TP53 - tumor protein p53
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Pubmed
Journal: Journal of viral hepatitis
December/4/2005
Abstract
To evaluate hepatic expression of the nuclear proliferative marker Ki-67 and the p53 oncoprotein in hepatitis B virus (HBV)/HCV cirrhosis in relation to dysplastic liver cell changes and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We studied needle liver biopsies from 107 patients with cirrhosis and no HCC (52 HBV, 55 HCV) who had been assessed for protocol studies, and 57 cirrhotic patients with HCC (40 HBV, 17 HCV). We evaluated small and large cell dysplastic changes along with the expression of Ki-67 and p53 by immunohistochemistry. The labelling index (LI) was defined as the proportion (%) of positive-stained nuclei of the 500 measured. Large and small cell dysplastic changes were observed in 12 and 9% of specimens respectively. Only small cell changes were associated with Ki-67 expression. Ki-67 LI was 5.50 +/- 5.7 in cirrhosis (13.90 +/- 3.84 in those with small cell dysplastic changes vs 4.64 +/- 4.98 in those without, P < 0.01), 10.2 +/- 5.95 in cirrhosis with HCC (P < 0.05) and 18.56 +/- 10 in HCC (P < 0.01). Neither the presence of small cell dysplastic changes nor the expression of Ki-67 was related to severity or aetiology of cirrhosis. Expression of p53 was observed in 30% of the non-tumorous and in 53% of the neoplastic tissue obtained from patients with HCC, with no differences between HCV and HBV. Ki-67 and p53 expression was associated with the tumour grade (P < 0.001). Our observations clearly demonstrate the association between the proliferation activity and the morphological changes in the cirrhotic liver from the non-dysplastic to dysplastic lesion to HCC. They also support the hypothesis that p53 alterations are a rather late event in carcinogenesis and related to HCC grade. And finally, they suggest that the final steps of hepatocarcinogenesis are common and independent of the aetiology of the chronic viral infection.
Pubmed
Journal: Medical and pediatric oncology
June/3/2002
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Pediatric nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is relatively rare. The Epstein Barr virus (EBV) association with the oncogenesis of NPC is well established. Apoptosis-related proteins, p53 and bcl-2, have also been described in adult NPC pathogenesis.
METHODS
From 1988 to 1998, 16 patients with NPC were treated at R. Gutierrez Children's Hospital and the National J.P. Garrahan Pediatric Hospital. Their median age was 12 years (range 8-20), 2 females and 14 males. The presence of p53, bcl-2 and latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) of EBV expression was studied by immunohistochemistry and Epstein Barr encoded RNAs (EBERs) by in situ hybridization in tissue sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded NPC biopsies
RESULTS
EBV presence and LMP-1 expression in epithelial tumor cells were detected in all the biopsies studied. p53 was expressed in 13/16 NPCs, but the frequency of positive malignant cells differed from case to case, ranging from less than 25 to 100% with heterogeneous staining intensity. Bcl-2 positive staining in tumor epithelial cells was detected in 2/16; whereas 10/16 cases showed bcl-2 positivity in infiltrating lymphocytes.
CONCLUSIONS
Although our series is small, we conclude that the pathogenesis of pediatric NPC as a multistep process may well involve EBV infection. This leads to LMP-1 expression and p53 overexpression in epithelial tumor cells, whereas bc-2 seems unrelated to the development of this disorder.
Pubmed
Journal: Cancer science
November/28/2010
Abstract
This study was conducted to analyze a comprehensive panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in DNA repair genes to determine the relationship between polymorphisms and the survival outcome of patients with early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Three hundred and ten consecutive patients with surgically resected NSCLC were enrolled. Forty-eight SNP in 27 DNA repair genes were genotyped and their associations with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed. Individually, six SNP exhibited significant associations with survival outcome. When the six SNP were combined, OS and DFS decreased as the number of bad genotypes increased (P(trend) <0.0001 for both). Patients with three, and four or five bad genotypes had a significantly worse OS and DFS compared with those carrying zero or one bad genotypes (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] for OS=3.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.25-9.97, P=0.02, and aHR for DFS=3.31, 95% CI=1.41-7.76, P=0.006; and aHR for OS=5.47, 95% CI=1.87-16.00, P=0.002, and aHR for DFS=4.42, 95% CI=1.82-10.74, P=0.001, respectively). These findings suggest that the six SNP identified can be used as prognostic markers for patients with surgically resected early stage NSCLC.
