TP53 - tumor protein p53
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Publication
Journal: Science
August/2/1991
Abstract
Mutations in the evolutionarily conserved codons of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are common in diverse types of human cancer. The p53 mutational spectrum differs among cancers of the colon, lung, esophagus, breast, liver, brain, reticuloendothelial tissues, and hemopoietic tissues. Analysis of these mutations can provide clues to the etiology of these diverse tumors and to the function of specific regions of p53. Transitions predominate in colon, brain, and lymphoid malignancies, whereas G:C to T:A transversions are the most frequent substitutions observed in cancers of the lung and liver. Mutations at A:T base pairs are seen more frequently in esophageal carcinomas than in other solid tumors. Most transitions in colorectal carcinomas, brain tumors, leukemias, and lymphomas are at CpG dinucleotide mutational hot spots. G to T transversions in lung, breast, and esophageal carcinomas are dispersed among numerous codons. In liver tumors in persons from geographic areas in which both aflatoxin B1 and hepatitis B virus are cancer risk factors, most mutations are at one nucleotide pair of codon 249. These differences may reflect the etiological contributions of both exogenous and endogenous factors to human carcinogenesis.
Publication
Journal: Science
October/6/2008
Abstract
There are currently few therapeutic options for patients with pancreatic cancer, and new insights into the pathogenesis of this lethal disease are urgently needed. Toward this end, we performed a comprehensive genetic analysis of 24 pancreatic cancers. We first determined the sequences of 23,219 transcripts, representing 20,661 protein-coding genes, in these samples. Then, we searched for homozygous deletions and amplifications in the tumor DNA by using microarrays containing probes for approximately 10(6) single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We found that pancreatic cancers contain an average of 63 genetic alterations, the majority of which are point mutations. These alterations defined a core set of 12 cellular signaling pathways and processes that were each genetically altered in 67 to 100% of the tumors. Analysis of these tumors' transcriptomes with next-generation sequencing-by-synthesis technologies provided independent evidence for the importance of these pathways and processes. Our data indicate that genetically altered core pathways and regulatory processes only become evident once the coding regions of the genome are analyzed in depth. Dysregulation of these core pathways and processes through mutation can explain the major features of pancreatic tumorigenesis.
Publication
Journal: Cell
April/3/1997
Abstract
Oncogenic ras can transform most immortal rodent cells to a tumorigenic state. However, transformation of primary cells by ras requires either a cooperating oncogene or the inactivation of tumor suppressors such as p53 or p16. Here we show that expression of oncogenic ras in primary human or rodent cells results in a permanent G1 arrest. The arrest induced by ras is accompanied by accumulation of p53 and p16, and is phenotypically indistinguishable from cellular senescence. Inactivation of either p53 or p16 prevents ras-induced arrest in rodent cells, and E1A achieves a similar effect in human cells. These observations suggest that the onset of cellular senescence does not simply reflect the accumulation of cell divisions, but can be prematurely activated in response to an oncogenic stimulus. Negation of ras-induced senescence may be relevant during multistep tumorigenesis.
Publication
Journal: Science
March/4/2004
Abstract
MDM2 binds the p53 tumor suppressor protein with high affinity and negatively modulates its transcriptional activity and stability. Overexpression of MDM2, found in many human tumors, effectively impairs p53 function. Inhibition of MDM2-p53 interaction can stabilize p53 and may offer a novel strategy for cancer therapy. Here, we identify potent and selective small-molecule antagonists of MDM2 and confirm their mode of action through the crystal structures of complexes. These compounds bind MDM2 in the p53-binding pocket and activate the p53 pathway in cancer cells, leading to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and growth inhibition of human tumor xenografts in nude mice.
Publication
Journal: Cell
August/5/2009
Abstract
While the tumor suppressor functions of p53 have long been recognized, the contribution of p53 to numerous other aspects of disease and normal life is only now being appreciated. This burgeoning range of responses to p53 is reflected by an increasing variety of mechanisms through which p53 can function, although the ability to activate transcription remains key to p53's modus operandi. Control of p53's transcriptional activity is crucial for determining which p53 response is activated, a decision we must understand if we are to exploit efficiently the next generation of drugs that selectively activate or inhibit p53.
