TP53 - tumor protein p53
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Publication
Journal: Annals of surgical oncology
November/19/2019
Publication
Journal: Molecular & cellular oncology
November/6/2019
Abstract
Cyclin-dependent kinase -4 and -6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors are currently being assessed in clinical trials for the treatment of many cancers including melanoma. While investigating the mechanisms of CDK4/6 inhibitor resistance in melanoma, we uncovered a mechanism of action of these inhibitors in regulating the expression of both the mouse double minute 4 (MDM4) oncogene and tumor protein p53 (TP53).
Publication
Journal: Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
November/3/2019
Abstract
For stage IV pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), the only therapeutic option is palliative chemotherapy. DLL3 is a new therapeutic target, which seems to be often expressed in SCLC and LCNEC. It has recently been reported that DLL3 mRNA expression is particularly upregulated in the LCNEC subgroup with STK11/KEAP1 and TP53 co-mutations, in contrast to lower expression levels in RB1 and TP53 co-mutated LCNEC. Our aim was to investigate DLL3 protein expression in stage IV LCNEC and correlate data with mutational profiles (i.e.STK11/KEAP1/RB1), immunostaining results (pRb, NE markers) and clinical characteristics.Immunohistochemical analysis for DLL3 (SC16.65) and ASCL1 (SC72.201) was performed on 94 and 51 FFPE tissue sections, respectively, of pathologically reviewed stage IV LCNEC. DLL3 and ASCL1 were scored positive if ≥1% of the tumor cells showed cytoplasmic/membranous or dotlike (DLL3) or nuclear (ASCL1) immunostaining. Data were correlated with available sequencing (TP53, RB1, STK11, KEAP1), immunostaining (pRb, NE markers) and clinical data.DLL3 was expressed in 70/94 (74%) LCNEC, 56 (80%) of which showed cytoplasmic/membranous staining. Median H-score was 55 (interquartile range 0-160). DLL3 staining was not different in pRb immunohistochemistry negative and positive patients (DLL3+ in 53/70 (76%) vs. 14/21 (67%), p = 0.409) or RB1 mutated and wildtype patients (DLL3+ in 27/34 (79%) vs. 23/33 (70%), p = 0.361). Nevertheless, 6/6 (100%) STK11 mutated, 10/11 (91%) KEAP1 mutated and 9/9 (100%) TP53 wildtype tumors were DLL3+ . Furthermore, DLL3 expression was associated with expression of ASCL1 and at least 2 out of 3 neuroendocrine markers.The high percentage (74%) of DLL3 expression in stage IV LCNEC denotes the potential of DLL3 targeted therapy in this patient group.
Publication
Journal: Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
October/21/2019
Abstract
We aim to provide a better understanding of the molecular landscape of primary lung adenocarcinomas with intestinal differentiation.Five invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas (IMA) and seven pulmonary enteric adenocarcinomas (PEAD) were included in this study. Furthermore, we analyzed six pulmonary colloid adenocarcinomas (CAD), including one primary tumor, one metastasis, and two sample pairs consisting of the primary colloid lung tumor and a matching metastasis and an acinar component, respectively. All samples were characterized using immunohistochemistry (TTF-1, CK7, CK20, CDX2, Ki-67, ALK and PD-L1) and a next generation sequencing panel covering 404 cancer-related genes (FoundationOne® gene panel).While Ki-67 expression was comparably low in IMA (range: 8-15%) and in primary CAD (range: 5-8%), we observed considerably higher proliferation rates in the non-colloid tumor compartment (16%) and metastases (72%) from CAD, as well as in the PEAD-group (36-71%). The overall tumor mutational burden was lowest in IMA (2.5 mutations per megabase), intermediate in CAD (5.8 mutations per megabase) and highest in PEAD (16.8 mutations per megabase). KRAS mutations were frequent in all three tumor subtypes, but TP53 mutations were mostly limited to PEAD. While chromosomal alterations were rare in IMA, we discovered MYC amplifications in three of four CAD. Comparing primary and metastatic CAD, we observed the acquisition of multiple mutations and chromosomal alterations. PEAD had a variety of chromosomal alterations, including two cases with RICTOR amplification. PD-L1 expression (20%, 50% and 80% of tumor cells) was limited to three PEAD samples, only. In conclusion, we provide a detailed insight into the molecular alterations across and within the different subtypes of pulmonary adenocarcinomas with intestinal differentiation. From a clinical perspective, we provide data on potential treatment strategies for patients with PEAD, including immunotherapy.