Pubmed
Journal: Croatian medical journal
June/12/2007
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To analyze genetic alterations of p53 gene in Slovenian gastric cancer patients and to compare these alterations with clinicopathological parameters in order to assess the value of p53 as a prognostic factor.
METHODS
We analyzed the samples from 230 Slovenian patients with gastric cancer, collected between 1983 and 2001. p53 expression was evaluated immunohistochemically with DO-7 monoclonal antibody. In addition, loss of heterozigosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI) of p53 gene were evaluated, as well as its mutational status in the selected population of patients.
RESULTS
p53 expression was associated with poorer survival and it was an independent predictor in multivariate analysis, along with TNM (T--size of tumor, N--nodal involvement, M--distant metastasis) stage status. Loss of heterozigosity and microsatellite instability status did not influence survival, however we found association of loss of heterozigosity with Lauren's (Mantel-Haenszel test, P=0.004) and Ming's (Mantel-Haenszel test, P<0.001) classification, whereas microsatellite instability was associated with gender (Mantel-Haenszel test, P=0.017), TNM stage (chi(2) test, P=0.006) of gastric cancer, and lymph node involvement (pN) (chi(2) test, P=0.004). Conclusions. The data on p53 abnormalities, when considered separately, could be of relative value for predicting the behavior of gastric tumors. However, our analyses showed that studying p53 overexpression, loss of heterozigosity, microsatellite instability, and mutational analysis could provide data that, particularly in combination with some clinicopathological features, might be of clinical value for predicting the tumor behavior and patient response to therapy.
Pubmed
Journal: Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology
April/15/2012
Abstract
Cancer is a disorder characterized by uncontrolled proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Inducing apoptosis is an efficient method of treating cancers. In this study, we investigated the effect of andrographolide on the induction of apoptosis as well as its regulatory effect on the activation of transcription factors in B16F-10 melanoma cells. Treatment of B16F-10 cells with nontoxic concentration of andrographolide showed the presence of apoptotic bodies and induced DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays also confirmed the observation. The proapoptotic genes p53, Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3 were found upregulated in andrographolide-treated cells, whereas the antiapoptotic gene bcl-2 was downregulated. This study also reveals that andrographolide treatment could alter the production and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and could inhibit the activation and nuclear translocation of p65, p50, and c-Rel subunits of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and other transcription factors such as c-fos, activated transcription factor-2, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein in B16F-10 melanoma cells. These results suggest that andrographolide induces apoptosis via inhibiting NF-κB-induced bcl-2-mediated survival signaling and modulating p53-induced caspase-3-mediated proapoptotic signaling.
Pubmed
Journal: British journal of haematology
November/25/2012
Abstract
The TP53 (p53) pathway can be inhibited by TP53 mutation or deletion or by MDM2 overexpression. Both occur in Burkitt lymphoma (BL), but many cases lack either abnormality. Expression patterns of the TP53 inhibitor MDM4 have not been reported in BL, and increased MDM4 could deregulate the TP53 pathway in cases without TP53 or MDM2 abnormalities. We investigated TP53 pathway disruption in paediatric BL patient samples (n = 30) by studying MDM4, MDM2, and CDKN1A (p21) protein and mRNA expression; TP53 mutations; TP53 protein expression; and gene copy number abnormalities. MDM4 protein was expressed in 30/30 tumours, and MDM2 protein was weakly expressed in 7/30 (23%). All cases were negative for CDKN1A protein, and CDKN1A mRNA levels were decreased. TP53 mutations were detected in 5/28 (18%) cases and confirmed by sequencing. TP53 protein was expressed in 15/30 (50%) cases, including 7/8 with TP53 genetic alterations. MDM2 protein and mRNA expression levels did not correlate with lack of TP53 genetic changes or TP53 protein expression; however, there was an inverse relationship between detectable TP53 protein expression and MDM4 copy number gains and mRNA expression. The TP53 pathway is deregulated in paediatric BL cases, and increased MDM4 expression may be the primary mechanism in some cases.