Publication
Journal: Science
April/22/2004
Abstract
The Sir2 deacetylase modulates organismal life-span in various species. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Sir2 increases longevity are largely unknown. We show that in mammalian cells, the Sir2 homolog SIRT1 appears to control the cellular response to stress by regulating the FOXO family of Forkhead transcription factors, a family of proteins that function as sensors of the insulin signaling pathway and as regulators of organismal longevity. SIRT1 and the FOXO transcription factor FOXO3 formed a complex in cells in response to oxidative stress, and SIRT1 deacetylated FOXO3 in vitro and within cells. SIRT1 had a dual effect on FOXO3 function: SIRT1 increased FOXO3's ability to induce cell cycle arrest and resistance to oxidative stress but inhibited FOXO3's ability to induce cell death. Thus, one way in which members of the Sir2 family of proteins may increase organismal longevity is by tipping FOXO-dependent responses away from apoptosis and toward stress resistance.
Publication
Journal: Cell
December/4/2001
Abstract
DNA damage-induced acetylation of p53 protein leads to its activation and either growth arrest or apoptosis. We show here that the protein product of the gene hSIR2(SIRT1), the human homolog of the S. cerevisiae Sir2 protein known to be involved in cell aging and in the response to DNA damage, binds and deacetylates the p53 protein with a specificity for its C-terminal Lys382 residue, modification of which has been implicated in the activation of p53 as a transcription factor. Expression of wild-type hSir2 in human cells reduces the transcriptional activity of p53. In contrast, expression of a catalytically inactive hSir2 protein potentiates p53-dependent apoptosis and radiosensitivity. We propose that hSir2 is involved in the regulation of p53 function via deacetylation.
Publication
Journal: Molecular Cell
July/17/2007
Abstract
The p53 tumor suppressor protein is a critical regulator of the cellular response to cancer-initiating insults such as genotoxic stress. In this report, we demonstrate that microRNAs (miRNAs) are important components of the p53 transcriptional network. Global miRNA expression analyses identified a cohort of miRNAs that exhibit p53-dependent upregulation following DNA damage. One such miRNA, miR-34a, is commonly deleted in human cancers and, as shown here, frequently absent in pancreatic cancer cells. Characterization of the miR-34a primary transcript and promoter demonstrates that this miRNA is directly transactivated by p53. Expression of miR-34a causes dramatic reprogramming of gene expression and promotes apoptosis. Much like the known set of p53-regulated genes, miR-34a-responsive genes are highly enriched for those that regulate cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, DNA repair, and angiogenesis. Therefore, it is likely that an important function of miR-34a is the modulation and fine-tuning of the gene expression program initiated by p53.
Publication
Journal: Cell
October/15/1997
Abstract
The tumor suppressor p53 exerts antiproliferation effects through its ability to function as a sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factor. Here, we demonstrate that p53 can be modified by acetylation both in vivo and in vitro. Remarkably, the site of p53 that is acetylated by its coactivator, p300, resides in a C-terminal domain known to be critical for the regulation of p53 DNA binding. Furthermore, the acetylation of p53 can dramatically stimulate its sequence-specific DNA-binding activity, possibly as a result of an acetylation-induced conformational change. These observations clearly indicate a novel pathway for p53 activation and, importantly, provide an example of an acetylation-mediated change in the function of a nonhistone regulatory protein. These results have significant implications regarding the molecular mechanisms of various acetyltransferase-containing transcriptional coactivators whose primary targets have been presumed to be histones.
Publication
Journal: Cell
September/1/2010
Abstract
Recently, more than 1000 large intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been reported. These RNAs are evolutionarily conserved in mammalian genomes and thus presumably function in diverse biological processes. Here, we report the identification of lincRNAs that are regulated by p53. One of these lincRNAs (lincRNA-p21) serves as a repressor in p53-dependent transcriptional responses. Inhibition of lincRNA-p21 affects the expression of hundreds of gene targets enriched for genes normally repressed by p53. The observed transcriptional repression by lincRNA-p21 is mediated through the physical association with hnRNP-K. This interaction is required for proper genomic localization of hnRNP-K at repressed genes and regulation of p53 mediates apoptosis. We propose a model whereby transcription factors activate lincRNAs that serve as key repressors by physically associating with repressive complexes and modulate their localization to sets of previously active genes.
