The aim of this study is to explore the spatial association of critical genomic elements in the effect of TNF-α on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in human leukemia U937 cells. TNF-α up-regulated MMP-9 protein expression and mRNA level in U937 cells, and Akt-mediated-NFκB/p65 activation and JNK-mediated c-Jun activation were proven to be involved in TNF-α-induced MMP-9 up-regulation. Promoter luciferase activity assay revealed that NFκB (nt-600) and AP-1 (nt-79) binding sites were crucial for TNF-α-induced transcription of MMP-9 gene. The results of a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that TNF-α reduced histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC-1) recruitment but increased p300 (a histone acetyltransferase) recruitment to MMP-9 promoter regions surrounding NFκB and AP-1 binding sites. Consistently, TNF-α increased enrichment of the acetylated histone H3 mark on MMP-9 promoter regions. DNA affinity purification assay revealed that p300 and HDAC1 could bind oligonucleotides containing AP-1/c-Jun and NFκB/p65 binding sites. Chromosome conformation capture assay showed that TNF-α stimulated chromosomal loops in the MMP-9 promoter via NFκB/p65 and AP-1/c-Jun. The p300-associated acetyltransferase activity was crucial for p65/c-Jun-mediated DNA looping, and inhibition of HDAC activity increased the level of DNA looping. Reduction in the level of DNA looping eliminated all TNF-α-stimulated MMP-9 up-regulation. Taken together, our data suggest that p65/c-Jun-mediated DNA looping is involved in TNF-α-induced MMP-9 up-regulation and that the recruitment of p300 or HDAC1 to NFκB and AP-1 binding sites modifies the level of DNA looping.Read more
Many studies suggested that cytokines interleukin (IL)-29, IL-32, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) are implicated in the pathogenesis of malignancies. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of the serum levels of IL-29, IL-32, and TNF-α in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Fifty-eight GC patients and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled into this study. The median age at diagnosis was 59.5 years (range 32-82 years). Tumor localization of the majority of the patients was antrum (n = 42, 72.4 %), and tumor histopathology of the majority of the patients was diffuse (n = 43, 74.1 %). The majority of the patients had stage IV disease (n = 41, 70.7 %). Thirty-six (62.1 %) patients had lymph node involvement. The median follow-up time was 66 months (range 1 to 97.2 months). The baseline serum IL-29 concentrations were not different between patients and controls (p = 0.627). The baseline serum IL-32 and TNF-α concentrations of the GC patients were significantly higher (for IL-32, p = 0.014; for TNF-α, p = 0.001). Gender, localization, histopathology, tumor, and lymph node involvement were not found to be correlated with serum IL-29, IL-32, and TNF-α concentrations (p > 0.05). Patients without metastasis (p = 0.01) and patients who responded to chemotherapy (p = 0.04) had higher serum IL-29 concentrations. Patients older than 60 years had higher serum IL-32 (p = 0.002). Serum IL-29, IL-32, and TNF-α levels were not associated with outcome (p = 0.30, p = 0.51, and p = 0.41, respectively). In conclusion, serum levels of IL-32 and TNF-α may be diagnostic markers, and serum IL-29 levels may be associated with good prognosis in patients with GC.Read more
We studied polymorphism of three positions of promoter region of TNF alpha gene in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD), development of unstable angina (UA) and acute myocardial infarction (MI). Analysis of frequencies of genotypes in position A308 showed that heterozygotness in patients with cardiovascular diseases significantly decreased. Lowering of risk of development of MI in carriers of heterozygous variant of the gene in position A308 was shown. In the group of patients with Q wave MI frequency of A308 AA genotype rose.Read more