Pubmed
Journal: Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny
May/29/2013
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Currently, nongenotoxic carcinogens-induced changes in DNA methylation profile are considered as mechanism of their toxicity, including carcinogenic action.
OBJECTIVE
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on the methylation levels of the p53 promoter region, as well as mRNA and protein level of this gene.
METHODS
Male Wistar rats received DBP in one, three or fourteen daily oral doses (at 24-h intervals) of 1800 mg/kg b.w. x day(-1). The methylation level of c-myc gene was determined by PCR-based methylation sensitive restriction enzyme analysis (MSRA). The expression of gene was assessed by Real-Time PCR (at mRNA level) and Western blot (at protein level) analysis.
RESULTS
There was observed the hypermethylation of p53 promoter region after short (1 day) exposure of the animals to DBP. No correlation was found between mRNA expression and methylation level of p53 gene. The present study showed decreased level of p53 protein, during the whole period of study.
CONCLUSIONS
No direct correlation was observed between the methylation and expression level of p53. The decreased protein level might be a consequence of the repressive effect of c-myc, which was involved in signal transduction pathways, the same as p53 protein.
Pubmed
Journal: Oncology reports
May/23/2017
Abstract
The expression of P53 was previously found by us significantly correlated with maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Hence, the aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between SUVmax and the status of the chemotherapy-related tumor marker expression or serum tumor markers in gastric adenocarcinoma patients. Sixty-four gastric adenocarcinoma patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment were enrolled in this study. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect changes of Her-2, P53 and Survivin in lesions, and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) method was used to quantify expression of serum CA72-4, CA19-9 and CEA of these patients. Then, the relationships between these parameters above were assessed by Spearman correlation analysis. Also, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed to determine the best cut-off value of SUVmax for suggesting chemotherapy resistant tumor markers. Besides, we identified a linear correlation to estimate the equations between SUVmax and the serum tumor markers. Our results showed that higher SUVmax was detected in patients with positive expression of Her-2 and P53, compared with negative groups. The Spearman correlation analysis showed that SUVmax was associated with Her-2 or P53 with the moderate relevant Pearson correlation coefficient. ROC curve analysis showed that the sensitivity and specificity of SUVmax for suggesting Her-2 or P53-positive, when the cut-off value of SUVmax was set at 3.25 or 5.45, respectively. Moreover, the relationship between SUVmax and serum tumor markers were analyzed by linear correlation analysis, and serum CA72-4 and CA19-9 could be used as independent parameters to establish an equation for SUVmax by the linear regression models. These results suggested that SUVmax of 18F-FDG PET/CT could be used to predict and evaluate Her-2 or P53 related chemotherapy resistance of gastric adenocarcinoma patients. However, before PET/CT scanning, serum tumor markers could be used to calculate the SUVmax approximately.
Pubmed
Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications
March/31/2009
Abstract
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. In our previous studies, CCAAT enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-alpha) has been shown to be involved in the activation of HSCs and to have a repression effect on hepatic fibrosis in vivo. However, the mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we show that the infection of adenovirus vector expressing C/EBP-alpha gene (Ad-C/EBP-alpha) could induce HSCs apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner by Annexin V/PI staining, caspase-3 activation assay, and flow cytometry. Also, over-expression of C/EBP-alpha resulted in the up-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) and P53, while P53 expression was regulated by PPAR-gamma. In addition, Fas, FasL, DR4, DR5, and TRAIL were studied. The results indicated that the death receptor pathway was mainly involved and regulated by PPAR-gamma and p53 in the process of apoptosis triggered by C/EBP-alpha in HSCs.
Pubmed
Journal: Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
January/7/2008
Abstract
Exposure of human pre-osteoclasts to the MDM2 antagonist Nutlin-3 activated the p53 pathway and significantly decreased the entry of pre-osteoclasts in the S phase in response to RANKL. Moreover, repeated exposure to Nutlin-3 suppressed osteoclastic differentiation, without affecting cell survival at any culture time.