Publication
Journal: Science
January/3/1991
Abstract
Familial cancer syndromes have helped to define the role of tumor suppressor genes in the development of cancer. The dominantly inherited Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is of particular interest because of the diversity of childhood and adult tumors that occur in affected individuals. The rarity and high mortality of LFS precluded formal linkage analysis. The alternative approach was to select the most plausible candidate gene. The tumor suppressor gene, p53, was studied because of previous indications that this gene is inactivated in the sporadic (nonfamilial) forms of most cancers that are associated with LFS. Germ line p53 mutations have been detected in all five LFS families analyzed. These mutations do not produce amounts of mutant p53 protein expected to exert a trans-dominant loss of function effect on wild-type p53 protein. The frequency of germ line p53 mutations can now be examined in additional families with LFS, and in other cancer patients and families with clinical features that might be attributed to the mutation.
Publication
Journal: Genetics in Medicine
May/8/2014
Abstract
In clinical exome and genome sequencing, there is a potential for the recognition and reporting of incidental or secondary findings unrelated to the indication for ordering the sequencing but of medical value for patient care. The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recently published a policy statement on clinical sequencing that emphasized the importance of alerting the patient to the possibility of such results in pretest patient discussions, clinical testing, and reporting of results. The ACMG appointed a Working Group on Incidental Findings in Clinical Exome and Genome Sequencing to make recommendations about responsible management of incidental findings when patients undergo exome or genome sequencing. This Working Group conducted a year-long consensus process, including an open forum at the 2012 Annual Meeting and review by outside experts, and produced recommendations that have been approved by the ACMG Board. Specific and detailed recommendations, and the background and rationale for these recommendations, are described herein. The ACMG recommends that laboratories performing clinical sequencing seek and report mutations of the specified classes or types in the genes listed here. This evaluation and reporting should be performed for all clinical germline (constitutional) exome and genome sequencing, including the "normal" of tumor-normal subtractive analyses in all subjects, irrespective of age but excluding fetal samples. We recognize that there are insufficient data on penetrance and clinical utility to fully support these recommendations, and we encourage the creation of an ongoing process for updating these recommendations at least annually as further data are collected.
Publication
Journal: Science
August/9/2004
Abstract
A major cause of aging is thought to result from the cumulative effects of cell loss over time. In yeast, caloric restriction (CR) delays aging by activating the Sir2 deacetylase. Here we show that expression of mammalian Sir2 (SIRT1) is induced in CR rats as well as in human cells that are treated with serum from these animals. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) attenuated this response. SIRT1 deacetylates the DNA repair factor Ku70, causing it to sequester the proapoptotic factor Bax away from mitochondria, thereby inhibiting stress-induced apoptotic cell death. Thus, CR could extend life-span by inducing SIRT1 expression and promoting the long-term survival of irreplaceable cells.
Publication
Journal: Cell
June/4/2009
Abstract
The traditional view of p53 activation includes three steps-p53 stabilization, DNA binding, and transcriptional activation. However, recent studies indicate that each step of p53 activation is more complex than originally anticipated. Moreover, both genetic studies in mice and in vitro studies with purified components suggest that the classical model may not be sufficient to explain all aspects of p53 activation in vivo. To reconcile these differences, we propose that antirepression, the release of p53 from repression by factors such as Mdm2 and MdmX, is a key step in the physiological activation of p53.
Publication
Journal: FEBS Letters
February/13/1998
Abstract
The tumor suppressor p53 is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. p53 was polyubiquitinated in the presence of E1, UbcH5 as E2 and MDM2 oncoprotein. A ubiquitin molecule bound MDM2 through sulfhydroxy bond which is characteristic of ubiquitin ligase (E3)-ubiquitin binding. The cysteine residue in the carboxyl terminus of MDM2 was essential for the activity. These data suggest that the MDM2 protein, which is induced by p53, functions as a ubiquitin ligase, E3, in human papillomavirus-uninfected cells which do not have E6 protein.