Publication
Journal: Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia
September/25/2019
Abstract
EZH2 is a histone methyltransferase that suppresses genes involved in cell cycle control. Overexpression of EZH2 has been associated with a poor prognosis in various malignancies. Pawlyn et al recently reported poor outcomes in patients with multiple myeloma and overexpression of EZH2. In order to validate these findings, we analyzed EZH2 expression and outcomes among patients from the CoMMpass study.We extracted clinical, expression, and genomic data from Interim Analysis 13 of the MMRF CoMMpass study, which harbors data from over 1000 patients with multiple myeloma. Correlations were drawn between EZH2 expression and common genetic mutations. We analyzed the association of EZH2 overexpression with progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS).The estimated median PFS for patients with EZH2 overexpression was 20.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.3-25.5 months) compared with 37.2 months (95% CI, 31.5-40.7 months) for patients without (P < .001). The estimated median OS for patients with EZH2 overexpression was 52.3 months (95% CI, 38.5 months to unable to quantitate), whereas the median OS had not been reached for those without (P < .001). EZH2 overexpression was more common in those with 17p and 1q deletions, TP53 missense mutations, and certain KRAS mutations. Coinciding BRAF and EZH2 amplification occurred frequently.EZH2 overexpression is associated with worse outcomes among patients with multiple myeloma from the CoMMpass study. Its known association with p53 and other drivers of malignancy support further lab-based and clinical study in multiple myeloma.
Publication
Journal: Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
September/15/2019
Abstract
Treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer includes chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery but patient responses to neoadjuvant treatment are variable. We have shown that rectal tumors are comprised of multiple genetically distinct sub-clones. Unique sub-clones within tumors may harbor mutations which contribute to inter-patient variation in response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT). Analysis of the influence of nCRT on the extent and nature of intra-tumoral genetic heterogeneity in rectal cancer may provide insights into mechanisms of resistance. Locally advanced rectal cancer patients underwent pre-treatment biopsies. At the time of surgery, tissue from the treated tumor was obtained and analyzed. Pre- and post-treatment specimens were subjected to whole exome and confirmatory deep sequencing for somatic mutations. Copy number variation was assessed using OncoScan SNP arrays. Genomic data were analyzed using PyClone to identify sub-clonal tumor population following nCRT. Alterations that persisted or were enriched in the post-treatment tumor specimen following nCRT were defined for each patient. Thirty-two samples were obtained from ten patients. PyClone identified 2 to 10 genetic sub-clones per tumor. Substantial changes in the proportions of individual sub-clones in pre- versus post-treatment tumor material were found in all patients. Resistant sub-clones recurrently contained mutations in TP53, APC, ABCA13, MUC16, and THSD4. Recurrent copy number variation was observed across multiple chromosome regions after nCRT. Pathway analysis including variant alleles and copy number changes associated with resistant sub-clones revealed significantly altered pathways, especially those linked to the APC and TP53 genes, which were the two most frequently mutated genes. Intra-tumoral heterogeneity is evident in pre-treatment rectal cancer. Following treatment, sub-clonal populations are selectively modified and enrichment of a subset of pre-treatment sub-clones is seen. Further studies are needed to define recurrent alterations at diagnosis that may contribute to resistance to nCRT.
Publication
Journal: The American journal of surgical pathology
September/3/2019
Abstract
Endometrial carcinosarcoma (ECS) is a rare and aggressive mixed-type epithelial and mesenchymal tumor. This study focused on the histologic appearance, loss of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression, and aberrant p53 expression in the epithelial component, and overall prognosis of 57 cases with ECS. Histologically, 21 and 36 cases exhibited low-grade (endometrioid grade 1 and 2) and high-grade (others) epithelial components, respectively. In a Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with a high-grade epithelial component exhibited worse progression-free survival (PFS), compared with those with a low-grade component. Although the former group also exhibited worse overall survival, the difference was not significant. Thirty-six cases exhibited aberrant p53 expression. Of these, 5 cases exhibited focally aberrant p53 expression in carcinomatous components with diffuse aberrant p53 expression in mesenchymal components. Aberrant expression of p53 did not show significant association with prognosis. Six patients with MMR deficiency exhibited relatively better PFS. In conclusion, a low-grade epithelial component is a superior predictor of the PFS of ECS, compared with MMR protein and p53 expression status. In some cases of ECS, TP53 mutation may be a late event associated with histogenesis of the sarcomatous component.