BACKGROUND
The p53 oncosuppressor coordinates an intracellular network involved in protection from malignant transformation and cell cycle control; its activation is tightly regulated by the murine double minute 2 (MDM2) gene and p53-MDM2 interaction can be disrupted by selective small molecule inhibitors, the Nutlins. Although the ability of Nutlins to suppress the growth of wildtype p53 tumors has been clearly established, their biological activity in normal cells and tissues has not been extensively studied.
METHODS
Peripheral blood mononuclear cell pre-osteoclasts were cultured with macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) + RANKL or co-cultured with SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cells in the presence of IL-1beta to induce osteoclastic differentiation. Cell cycle was analyzed by BrdU incorporation. The degree of osteoclastic differentiation was monitored at different culture times by TRACP and DAPI staining, as well as by TRACP-5b ELISA. Finally, the role of p53 in mediating the biological activity of Nutlin-3 was studied using specific siRNA.
RESULTS
Exposure of human pre-osteoclasts to RANKL induced an early (24 h) increase in the percentage of cells in the S phase, followed by the exit from the cell cycle at later time-points. The simultaneous addition of Nutlin-3 and RANKL dose-dependently decreased the percentage of pre-osteoclasts in the S phase and induced a rapid accumulation of p53 protein coupled with the induction of p53 target genes. Unexpectedly, the administration of Nutlin-3 to pre-osteoclasts at early culture times significantly suppressed the final output of osteoclasts at day 14 of culture. The role of p53 in mediating this biological activity of Nutlin-3 was underscored by gene knockdown experiments, in which the anti-osteoclastic activity of Nutlin-3 was significantly counteracted by siRNA specific for p53. Nutlin-3 also significantly decreased the formation of osteoclasts in a co-culture system of SaOS-2 osteosarcoma and pre-osteoclastic cells.
CONCLUSIONS
These findings indicate that Nutlin-3 abrogates both pre-osteoclastic proliferation and differentiation through a p53-dependent pathway and may have therapeutic implications for those neoplastic diseases characterized by an abnormal osteoclastic activity.
Pubmed
Journal: Fish & shellfish immunology
August/7/2011
Abstract
Cypermethrin (CYP) is widely used for control of indoor and field pests. As a result, CYP is one of the most common contaminants in freshwater aquatic systems. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CYP exposure on the induction of apoptosis and immunotoxicity in zebrafish during the embryo developmental stage. The mRNA levels of some key genes including P53, Puma, Bax, Apaf1, Cas9 and Cas3 on the mitochondrial pathway of cell apoptosis were significantly up-regulated at the concentration of 3 and 10 μg/l CYP. Correspondingly, the activities of Cas3 and Cas9 increased significantly after exposure to 3 or 10 μg/l CYP. In addition, the mRNA levels of iNOS and the total content of NO were also up-regulated significantly after CYP exposure. Moreover, it was also observed that the mRNA levels of IFN, CXCL-Clc, CC-chem and C3, which are closely related to the innate immune system, were affected in newly hatched zebrafish when exposed to 3 and 10 μg/l CYP, exhibiting CYP's prominent impacts on the innate immune system of zebrafish. Taken together, our results suggest that CYP has the potential to induce cell apoptosis and cause innate immune system disruption in zebrafish during the embryo stage. The information presented in this study will help elucidate the mechanism of CYP-induced toxicity in fish.
Pubmed
Journal: Cancer genetics
July/17/2017
Abstract
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an autosomal dominant disorder where an oncogenic TP53 germline mutation is passed from parent to child. Tumor protein p53 is a key tumor suppressor regulating cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage. Paradoxically, some mutant TP53 carriers remain unaffected, while their children develop cancer within the first few years of life. To address this paradox, response to UV stress was compared in dermal fibroblasts (dFb) from an affected LFS patient vs. their unaffected carrier parent. UV induction of CDKN1A/p21, a regulatory target of p53, in LFS patient dFb was significantly reduced compared to the unaffected parent. UV exposure also induced significantly greater p53[Ser15]-phosphorylation in LFS patient dFb, a reported property of some mutant p53 variants. Taken together, these results suggested that unaffected parental dFb may express an increased proportion of wild-type vs. mutant p53. Indeed, a significantly increased ratio of wild-type to mutant TP53 allele-specific expression in the unaffected parent dFb was confirmed by RT-PCR-RFLP and RNA-seq analysis. Hence, allele-specific expression of wild-type TP53 may allow an unaffected parent to mount a response to genotoxic stress more characteristic of homozygous wild-type TP53 individuals than their affected offspring, providing protection from the oncogenesis associated with LFS.