Publication
Journal: Science
August/2/1994
Abstract
Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor are the most frequently observed genetic alterations in human cancer. The majority of the mutations occur in the core domain which contains the sequence-specific DNA binding activity of the p53 protein (residues 102-292), and they result in loss of DNA binding. The crystal structure of a complex containing the core domain of human p53 and a DNA binding site has been determined at 2.2 angstroms resolution and refined to a crystallographic R factor of 20.5 percent. The core domain structure consists of a beta sandwich that serves as a scaffold for two large loops and a loop-sheet-helix motif. The two loops, which are held together in part by a tetrahedrally coordinated zinc atom, and the loop-sheet-helix motif form the DNA binding surface of p53. Residues from the loop-sheet-helix motif interact in the major groove of the DNA, while an arginine from one of the two large loops interacts in the minor groove. The loops and the loop-sheet-helix motif consist of the conserved regions of the core domain and contain the majority of the p53 mutations identified in tumors. The structure supports the hypothesis that DNA binding is critical for the biological activity of p53, and provides a framework for understanding how mutations inactivate it.
Publication
Journal: Nature
January/24/1990
Abstract
The p53 gene has been a constant source of fascination since its discovery nearly a decade ago. Originally considered to be an oncogene, several convergent lines of research have indicated that the wild-type gene product actually functions as a tumour suppressor gene. For example, expression of the neoplastic phenotype is inhibited, rather than promoted, when rat cells are transfected with the murine wild-type p53 gene together with mutant p53 genes and/or other oncogenes. Moreover, in human tumours, the short arm of chromosome 17 is often deleted. In colorectal cancers, the smallest common region of deletion is centred at 17p13.1; this region harbours the p53 gene, and in two tumours examined in detail, the remaining (non-deleted) p53 alleles were found to contain mutations. This result was provocative because allelic deletion coupled with mutation of the remaining allele is a theoretical hallmark of tumour-suppressor genes. In the present report, we have attempted to determine the generality of this observation; that is, whether tumours with allelic deletions of chromosome 17p contain mutant p53 genes in the allele that is retained. Our results suggest that (1) most tumours with such allelic deletions contain p53 point mutations resulting in amino-acid substitutions, (2) such mutations are not confined to tumours with allelic deletion, but also occur in at least some tumours that have retained both parental 17p alleles, and (3) p53 gene mutations are clustered in four 'hot-spots' which exactly coincide with the four most highly conserved regions of the gene. These results suggest that p53 mutations play a role in the development of many common human malignancies.
Publication
Journal: Science
March/2/2004
Abstract
The tumor suppressor p53 exerts its anti-neoplastic activity primarily through the induction of apoptosis. We found that cytosolic localization of endogenous wild-type or trans-activation-deficient p53 was necessary and sufficient for apoptosis. p53 directly activated the proapoptotic Bcl-2 protein Bax in the absence of other proteins to permeabilize mitochondria and engage the apoptotic program. p53 also released both proapoptotic multidomain proteins and BH3-only proteins [Proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins that share only the third Bcl-2 homology domain (BH3)] that were sequestered by Bcl-xL. The transcription-independent activation of Bax by p53 occurred with similar kinetics and concentrations to those produced by activated Bid. We propose that when p53 accumulates in the cytosol, it can function analogously to the BH3-only subset of proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins to activate Bax and trigger apoptosis.
Publication
Journal: Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology
April/23/2010
Abstract
Genomic instability is a characteristic of most cancers. In hereditary cancers, genomic instability results from mutations in DNA repair genes and drives cancer development, as predicted by the mutator hypothesis. In sporadic (non-hereditary) cancers the molecular basis of genomic instability remains unclear, but recent high-throughput sequencing studies suggest that mutations in DNA repair genes are infrequent before therapy, arguing against the mutator hypothesis for these cancers. Instead, the mutation patterns of the tumour suppressor TP53 (which encodes p53), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A; which encodes p16INK4A and p14ARF) support the oncogene-induced DNA replication stress model, which attributes genomic instability and TP53 and ATM mutations to oncogene-induced DNA damage.
Publication
Journal: Science
July/3/2006
Abstract
The energy that sustains cancer cells is derived preferentially from glycolysis. This metabolic change, the Warburg effect, was one of the first alterations in cancer cells recognized as conferring a survival advantage. Here, we show that p53, one of the most frequently mutated genes in cancers, modulates the balance between the utilization of respiratory and glycolytic pathways. We identify Synthesis of Cytochrome c Oxidase 2 (SCO2) as the downstream mediator of this effect in mice and human cancer cell lines. SCO2 is critical for regulating the cytochrome c oxidase (COX) complex, the major site of oxygen utilization in the eukaryotic cell. Disruption of the SCO2 gene in human cancer cells with wild-type p53 recapitulated the metabolic switch toward glycolysis that is exhibited by p53-deficient cells. That SCO2 couples p53 to mitochondrial respiration provides a possible explanation for the Warburg effect and offers new clues as to how p53 might affect aging and metabolism.