Publication
Journal: Journal of ovarian research
September/1/2019
Abstract
Multiple targeted gene sequencing is seldom performed in both germline and somatic testing for ovarian cancer. This study is to evaluate the specific genetic alterations, including both somatic and germline mutations, in Chinese patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in a prospective cohort study.Mutations in a customed 21-gene panel that included BRCA1, BRCA2, and 19 other tumor suppressor genes related to homologous recombination (HR) deficiency or non-HR deficiency were detected by targeted exon capture and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology across all coding exons and exon-intron (±20 base pairs) boundaries. Patients were enrolled consecutively and unselectively without age or family history consideration. Sixty-two unselected patients with epithelial ovarian cancer were enrolled in our study to be tested for paired somatic and germline mutations. All patients were tested using a 21-gene panel that included BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, PALB2, BRIP1, TP53, PTEN, STK11, CDH1, ATM, BARD1, MLH1, MRE11A, MSH2, MSH6, MUTYH, NBN, PMS1, PMS2, RAD50, and RAD51C.Mutation analysis revealed that 77.4% (48/62) of patients carried one or more of 64 identified genetic alterations, including 19 germline and 45 somatic deleterious mutations. Twelve individuals shared both germline and somatic mutations. BRCA mutants existed in 17 of 62 (27.4%) patients. Of the 64 mutations detected, 46 (74.2%) were in 7 other HR or non-HR genes, including TP53, PTEN, ATM, CHEK2, PALB2, RAD51C, and STK11. In somatic mutation analysis, TP53 showed frequent pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations in 56.5% (35/62) of enrolled cases, among which six cases harbored a loss of heterozygosity.This is the first report of multi-gene panel testing for germline and somatic mutations among Chinese EOC patients, which revealed a broader deleterious variants than only BRCA testing.Registration No. NCT03015376, clinicaltrials.gov , registered on January 10, 2017.
Publication
Journal: Scientific reports
August/20/2019
Abstract
We report changes in the genomic landscape in the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas HNSCC from potentially premalignant lesions (PPOLS) to malignancy and lymph node metastases. Likely pathological mutations predominantly involved a relatively small set of genes reported previously (TP53, KMT2D, CDKN2A, PIK3CA, NOTCH1 and FAT1) but also other predicted cancer drivers (MGA, PABPC3, NR4A2, NCOR1 and MACF1). Notably, all these mutations arise early and are present in PPOLs. The most frequent genetic changes, which follow acquisition of immortality and loss of senescence, are of consistent somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) involving chromosomal regions enriched for genes in known and previously unreported cancer-related pathways. We mapped the evolution of SCNAs in HNSCC progression. One of the earliest SCNAs involved deletions of CSMD1 (8p23.2). CSMD1 deletions or promoter hypermethylation were present in all of the immortal PPOLs and occurred at high frequency in the immortal HNSCC cell lines. Modulation of CSMD1 in cell lines revealed significant suppression of proliferation and invasion by forced expression, and significant stimulation of invasion by knockdown of expression. Known cancer drivers NOTCH1, PPP6C, RAC1, EIF4G1, PIK3CA showed significant increase in frequency of SCNA in transition from PPOLs to HNSCC that correlated with their expression. In the later stages of progression, HNSCC with and without nodal metastases showed some clear differences including high copy number gains of CCND1, hsa-miR-548k and TP63 in the metastases group.
