MDM2, found in many human tumors, effectively impairs p53 function. Inhibition of MDM2-p53 interaction can stabilize p53 and may offer a novel strategy for cancer therapy. Here, we identify potent and selective small-molecule antagonists of MDM2 and confirm their mode of action through the crystal structures of complexes. These compounds bind MDM2 in the p53-binding pocket and activate the p53 pathway in cancer cells, leading to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and growth inhibition of human tumor xenografts in nude mice.

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Blinded by the Light: The Growing Complexity of p53.
Journal: Cell
August/4/2009
Description

While the tumor suppressor functions of p53 have long been recognized, the contribution of p53 to numerous other aspects of disease and normal life is only now being appreciated. This burgeoning range of responses to p53 is reflected by an increasing variety of mechanisms through which p53 can function, although the ability to activate transcription remains key to p53's modus operandi. Control of p53's transcriptional activity is crucial for determining which p53 response is activated, a decision we must understand if we are to exploit efficiently the next generation of drugs that selectively activate or inhibit p53.

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Stress-dependent regulation of FOXO transcription factors by the SIRT1 deacetylase.
Journal: Science (New York, N.Y.)
April/21/2004
Description

The Sir2 deacetylase modulates organismal life-span in various species. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Sir2 increases longevity are largely unknown. We show that in mammalian cells, the Sir2 homolog SIRT1 appears to control the cellular response to stress by regulating the FOXO family of Forkhead transcription factors, a family of proteins that function as sensors of the insulin signaling pathway and as regulators of organismal longevity. SIRT1 and the FOXO transcription factor FOXO3 formed a complex in cells in response to oxidative stress, and SIRT1 deacetylated FOXO3 in vitro and within cells. SIRT1 had a dual effect on FOXO3 function: SIRT1 increased FOXO3's ability to induce cell cycle arrest and resistance to oxidative stress but inhibited FOXO3's ability to induce cell death. Thus, one way in which members of the Sir2 family of proteins may increase organismal longevity is by tipping FOXO-dependent responses away from apoptosis and toward stress resistance.

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hSIR2(SIRT1) functions as an NAD-dependent p53 deacetylase.
Journal: Cell
December/3/2001
Description

DNA damage-induced acetylation of p53 protein leads to its activation and either growth arrest or apoptosis. We show here that the protein product of the gene hSIR2(SIRT1), the human homolog of the S. cerevisiae Sir2 protein known to be involved in cell aging and in the response to DNA damage, binds and deacetylates the p53 protein with a specificity for its C-terminal Lys382 residue, modification of which has been implicated in the activation of p53 as a transcription factor. Expression of wild-type hSir2 in human cells reduces the transcriptional activity of p53. In contrast, expression of a catalytically inactive hSir2 protein potentiates p53-dependent apoptosis and radiosensitivity. We propose that hSir2 is involved in the regulation of p53 function via deacetylation.

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Pubmed
Activation of p53 sequence-specific DNA binding by acetylation of the p53 C-terminal domain.
Journal: Cell
October/14/1997
Description

The tumor suppressor p53 exerts antiproliferation effects through its ability to function as a sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factor. Here, we demonstrate that p53 can be modified by acetylation both in vivo and in vitro. Remarkably, the site of p53 that is acetylated by its coactivator, p300, resides in a C-terminal domain known to be critical for the regulation of p53 DNA binding. Furthermore, the acetylation of p53 can dramatically stimulate its sequence-specific DNA-binding activity, possibly as a result of an acetylation-induced conformational change. These observations clearly indicate a novel pathway for p53 activation and, importantly, provide an example of an acetylation-mediated change in the function of a nonhistone regulatory protein. These results have significant implications regarding the molecular mechanisms of various acetyltransferase-containing transcriptional coactivators whose primary targets have been presumed to be histones.

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Pubmed
Transactivation of miR-34a by p53 broadly influences gene expression and promotes apoptosis.
Journal: Molecular cell
July/16/2007
Description

The p53 tumor suppressor protein is a critical regulator of the cellular response to cancer-initiating insults such as genotoxic stress. In this report, we demonstrate that microRNAs (miRNAs) are important components of the p53 transcriptional network. Global miRNA expression analyses identified a cohort of miRNAs that exhibit p53-dependent upregulation following DNA damage. One such miRNA, miR-34a, is commonly deleted in human cancers and, as shown here, frequently absent in pancreatic cancer cells. Characterization of the miR-34a primary transcript and promoter demonstrates that this miRNA is directly transactivated by p53. Expression of miR-34a causes dramatic reprogramming of gene expression and promotes apoptosis. Much like the known set of p53-regulated genes, miR-34a-responsive genes are highly enriched for those that regulate cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, DNA repair, and angiogenesis. Therefore, it is likely that an important function of miR-34a is the modulation and fine-tuning of the gene expression program initiated by p53.

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Pubmed
Germ line p53 mutations in a familial syndrome of breast cancer, sarcomas, and other neoplasms.
Journal: Science (New York, N.Y.)
January/2/1991
Description

Familial cancer syndromes have helped to define the role of tumor suppressor genes in the development of cancer. The dominantly inherited Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is of particular interest because of the diversity of childhood and adult tumors that occur in affected individuals. The rarity and high mortality of LFS precluded formal linkage analysis. The alternative approach was to select the most plausible candidate gene. The tumor suppressor gene, p53, was studied because of previous indications that this gene is inactivated in the sporadic (nonfamilial) forms of most cancers that are associated with LFS. Germ line p53 mutations have been detected in all five LFS families analyzed. These mutations do not produce amounts of mutant p53 protein expected to exert a trans-dominant loss of function effect on wild-type p53 protein. The frequency of germ line p53 mutations can now be examined in additional families with LFS, and in other cancer patients and families with clinical features that might be attributed to the mutation.

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