Publication
Journal: Cell
December/10/1997
Abstract
DNA-damaging agents signal to p53 through as yet unidentified posttranscriptional mechanisms. Here we show that phosphorylation of human p53 at serine 15 occurs after DNA damage and that this leads to reduced interaction of p53 with its negative regulator, the oncoprotein MDM2, in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, using purified DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), we demonstrate that phosphorylation of p53 at serines 15 and 37 impairs the ability of MDM2 to inhibit p53-dependent transactivation. We present evidence that these effects are most likely due to a conformational change induced upon phosphorylation of p53. Our studies provide a plausible mechanism by which the induction of p53 can be modulated by DNA-PK (or other protein kinases with similar specificity) in response to DNA damage.
Publication
Journal: Science
December/6/1996
Abstract
The MDM2 oncoprotein is a cellular inhibitor of the p53 tumor suppressor in that it can bind the transactivation domain of p53 and downregulate its ability to activate transcription. In certain cancers, MDM2 amplification is a common event and contributes to the inactivation of p53. The crystal structure of the 109-residue amino-terminal domain of MDM2 bound to a 15-residue transactivation domain peptide of p53 revealed that MDM2 has a deep hydrophobic cleft on which the p53 peptide binds as an amphipathic alpha helix. The interface relies on the steric complementarity between the MDM2 cleft and the hydrophobic face of the p53 alpha helix and, in particular, on a triad of p53 amino acids-Phe19, Trp23, and Leu26-which insert deep into the MDM2 cleft. These same p53 residues are also involved in transactivation, supporting the hypothesis that MDM2 inactivates p53 by concealing its transactivation domain. The structure also suggests that the amphipathic alpha helix may be a common structural motif in the binding of a diverse family of transactivation factors to the TATA-binding protein-associated factors.
Publication
Journal: Molecular Cell
July/17/2007
Abstract
p53 is a potent tumor suppressor, whose biological effects are largely due to its function as a transcriptional regulator. Here we report that, in addition to regulating the expression of hundreds of protein-coding genes, p53 also modulates the levels of microRNAs (miRNAs). Specifically, p53 can induce expression of microRNA-34a (miR-34a) in cultured cells as well as in irradiated mice, by binding to a perfect p53 binding site located within the gene that gives rise to miR-34a. Processing of the primary transcript into mature miR-34a involves the excision of a 30 kb intron. Notably, inactivation of miR-34a strongly attenuates p53-mediated apoptosis in cells exposed to genotoxic stress, whereas overexpression of miR-34a mildly increases apoptosis. Hence, miR-34a is a direct proapoptotic transcriptional target of p53 that can mediate some of p53's biological effects. Perturbation of miR-34a expression, as occurs in some human cancers, may thus contribute to tumorigenesis by attenuating p53-dependent apoptosis.
Publication
Journal: Nature
July/30/1992
Abstract
Despite extensive data linking mutations in the p53 gene to human tumorigenesis, little is known about the cellular regulators and mediators of p53 function. MDM2 is a strong candidate for one such cellular protein; the MDM2 gene was originally identified by virtue of its amplification in a spontaneously transformed derivative of mouse BALB/c cells and the MDM2 protein subsequently shown to bind to p53 in rat cells transfected with p53 genes. To determine whether MDM2 plays a role in human cancer, we have cloned the human MDM2 gene. Here we show that recombinant-derived human MDM2 protein binds human p53 in vitro, and we use MDM2 clones to localize the human MDM2 gene to chromosome 12q13-14. Because this chromosomal position appears to be altered in many sarcomas, we looked for changes in human MDM2 in such cancers. The gene was amplified in over a third of 47 sarcomas, including common bone and soft tissue forms. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that MDM2 binds to p53, and that amplification of MDM2 in sarcomas leads to escape from p53-regulated growth control. This mechanism of tumorigenesis parallels that for virally-induced tumours, in which viral oncogene products bind to and functionally inactivate p53.
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