Publication
Journal: Journal of genetics and genomics = Yi chuan xue bao
July/6/2019
Publication
Journal: Oncotarget
July/1/2019
Abstract
Objective: Better tools are needed for early diagnosis and classification of pancreatic cystic lesions (PCL) to trigger intervention before neoplastic precursor lesions progress to adenocarcinoma. We evaluated the capacity of molecular analysis to improve the accuracy of cytologic diagnosis for PCL with an emphasis on non-diagnostic/negative specimens. Design: In a span of 7 years, at a tertiary care hospital, 318 PCL endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirations (EUS-FNA) were evaluated by cytologic examination and molecular analysis. Mucinous PCL were identified based on a clinical algorithm and 46 surgical resections were used to verify this approach. The mutation allele frequency (MAF) of commonly altered genes (BRAF, CDKN2A, CTNNB1, GNAS, RAS, PIK3CA, PTEN, SMAD4, TP53 and VHL) was evaluated for their ability to identify and grade mucinous PCL. Results: Cytology showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 43.5% for mucinous PCL due in part to the impact of non-diagnostic (28.8%) and negative (50.5%) specimens. Incorporating an algorithmic approach or molecular analysis markedly increased the accuracy of cytologic evaluation. Detection of mucinous PCL by molecular analysis was 93.3% based on the detection of KRAS and/or GNAS gene mutations (p = 0.0001). Additional genes provided a marginal improvement in sensitivity but were associated with cyst type (e.g. VHL) and grade (e.g. SMAD4). In the surgical cohort, molecular analysis and the proposed algorithm showed comparable sensitivity (88.9% vs. 100%). Conclusions: Incorporating somatic molecular analysis in the cytologic evaluation of EUS-FNA increases diagnostic accuracy for detection, classification and grading of PCL. This approach has the potential to improve patient management.
Publication
Journal: Stem cells international
June/25/2019
Abstract
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is still the Achilles heel in modern oncology, with an increasing incidence accompanied by a persisting high mortality. The developmental process of PDAC is thought to be stepwise via precursor lesions and sequential accumulation of mutations. Thereby, current sequencing studies recapitulate this genetic heterogeneity in PDAC and show besides a handful of driver mutations (KRAS, TP53) a plethora of passenger mutations that allow to define subtypes. However, modeling the mutations of interest and their effects is still challenging. Interestingly, organoids have the potential to recapitulate in vitro, the in vivo characteristics of the tissue they originate from. Here, we could establish and develop tools allowing us to isolate, culture, and genetically modify ductal mouse organoids. Transferred to known effectors in the IPMN-PDAC sequence, we could reveal significantly increased proliferative and self-renewal capacities for PTEN and RNF43 deficiency in the context of oncogenic KRASG12D in mouse pancreatic organoids. Overall, we were able to obtain promising data centering ductal organoids in the focus of future PDAC research.
Publication
Journal: Oncotarget
June/20/2019
Abstract
Gynaecological carcinosarcomas are rare biphasic tumours which are highly aggressive. We performed molecular investigations on a series of such tumours arising in the uterus (n = 16) and ovaries (n = 10) to gain more information on their mutational landscapes and the expression status of the genes HMGA1/2, FHIT, LIN28A, and MTA1, the pseudogenes HMGA1P6 and HMGA1P7, and the miRNAs known to influence expression of the above-mentioned genes. In uterine carcinosarcomas (UCS), we identified mutations in KRAS, PIK3CA, and TP53 with a frequency of 6%, 31%, and 75%, respectively, whereas in ovarian carcinosarcomas (OCS), TP53 was the only mutated gene found (30%). An inverse correlation was observed between overexpression of HMGA1/2, LIN28A, and MTA1 and downregulation of miRNAs such as let-7a, let-7d, miR26a, miR16, miR214, and miR30c in both UCS and OCS. HMGA2 was expressed in its full length in 14 UCS and 9 OCS; in the remaining tumours, it was expressed in its truncated form. Because FHIT was normally expressed while miR30c was downregulated, not both downregulated as is the case in several other carcinomas, alterations of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition through an as yet unknown mechanism seems to be a feature of carcinosarcomas.
Publication
Journal: Nature communications
May/18/2019
Abstract
Spiradenoma and cylindroma are distinctive skin adnexal tumors with sweat gland differentiation and potential for malignant transformation and aggressive behaviour. We present the genomic analysis of 75 samples from 57 representative patients including 15 cylindromas, 17 spiradenomas, 2 cylindroma-spiradenoma hybrid tumors, and 24 low- and high-grade spiradenocarcinoma cases, together with morphologically benign precursor regions of these cancers. We reveal somatic or germline alterations of the CYLD gene in 15/15 cylindromas and 5/17 spiradenomas, yet only 2/24 spiradenocarcinomas. Notably, we find a recurrent missense mutation in the kinase domain of the ALPK1 gene in spiradenomas and spiradenocarcinomas, which is mutually exclusive from mutation of CYLD and can activate the NF-κB pathway in reporter assays. In addition, we show that high-grade spiradenocarcinomas carry loss-of-function TP53 mutations, while cylindromas may have disruptive mutations in DNMT3A. Thus, we reveal the genomic landscape of adnexal tumors and therapeutic targets.