Pubmed
Journal: PloS one
August/15/2017
Abstract
Mammalian p53 is a super tumor suppressor and plays a key role in guarding genome from DNA damage. However, p53 has not been found in plants which do not bear cancer although they constantly expose to ionizing radiation of ultraviolet light. Here we introduced p53 into the model plant Arabidopsis and examined p53-conferred phenotype in plant. Most strikingly, p53 caused early senescence and fasciation. In plants, fasciation has been shown as a result of the elevated homologous DNA recombination. Consistently, a reporter with overlapping segments of the GUS gene (1445) showed that the frequency of homologous recombination was highly induced in p53-transgenic plants. In contrast to p53, SUPPRESSOR OF NPR1-1 INDUCIBLE 1 (SNI1), as a negative regulator of homologous recombination in plants, is not present in mammals. Comet assay and clonogenic survival assay demonstrated that SNI1 inhibited DNA damage repair caused by either ionizing radiation or hydroxyurea in human osteosarcoma U2OS cancer cells. RAD51D is a recombinase in homologous recombination and functions downstream of SNI1 in plants. Interestingly, p53 rendered the sni1 mutants madly branching of inflorescence, a phenotype of fasciation, whereas rad51d mutant fully suppressed the p53-induced phenotype, indicating that human p53 action in plant is mediated by the SNI1-RAD51D signaling pathway. The reciprocal species-swap tests of p53 and SNI1 in human and Arabidopsis manifest that these species-specific proteins play a common role in homologous recombination across kingdoms of animals and plants.
Pubmed
Journal: International journal of oncology
August/20/2015
Abstract
SPAG6, which is a novel cancer-testis antigen, is overexpressed in myeloid malignancies. Previously, SPAG6 was found in UPD (uniparental disomy) region of myeloid cell DNA from MDS patients and reported that SPAG6 may be a predictive marker of minimal residual disease in pediatric acute myeloid, but the biological role of SPAG6 in myeloid malignancies remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine the expression and functional significance of SPAG6 in malignant myeloid hematologic cell lines. A short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting SPAG6 was designed that could specifically inhibit SPAG6 expression at the mRNA and protein levels when introduced into the malignant myeloid hematologic cell lines SKM-1 and K562. The results from flow cytometry and CCK-8 assays showed that SPAG6 silencing inhibited the proliferation of SKM-1/K562 by inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, SPAG6 silencing resulted in activation of caspase-3, -9 and -8 and upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of p53 and PTEN. Then, we subcutaneously inoculated the monoclonal cells into NOD/SCID mice to establish xenograft models, and we found that the SPAG6-shRNA lentivirus dramatically inhibited tumor growth and increased apoptosis in vivo. These findings demonstrate that SPAG6 might have a role in malignant myeloid hematologic cell proliferation and apoptosis by regulating caspase proteins and p53, suggesting that SPAG6 may be a potential therapeutic target.
Pubmed
Journal: Breast cancer research and treatment
May/26/2014
Abstract
Aurora kinases play important roles in cell division and are frequently overexpressed in human cancer. AMG 900 is a novel pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor currently being tested in Phase I clinical trials. We aimed to evaluate the in vitro activity of AMG 900 in a panel of 44 human breast cancer and immortalized cell lines and identify predictors of response. AMG 900 inhibited proliferation at low nanomolar concentrations in all cell lines tested. Response was further classified based on the induction of lethality. 25 cell lines were classified as highly sensitive (lethality at 10 nM of AMG 900 >10 %), 19 cell lines as less sensitive to AMG 900 (lethality at 10 nM of AMG 900 <10 %). Traditional molecular subtypes of breast cancer did not predict for this differential response. There was a weak association between AURKA amplification and response to AMG 900 (response ratio = 2.53, p = 0.09). mRNA expression levels of AURKA, AURKB, and AURKC and baseline protein levels of Aurora kinases A and B did not significantly associate with response. Cell lines with TP53 loss of function mutations (RR = 1.86, p = 0.004) and low baseline p21 protein levels (RR = 2.28, p = 0.0004) were far more likely to be classified as highly sensitive to AMG 900. AMG 900 induced p53 and p21 protein expression in cell lines with wt TP53. AMG 900 caused the accumulation of cells with >4 N DNA content in a majority of cell lines independently of sensitivity and p53 status. AMG 900 induced more pronounced apoptosis in highly sensitive p53-dysfunctional cell lines. We have found that AMG 900 is highly active in breast cancer cell lines and that TP53 loss of function mutations as well as low baseline expression of p21 protein predict strongly for increased sensitivity to this compound in vitro.