We have recently observed significantly elevated serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels during human liver allograft rejection. Although increased TNF activity has been reported in rejecting rat cardiac and renal allografts, this represents the first report of an animal model utilizing immunotherapy directed against TNF. Intraabdominal heart transplants (Buffalo to Lewis) were performed. Cardiac rejection was defined as cessation of a palpable beat and confirmed at laparotomy. Control animals received no immunotherapy and experienced rejection on Postoperative Day 11 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SEM). Experimental animals received immunotherapy either intraperitoneally (ip) or intravenously (iv) from Days 1 to 10. Intraperitoneally administered anti-TNF-alpha prolonged graft survival to 16 +/- 2.7 days (P less than 0.05 vs controls), iv administration prolonged survival to 15 +/- 1.4 days (P less than 0.004). Animals treated with ip anti-TNF-beta survived 17 +/- 1.7 days (P less than 0.002 vs controls). Conversely, administration of purified TNF-alpha to graft recipients decreased graft survival to 7 +/- 0.4 days (P less than 0.001 vs controls). Serum samples analyzed in an L929 bioassay showed increased cytotoxic activity in control animals, corresponding to an increase in circulating TNF. This activity was partially abrogated in animals receiving immunotherapy. These data demonstrate that circulating levels of TNF are increased during rejection. Immunotherapy with anti-TNF-alpha or anti-TNF-beta prolongs graft survival, suggesting that TNF may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute allograft rejection.Read more
A unique subset of gamma delta T cells, termed dendritic epidermal T cells (DETC), resides in symbiosis with keratinocytes in mouse epidermis. We have shown previously that interleukin 7 (IL-7) which is produced by keratinocytes, promotes growth and prevents apoptosis in DETC. To extend this observation, we examined 12 cytokines, each of which is expressed by epidermal cells at mRNA and/or protein levels, for their capacities to modulate the growth of DETC. Cytokines examined included IL-1 alpha, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN gamma), granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha). When tested individually, IL-2 and IL-7 promoted maximal growth of the long-term cultured DETC line 7-17. When tested in combinations, synergistic growth-promoting effects were seen with IL-2 and IL-4 or IL-7, and with IL-7 and IL-4 or TNF alpha. Dose-response experiments demonstrated that TNF alpha, which is produced by keratinocytes, enhances IL-7-induced DETC proliferation, but inhibits IL-2-induced proliferation. The mouse keratinocyte-derived cell line Pam 212 was used to test these cytokines for their capacities to regulate keratinocyte growth. Only gamma IFN, which is produced by DETC, inhibited proliferation in a dose-dependent fashion. These results illustrate three reciprocal pathways by which epidermal cytokines regulate the growth of epidermal cells: 1) a paracrine mechanism by which keratinocyte-derived cytokines (e.g., IL-7 and TNF alpha) promote the growth of DETC, 2) an autocrine mechanism by which DETC-derived cytokines (e.g., IL-2 and IL-4) support their own growth, and 3) a reciprocal pathway in which a cytokine produced by resident epidermal leukocytes (e.g., gamma IFN) modulates the growth of keratinocytes.Read more
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human gastric mucosa, leading to chronic superficial gastritis and in some cases to peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, or gastric lymphoma. It has been postulated that the clinical outcome depends on differences in H. pylori strain virulence as well as on individual factors of the host. Thus, we aimed to assess the relation between H. pylori cagA/vacA genotypes and the TNF-alpha gene expression in gastric mucosa specimens from patients with chronic gastritis.
This study was conducted with gastric mucosa samples obtained during gastroendoscopy from 43 H. pylori-infected individuals with chronic gastritis. The presence of ureA and cagA genes and vacA allele combinations were analyzed in isolated DNA by the polymerase chain reaction method. Isolates of RNA were used for cDNA synthesis by reverse transcription. Synthesized cDNA was used to determine the TNF-alpha gene expression level by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.
The cagA gene was detected in 67.44% of H. pylori strains. Five vacA alleles in the tested H. pylori strains were detected: s1a/m1 (18.60%), s1a/m2 (23.26%), s1a/m3 (18.60%), s1b/m2 (6.98%), and s2m2 (32.56%). There were no significant differences in TNF-alpha gene expression in strains expressing cagA versus those not expressing this gene, and no significant differences among strains with different vacA alleles.