Publication
Journal: Cell reports
May/8/2019
Abstract
Sarcomatoid urothelial bladder cancer (SARC) displays a high propensity for distant metastasis and is associated with short survival. We report a comprehensive genomic analysis of 28 cases of SARC and 84 cases of conventional urothelial carcinoma (UC), with the TCGA cohort of 408 muscle-invasive bladder cancers serving as the reference. SARCs show a distinct mutational landscape, with enrichment of TP53, RB1, and PIK3CA mutations. They are related to the basal molecular subtype of conventional UCs and could be divided into epithelial-basal and more clinically aggressive mesenchymal subsets on the basis of TP63 and its target gene expression levels. Other analyses reveal that SARCs are driven by downregulation of homotypic adherence genes and dysregulation of the EMT network, and nearly half exhibit a heavily infiltrated immune phenotype. Our observations have important implications for prognostication and the development of more effective therapies for this highly lethal variant of bladder cancer.
Publication
Journal: Bioscience reports
April/27/2019
Abstract
As high expression level of growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6) had an adverse effect on prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, it is interesting to reveal the relationship between GAS6-mRNA level and the survival condition of AML patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We screened The Cancer Genome Atlas database and found 71 AML patients with GAS6-mRNA expression and received allo-HSCT treatments. We divided them into two groups based on the median expression of GAS6-mRNA. Patients with GAS6-mRNAhigh (n=36) seemed to have lower bone marrow (BM) blast (P=0.022), lower percentage of type M5 (P=0.034), lower percentage of inv(16)/CBFβ-MYH11 karyotype (P=0.020), and lower rate of good risk classification (P=0.005) than the group GAS6-mRNAlow (n= 35). Higher expression level of GAS6-mRNA also brought higher RUNX1 mutations (P=0.003), MLL-PTD mutations (P=0.042), TP53 mutations (P=0.042), and lower NRAS/KRAS mutations (P=0.042). Univariate analyses showed that GAS6-mRNA was unfavorable for overall survival (OS) (P=0.044), as RUNX1 and WT1 also gave negative influences. Multivariate analyses confirmed that GAS6-mRNA cut down the event-free servival (EFS) and OS of AML patients with HSCT (P=0.029, P=0.025). Our study indicated that higher expression of GAS6-mRNA related with adverse effects in AML patients with HSCT treatment.
Publication
Journal: Scientific reports
April/23/2019
Abstract
A series of 116 small-molecule 1-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxanilides was designed based on the fragment-based approach and was synthesized according to the microwave-assisted protocol. The biological activity of all of the compounds was tested on human colon carcinoma cell lines including a deleted TP53 tumor suppressor gene. The mechanism of activity was studied according to the p53 status in the cell. Several compounds revealed a good to excellent activity that was similar to or better than the standard anticancer drugs. Some of these appeared to be more active against the p53 null cells than their wild-type counterparts. Intercalating the properties of these compounds could be responsible for their mechanism of action.
Publication
Journal: BMC cancer
March/26/2019
Abstract
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an established risk factor for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim was to establish cell lines from HPV-positive tonsil carcinomas to be used for treatment development.Fresh samples from 23 HPV-positive tonsil carcinomas were cultivated in vitro. The established cell line was analyzed for viral characteristics, cell karyotype, TP53 status, and growth capabilities in nude mice. In vitro studies of sensitivities to radiation, cisplatin and cetuximab were performed.After 19 months (eight passages), one cell line, LU-HNSCC-26, was established in vitro and also grew as xenografts. The tumor was from a 48 year old non-smoking man with non-keratinizing, p16 positive tonsil OSCC, stage T2N0M0 with HPV16. It contained 19.5 (CV% 3.7) HPV16 copies/cell (passage 8). The complete HPV16 genome sequence was obtained. Episomal HPV16 was present with an E2/E7 ratio of 1.1 (CV% 2.6). In addition, HPV16 mRNA specific for the intact E2 gene was detected. The viral expression manifested 1.0 (CV% 0.1) E7 mRNA copies per HPV16 genome. The karyotype was determined and the cell line demonstrated wild type TP53. The ID50 for radiation was 0.90 Gy and the IC50 for cisplatin was 0.99 μmol/L. The cell line was inhibited to a maximum of 18% by cetuximab.We established an in vitro tonsil carcinoma cell line containing episomal HPV16. This is an important step towards efficient treatment development.