Pubmed
Journal: Molecular carcinogenesis
August/31/2017
Abstract
Mutations in the KRAS and TP53 genes have been found frequently in lung tumors and specimens from individuals at high risk for lung cancer and have been suggested as predictive markers for lung cancer. In order to assess the prognostic value of these two genes' mutations in lung cancer recurrence, we analyzed mutations in codon 12 of the KRAS gene and in hotspot codons of the TP53 gene in 176 bronchial biopsies obtained from 77 former lung cancer patients. Forty-seven patients (61.0%) showed mutations, including 35/77 (45.5%) in the KRAS gene and 25/77 (32.5%) in the TP53 gene, among them 13/77 (16.9%) had mutations in both genes. When grouped according to past or current smoking status, a higher proportion of current smokers showed mutations, in particular those in the TP53 gene (P = 0.07), compared with ex-smokers. These mutations were found in both abnormal lesions (8/20 or 40%) and histologically normal tissues (70/156 or 44.9%) (P = 0.812). They consisted primarily of G to A transition and G to T transversion in both the KRAS (41/56 or 73.2%) and TP53 (24/34 or 70.6%) genes, consistent with mutations found in lung tumors of smoking lung cancer patients. Overall, recurrence-free survival (RFS) among all subjects could be explained by age at diagnosis, tumor stage, tumor subtype, and smoking (P < 0.05, Cox proportional hazard). Therefore, KRAS and TP53 mutations were frequently detected in bronchial tissues of former lung cancer patients. However, the presence of mutation of bronchial biopsies was not significantly associated with a shorter RFS time. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pubmed
Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications
April/8/2012
Abstract
The issue of whether aberrant expression of β1-integrin is associated with cancer progression and development of resistance to cytotoxic therapy is of considerable interest. Studies to date have shown that the anchorage-independent survival of cancer is attributed, in part, to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we have reported a novel alternative mechanism of anchorage-independent survival of cancer cells. Cell lines derived from head and neck cancer patients (AMC-HN-3 and AMC-HN-9) and the well-known EMT cancer cell line, MDA-MB231, were examined. The EMT features of AMC-HN-9 cells were comparable to those of MDA-MB231, whereas AMC-HN-3 cells showed no EMT characteristics. Although the pattern and degree of β1-integrin expression were similar in all three cell lines, sensitivities of the cells to β1-integrin knockdown with small interfering RNA (siRNA) were different. Cancer cells with no EMT features underwent cell death to a more significant extent following β1-integrin silencing than those with EMT. Intriguingly, we observed reactive activation of the p53-p21 pathway after β1-integrin silencing in AMC-HN-9 cells lacking an apparent cell death response. Simultaneous knockdown of wild-type p53 and β1-integrin in this cell line promoted cell death. Our data collectively indicate that β1-integrin-related cell death is closely associated with EMT phenotypes and activation of the p53-p21 pathway is partly involved in the acquisition of resistance to apoptosis induced by β1-integrin silencing. Further clarification of the mechanisms underlying p53 integration with β1-integrin signaling may facilitate the development of novel anti-cancer strategies.