TNF-alpha gene expression in the gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected patients appears to be independent of H. pylori cagA/vacA genotype.Read more
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by impaired B-cell differentiation and maturation accompanied with the defective antibody production. Several investigators addressed the possibility that disturbed cytokine production of TNF, IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-10, among a variety of others, may be implicated in CVID. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms involving TNF (-308G/A), IFNG (+874 T/A), IL10 (-1082G/A, -819T/C and -592A/C), and IL6 (-174G/C) cytokine genes might contribute to susceptibility to CVID. Thirty five patients with CVID and 250 healthy controls were genotyped for indicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in TNF, IL6, IFNG and IL10 using Taqman-based assays. CVID patients had significantly higher frequency of TNF A allele and AA genotype than in healthy subjects (p=0.006; OR=2.27; 95%CI=1.24-4.17 and p=0.038, OR=15.64; 95%CI=1.38-177.20, respectively). In addition, the frequency of GG genotype was significantly higher in healthy controls than in patient group (p=0.019, OR=0.43, 95%CI=0.21-0.89). Genetic analysis of IL6 SNP showed that allele G confers increased risk for CVID (p=0.037, OR=1.78, 95% CI=1.03-3.08) while IFNG allele T was associated with splenomegaly in CVID (p=0.032; OR=2.86; 95% CI=1.08-7.56). We observed no association between genotypes, alleles and haplotypes of IL-10 gene and CVID or its clinical complications. In conclusion, our results indicated association between CVID and cytokine gene polymorphisms -308G/A TNF and -174G/C IL6. In addition, we demonstrated that splenomegaly, one of the most common complications in this disease, is associated with +874T/A IFNG polymorphism. These findings add further support to the notion that cytokines may play significant role in pathogenesis of this primary antibody deficiency. However, further investigation that would involve a larger study group of CVID patients is warranted to confirm our findings.Read more
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a pro-apoptotic cytokine, is involved in vascular hyperpermeability, tissue edema, and inflammation. We hypothesized that TNF-α induces microvascular hyperpermeability through the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway. Rat lung microvascular endothelial cells grown on Transwell inserts, chamber slides, or dishes were treated with recombinant TNF-α (10 ng/ml) in the presence or absence of a caspase-3 inhibitor, Z-DEVD-FMK (100 μM). Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-albumin (5 mg/ml) was used as a marker of monolayer permeability. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined using dihydrorhodamine 123 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential using JC-1. The adherens junction integrity and actin cytoskeletal organization were studied using β-catenin immunofluorescence and rhodamine phalloidin, respectively. Caspase-3 activity was measured fluorometrically. The pretreatment with Z-DEVD-FMK (100 μM) attenuated TNF-α-induced (10 ng/ml) disruption of the adherens junctions, actin stress fiber formation, increased caspase-3 activity, and monolayer hyperpermeability (p < 0.05). TNF-α (10 ng/ml) treatment resulted in increased mitochondrial ROS formation and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Intrinsic apoptotic signaling-mediated caspase-3 activation plays an important role in regulating TNF-α-induced endothelial cell hyperpermeability.Read more
Mast cells produce proinflammatory cytokines in response to TLR4 ligands, but the signaling pathways involved are not fully described. In this study, the participation of the Src family kinase Fyn in the production of TNF after stimulation with LPS was evaluated using bone marrow-derived mast cells from wild-type and Fyn-deficient mice. Fyn(-/-) cells showed higher LPS-induced secretion of preformed and de novo-synthesized TNF. In both cell types, TNF colocalized with vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)3-positive compartments. Addition of LPS provoked coalescence of VAMP3 and its interaction with synaptosomal-associated protein 23; those events were increased in the absence of Fyn. Higher TNF mRNA levels were also observed in Fyn-deficient cells as a result of increased transcription and greater mRNA stability after LPS treatment. Fyn(-/-) cells also showed higher LPS-induced activation of TAK-1 and ERK1/2, whereas IκB kinase and IκB were phosphorylated, even in basal conditions. Increased responsiveness in Fyn(-/-) cells was associated with a lower activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and augmented activity of protein kinase C (PKC)α/β, which was dissociated from PP2A and increased its association with the adapter protein neuroblast differentiation-associated protein (AHNAK, desmoyokin). LPS-induced PKCα/β activity was associated with VAMP3 coalescence in WT and Fyn-deficient cells. Reconstitution of MC-deficient Wsh mice with Fyn(-/-) MCs produced greater LPS-dependent production of TNF in the peritoneal cavity. Our data show that Fyn kinase is activated after TLR4 triggering and exerts an important negative control on LPS-dependent TNF production in MCs controlling the inactivation of PP2Ac and activation of PKCα/β necessary for the secretion of TNF by VAMP3(+) carriers.Read more
Atopic dermatitis is a complex chronic inflammatory skin disorder that results from intimate interactions among genetic predisposition, host environment, skin barrier defects, and immunological factors. However, a clear genetic roadmap leading to atopic dermatitis remains to be fully explored. From a genome-wide mutagenesis screen, deficiency of ZDHHC13, a palmitoylacyl transferase, has previously been associated with skin and multitissue inflammatory phenotypes. Here, we report that ZDHHC13 is required for skin barrier integrity and that deficiency of ZDHHC13 renders mice susceptible to environmental bacteria, resulting in persistent skin inflammation and an atopic dermatitis-like disease. This phenotype is ameliorated in a germ-free environment and is also attenuated by antibiotic treatment, but not by deletion of the Rag1 gene, suggesting that a microbial factor triggers inflammation rather than intrinsic adaptive immunity. Furthermore, skin from ZDHHC13-deficient mice has both elevated levels of IL-33 and type 2 innate lymphoid cells, reinforcing the role of innate immunity in the development of atopic dermatitis. In summary, our study suggests that loss of ZDHHC13 in skin impairs the integrity of multiple barrier functions and leads to a dermatitis lesion in response to microbial encounters.Read more