Publication
Journal: Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
March/19/2019
Abstract
Pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a rare tumor with high mutational burden. Two subtypes of LCNEC are recognized, the co-mutated TP53 and RB1 group and the TP53 and STK11/KEAP1 group. We investigated PD-L1 and CD8 expression in a well characterized stage IV LCNEC cohort and compared expression in the two subtypes.Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis for PD-L1 and CD8 was performed on pathological reviewed pretreatment tumor samples for 148 stage IV LCNEC. Data about targeted next generation sequencing (TNGS) (TP53, RB1, STK11, KEAP1) and IHC for RB1 were available for most tumors. IHC staining for PD-L1 (DAKO 28-8) was performed and scored positive if tumors showed ≥1% membranous staining. CD8 was scored for intra-tumor T-cells and stromal cells.PD-L1 IHC expression data could be generated in 98/148 confirmed LCNEC samples along with RB1 IHC (n = 97) of which 77 passed quality control for TNGS. PD-L1 expression was positive in 16/98 cases (16%); 5 (5%) with ≥50%. PD-L1 expression was equal in RB1 mutated and RB1 wildtype tumors. None of STK11 mutated tumors (n = 7) expressed PD-L1. PD-L1 expression was correlated with superior overall survival (OS), hazard ratio 0.55 ((95% Confidence Interval 0.31-0.96), p = 0.038). Intra-tumor CD8 was associated with PD-L1 expression (p = 0.021) and stromal and intra-tumor CD8 were correlated with improved OS (p = 0.037 and p = 0.026 respectively).PD-L1 expression was positive in 16% of stage IV LCNEC tumors. This was independent of molecular subtype but associated with CD8 expression. In LCNEC patients with PD-L1 and/or CD8 expression superior OS was observed.
Publication
Journal: Oncology letters
March/14/2019
Abstract
The present study explored the association between KRAS proto-oncogene GTPase (KRAS), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit α (PIK3CA) and tumor protein p53 (TP53) mutations, and the clinical features and survival prognosis in 50 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The most common concurrent single gene mutation was TP53, followed by KRAS and PIK3CA. Co-existing mutations were found in 17 patients. KRAS, PIK3CA and TP53 mutations were associated with carbohydrate antigen 19-9 expression, invasive growth, vacuolar signs and margin lobulation on chest CT. The incidence of distant metastasis (bone and adrenal) with KRAS and TP53 mutations was greater than that of local metastasis (pleura). Patients with the wild-type genes experienced longer progression-free survival (PFS) times than those with KRAS, TP53, KRAS/TP53 or PIK3CA/TP53 mutations. Patients with KRAS/TP53 or PIK3CA/TP53 mutations experienced shorter PFS times than those with a single KRAS or TP53 mutation. KRAS, PIK3CA and TP53 mutations were associated with distant metastases and a poor prognosis. Patients with NSCLC should receive routine KRAS, PIK3CA and TP53 gene sequencing to determine mutations for the analysis of clinical characteristics and prognosis.
Publication
Journal: Mediterranean journal of hematology and infectious diseases
March/12/2019
Abstract

Background and objectives
Mutations of the TP53 gene have an unfavorable prognosis in Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS). The product of the TP53 gene is the p53 protein. Most of the TP53 mutations entail the accumulation of the protein in the nucleus of tumor cells. The immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for p53 can be a surrogate suggesting a mutational status and, if overexpressed, seems to be of prognostic value by itself. The best prognostic cut-off value of overexpression is controversial. The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the correct value from a homogenous group of patients with higher IPSS-R risk MDS.

In sixty consecutive patients diagnosed with MDS and categorized as "intermediate," "high" and "very high" IPSS-risk, the bone marrow biopsies performed at diagnosis were retrospectively re-examined for IHC p53 expression. The result of p53 expression was subsequently related to survival.A worse overall survival was observed both in patients whose IHC p53 expression was ≥5% and ≥ 10% compared to patients with a p53 expression below 5% (p= 0.0063) or 10% (p=0.0038) respectively.The ICH p53 expression in bone marrow biopsy in higher risk MDS was confirmed to have prognostic value. These results indicate more than 10% expression as the best cut off value.