Pubmed
Journal: International journal of oncology
December/30/2013
Abstract
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer represents a distinct head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) subpopulation, with improved disease-free and overall survival. In general, HPV-positive HNSCCs express wild-type TP53, which could explain its increased radiosensitivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this higher sensitivity remain elusive. We have previously shown that HPV-related oropharyngeal carcinomas express decreased levels of the NEDD8-activating enzyme 1/amyloid β precursor protein-binding protein 1 (NAE1/APP-BP1) gene. NAE1/APP-BP1 function is required for the NEDDylation of target proteins, and has been shown to be a negative regulator of p53 transcriptional activity. In this study, we addressed the hypothesis that NAE1/APP-BP1 expression levels regulate p53 activity and cell survival upon ionizing irradiation. We used the radiosensitive and naturally HPV16-infected UPCI:SCC90 cell line and the radioresistant and HPV-negative SQ20B cell line as the control. NAE1/APP-BP1 expression levels were modulated with expression constructs and siRNAs. Radiosensitivity was evaluated with clonogenic survival assays. p53 transcriptional activity was measured with a luciferase assay. The overexpression of NAE1/APP-BP1 in UPCI:SCC90 cells resulted in the increased NEDDylation of p53, inhibition of p53 activity and increased cell resistance to ionizing radiation. Conversely, the inhibition of NAE1/APP-BP1 expression in SQ20B cells induced p53-dependent cell death after treatment with X-rays. Taken together, these results indicate that NAE1/APP-BP1 and NEDDylation are invovled in modulating p53 activity and regulating its role in the response of cells to ionizing radiation. Our findings bring new insights in the molecular mechanisms underlying the increased radiosensitivity of HPV-related oropharyngeal tumors. This is of importance, as no reliable and robust predictive biomarkers for tumor response to radiotherapy are currently available. These results also have potential clinical significance, as drugs targeting NAE1/APP-BP1 have recently emerged as a novel therapeutic modality in cancer treatment.
Pubmed
Journal: Behavioural brain research
June/16/2013
Abstract
Chronic infusion of mice with a β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) analog was shown to cause long-term DNA damage in a pathway which involves β Arresin-1-mediated activation of Mdm2 and subsequent degradation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. The objective of the present study was to test whether a single acute stress, which manifests long lasting changes in behavior, affects the interaction of Mdm2 with p53, β2AR, and β Arrestin-1 in the dorsal and ventral hippocampal CA1. Adult rats were subject to underwater trauma, a brief forceful submersion under water and tested a month later for behavioral and biochemical changes. Elevated plus maze tests confirmed that animals that experienced the threat of drowning present heightened levels of anxiety one month after trauma. An examination of the CA1 hippocampal areas of the same rats showed that underwater trauma caused a significant increase in the association of Mdm2 with β2AR, β Arrestin-1, and p53 in the ventral but not dorsal CA1. Our results provide support for the idea that stress-related events may result in biochemical changes restricted to the ventral 'emotion-related' parts of the hippocampus.
Pubmed
Journal: Molecular bioSystems
March/19/2012
Abstract
Developing a comprehensive description of the equilibrium structural ensembles for intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is essential to understanding their function. The p53 transactivation domain (p53TAD) is an IDP that interacts with multiple protein partners and contains numerous phosphorylation sites. Multiple techniques were used to investigate the equilibrium structural ensemble of p53TAD in its native and chemically unfolded states. The results from these experiments show that the native state of p53TAD has dimensions similar to a classical random coil while the chemically unfolded state is more extended. To investigate the molecular properties responsible for this behavior, a novel algorithm that generates diverse and unbiased structural ensembles of IDPs was developed. This algorithm was used to generate a large pool of plausible p53TAD structures that were reweighted to identify a subset of structures with the best fit to small angle X-ray scattering data. High weight structures in the native state ensemble show features that are localized to protein binding sites and regions with high proline content. The features localized to the protein binding sites are mostly eliminated in the chemically unfolded ensemble; while, the regions with high proline content remain relatively unaffected. Data from NMR experiments support these results, showing that residues from the protein binding sites experience larger environmental changes upon unfolding by urea than regions with high proline content. This behavior is consistent with the urea-induced exposure of nonpolar and aromatic side-chains in the protein binding sites that are partially excluded from solvent in the native state ensemble.