Publication
Journal: Technology in cancer research & treatment
February/25/2019
Abstract
The aim of the study was to estimate breast cancer risk conferred by individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms of breast cancer susceptibility genes.We analyzed the 48 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms of 8 breast cancer susceptibility genes involved in the monoubiquitinated FANCD2-DNA damage repair pathway in 734 Chinese women with breast cancer and 672 age-matched healthy controls.Forty-five tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms were successfully genotyped by SNPscan, and the call rates for each tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms were above 98.9%. We found that 13 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms of 5 genes ( Parter and localizer of Breast cancer gene2 ( PALB2), Tumour protein 53 ( TP53), Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1, Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 ( PTEN), and Breast cancer gene 1 ( BRCA1-interacting protein 1)) were significantly associated with breast cancer risk. A total of 5 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2299941 of PTEN, rs2735385, rs6999227, rs1805812, and rs1061302 of Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1) were tightly associated with breast cancer risk in sporadic cases, and 5 other tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1042522 of TP53, rs2735343 of PTEN, rs7220719, rs16945628, and rs11871753 of BRCA1-interacting protein 1) were tightly associated with breast cancer risk in familial and early-onset cases.Some of the tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms of 5 genes ( PALB2, TP53, Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1, PTEN, and BRCA1-interacting protein 1) involved in the monoubiquitinated FANCD2-DNA damage repair pathway were significantly associated with breast cancer risk.
Publication
Journal: Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
February/11/2019
Abstract
Endometrial endometrioid carcinoma is usually divided into three histological subgroups: grade 1 (G1), grade 2 (G2), and grade 3 (G3). Most cases of endometrial endometrioid carcinoma G1/2 have a favorable prognosis, although some can have unfavorable outcomes, especially when they involve elderly patients, with similarities to endometrioid carcinoma G3 and serous carcinoma. This retrospective study evaluated whether TP53 abnormalities in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma could be used to supplement the current grading system and improve its ability to predict clinical outcomes. Immunohistochemical expression of TP53 was analyzed using tissue microarrays from the surgically resected specimens of 475 patients with endometrial endometrioid carcinoma. Weak or moderate expression was defined as TP53-normal expression, while absent or strongly positive expression was defined as TP53-aberrant expression. The endometrial endometrioid carcinomas had originally been diagnosed as G1 (69%), G2 (18%), and G3 (13%). Univariate analyses revealed that TP53-aberrant expression was associated with poor survival in G1 and G2 cases, but not G3 cases. In addition, age (<60 years vs. ≥60 years) was correlated with TP53-aberrant expression in G1 cases (3% vs. 16%, p = 0.001), but not in G2 or G3 cases. Based on immunohistochemical TP53 expression, the endometrial endometrioid carcinomas were reclassified using a prognostic grading system as high-grade (G1 or G2 with TP53- aberrant expression, and G3 with TP53-normal or -aberrant expression) or low-grade (G1 or G2 with TP53-normal expression). The multivariate analyses revealed that the prognostic grading system (using histological grade and TP53 expression) could independently predict poor progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 2.91, p < 0.001) and overall survival (hazard ratio: 3.62, p < 0.001). Therefore, combining immunohistochemical TP53 expression with the traditional histological grading system for endometrial endometrioid carcinoma may help improve its ability to accurately predict the patient's prognosis.
Publication
Journal: Endocrine connections
February/5/2019
Abstract
Objective Up to 40% of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients may have adrenal cortical tumors. However, adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is rare. The clinical manifestations, prevalence, inheritance and prognosis of ACC associated with MEN1 remain unclear. Here we report the clinical manifestations and prevalence of ACC in patients with MEN1. Design and methods A retrospective analysis of ACC associated with MEN1 patients at a single tertiary care center from December 2001 to June 2017. Genetic analysis of MEN1 and other ACC associated genes, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of MEN1 locus, immunohistochemistry staining of menin, P53 and β-catenin in ACC tissue were performed. Results Two related patients had ACC associated with MEN1. The father had ENSAT stage IV tumor with excessive production of cortisol; the daughter had nonfunctional ENSAT stage I tumor. Both patients carried novel germline heterozygous mutation (c.400_401insC) of MEN1. The wild-type MEN1 allele was lost in the resected ACC tissue from the daughter with no menin staining. The ACC tissue had nuclear β-catenin staining, with heterozygous CTNNB1 mutation of 357del24 and P53 staining in only 20% cells. Conclusions ACC associated with MEN1 is rare and may occur in familial aggregates.
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