Pubmed
Journal: Biochemistry
May/21/2006
Abstract
Maintaining the native conformation is essential for the proper function of tumor suppressor protein p53. However, p53 is a low-stability protein that can easily lose its function upon structural perturbations such as those resulting from missense mutations, leading to the development of cancer. Therefore, it is important to develop strategies to design stable p53 which still maintains its normal function. Here, we compare the stabilities of the human and worm p53 core domains using molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the worm p53 is significantly more stable than the human form. Detailed analysis of the structural fluctuations shows that the stability difference lies in the peripheral structural motifs that contrast in their structural features and flexibility. The most dramatic difference in stability originates from loop L1, from the turn between helix H1 and beta-strand S5, and from the turn that connects beta-strands S7 and S8. Structural analysis shows significant differences for these motifs between the two proteins. Loop L1 lacks secondary structure, and the turns between helix H1 and strand S5 and between strands S7 and S8 are much longer in the human form p53. On the basis of these differences, we designed a mutant by shortening the turn between strands S7 and S8 to enhance the stability. Surprisingly, this mutant was very stable when probed by molecular dynamics simulations. In addition, the stabilization was not localized in the turn region. Loop L1 was also significantly stabilized. Our results show that stabilizing peripheral structural motifs can greatly enhance the stability of the p53 core domain and therefore is likely to be a viable alternative in the development of stable p53. In addition, loop- or turn-related mutants with different stabilities may also be used to probe the relationship between function, a particular structural motif, and its flexibility.
Pubmed
Journal: Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
February/2/2011
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To study the expression of p53 and DNA index (DI) and S-phase fraction (SPF) in pterygium, and explore their contribution of pathogenesis of pterygium.
METHODS
Surgically excised pterygia of 84 cases (96 eyes) with newly developed pterygium and 30 samples of normal conjunctiva as control were collected for immunohistochemistry to detected the expression of p53. The DI value and the SPF value were detected in all specimens with FCM.
RESULTS
The expression of p53 in pterygium was significantly higher than that of normal conjunctiva (P < 0.001). The DI value and the SPF value in pterygium were higher than that of normal conjunctiva but without statistical significance (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
The high expression of p53 and high level of DI value and SPF value suggest the pathogenesis of pterygium may be out of balance of cell apoptosis and cell proliferation.
Pubmed
Journal: The Journal of heredity
December/11/2007
Abstract
A case-control study was conducted in order to investigate the association of polymorphisms in the genomic sequence of the feline p53 gene with a predisposition to vaccine-associated feline sarcoma (VAFS). In the study, 50 domestic short hair cats with a confirmed histopathologic diagnosis of VAFS were matched to disease-free controls (1:2) by age, sex, and breed. Cats from both the diseased (case) and control groups were also negative for feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus. Germ-line DNA was prepared from blood samples from cats in both groups and analyzed for sequence variation at 8 polymorphic sites in the p53 gene. A strong association was found between VAFS and the presence of specific nucleotides at 2 of the polymorphic sites. The strongest association was observed for a single-base insertion in intron 7 of the gene with an odds ratio of 8.99 (95% confidence interval = 3.42-23.57, P < 0.0001). The results of the study indicate that analysis of the presence or absence of the identified genetic markers in apparently healthy disease-free cats may help in predicting which individual animals are at greater risk of developing the disease.
Pubmed
Journal: Biochimica et biophysica acta
March/17/2014
Abstract
Both MDM2 and MDMX regulate p53, but these proteins play different roles in this process. To clarify the difference, we performed a yeast 2 hybrid (Y2H) screen using the MDM2 acidic domain as bait. DNAJB1 was found to specifically bind to MDM2, but not MDMX, in vitro and in vivo. Further investigation revealed that DNAJB1 stabilizes MDM2 at the post-translational level. The C-terminus of DNAJB1 is essential for its interaction with MDM2 and for MDM2 accumulation. MDM2 was degraded faster by a ubiquitin-mediated pathway when DNAJB1 was depleted. DNAJB1 inhibited the MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of p53 and contributed to p53 activation in cancer cells. Depletion of DNAJB1 in cancer cells inhibited activity of the p53 pathway, enhanced the activity of the Rb/E2F pathway, and promoted cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. This function was p53 dependent, and either human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 protein or siRNA against p53 was able to block the contribution caused by DNAJB1 depletion. In this study, we discovered a new MDM2 interacting protein, DNAJB1, and provided evidence to support its p53-dependent tumor suppressor function.
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